CRITICAL PROGRAMMING: Toward A Philosophy Of Computing

Chapter 1 Introduction{11}

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation{11}

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing{11}

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation{11}


Chapter 2 Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg{11}

2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman{11}

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage{11}

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and methodology{11}

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology{11}

3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers{11}

3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies{11}

3.4 platform studies, diachrony in synchrony, technogenesis and synaptogenesis, cyborg revisited{11}

Chapter 4 Philosophical programmers{11}

4.1 system engineers pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists{11}

4.2 application developers beyond hard mastery and bricolage, auto-ethnographers of coding places{11}

Chapter 5 Critical programming studies{11}

5.1 working code places{11}

5.2 programming philosophers{11}

5.3 symposia, ensoniment{11}

5.4 tapoc, flossification{11}

5.5 pmrek, machine embodiment{11}

Chapter 6 Conclusion{11}

6.1 recommendations{11}

6.2 future directions{11}

Works Cited

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

TOC 1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation+

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing

TOC 1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing+

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation


2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman

TOC 2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman+

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology

TOC 3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology+

3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers

TOC 3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers+

3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies

TOC 3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies+

3.4 platform studies, diachrony in synchrony, technogenesis and synaptogenesis, cyborg revisited

4.1 system engineers pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists

-4.1.0+++ {11}

-4.1.1+++ {11}

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The last thought is about what if I add Turing to chapter two to avoid clash as pioneer of babelization that he also used idiosyncratic programming languages.

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Last page is table of 21 machine operations.

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Limit scope of this first report to building the machine; next report will be about programming, a statement about how we will think as machines, quite a feat for 1940s humans. (ii) An attempt is made to give in this, the first half of this report, a general picture of the type of instrument now under consideration and in the second half a study of how actual mathematically problems can be coded, i.e., prepared in the language the machine can understand.

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Having transcended formulating everything in numerical terms, such that larger address bit widths afford qualitatively different fantasies of machine operations including internetworked, distributed, object oriented processing of modern cyberspace, while still encoding everything in just that, reveals the fact that we have not left the basic ontology of computing posited by Burks, Goldstein and von Neumann. (1) 1.3 Conceptually we have discussed above two different forms of memory: Storage of numbers and storage of orders.

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Bulk of this document covers details of arithmetic computation because it is encoding that human-machine thought operation; these original circuits still present but at larger address bit widths. (1)

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Economic origin of stored program concept that, ironically, was solved positionally, by agency of discrete, deterministic program counter state changes built into the control. (1) 1.4 If the memory for orders is merely a storage organ there must exist an organ which can automatically execute the orders stored in the memory. We shall call this organ the Control.

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Control organ differentiated from storage organ rather than building the two features into the same device. (1)

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Arithmetic organ differentiated from background control organ: the architecture being proposed here not only exhibits multipurposive program and data storage but also division of functional units characteristic of industrial machinery; elementary operations are wired into the machine, and there is already acknowledgment of compromises between speed, complexity, cheapness. (1) 1.5 Inasmuch as the device is to be a computing machine there must be an arithmetic organ in it which can perform certain of the elementary arithmetic operations.
(1) The operations that the machine will view as elementary are clearly those which are wired into the machine. . . . In general, the inner economy of the arithmetic unit is determined by a compromise between the desire for speed of operation a non-elementary operation will generally take a long time to perform since it is constituted of a series of orders given by the Control and the desire for simplicity, or cheapness, of the machine.

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Use of communication to describe human machine relationship: that the final paragraph suggests ringing a bell or flashing a light to signal to the humans that the computation is complete, or has halted (Turing), of course reflects limited capabilities of the time but also institutes a human centric locus of the interface; other theorists and science fiction writers till take up the other possibility, that humans adapt to the machines, to the extent of synaptogenesis and into the technological nonconscious of the latest Hayles. (1) 1.6 Lastly there must exist devices, the input and output organ, whereby the human operator and the machine can communicate with each other.

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Thus, this early document we scan to ground our understanding of terms like stored program associated with the human author (rather than the machine hardware) von Neumann originally served to document knowledge that still resided primarily in human brains and printed materials, as Kittler makes so clear in There Is No Software, by the early 1970s shepherding the thoughts expressed by the many pages describing binary arithmetic operations resided in electronic circuits and their representations, blueprints for making new circuits and for CAD language games. (1) 1.2 . . . In a special-purpose machine these instructions are an integral part of the device and constitute a part of its design structure. For an all-purpose machine it must be possible to instruct the device to carry out any computation that can be formulated in numerical terms. Hence there must be some organ capable of storing these program orders. There must, moreover, be a unit which can understand these instructions and order their execution.

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Note difference between special purpose and general purpose computer intertwined with semiotics, language as beyond special purpose wetware, what Nietzsche referred to as instinct. (1) 1.2 . . . In a special-purpose machine these instructions are an integral part of the device and constitute a part of its design structure. For an all-purpose machine it must be possible to instruct the device to carry out any computation that can be formulated in numerical terms. Hence there must be some organ capable of storing these program orders. There must, moreover, be a unit which can understand these instructions and order their execution.

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Finally, note anthropomorphized word choices understand for the CPUs ability to fetch and execute. (1) Hence there must be some organ capable of storing these program orders.

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Control organ differentiated from storage organ rather than building the two features into the same device. (1) 1.4 If the memory for orders is merely a storage organ there must exist an organ which can automatically execute the orders stored in the memory. We shall call this organ the Control.

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Early design decision to separate storage from control, while treated as ontological characteristic of stored program computers to this day, became fuzzy as soon as caches where added to CPUs. (1) 1.4 If the memory for orders is merely a storage organ there must exist an organ which can automatically execute the orders stored in the memory. We shall call this organ the Control.

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Situated problems guided situated cognition of response; analysis of this problem space, not computing in general, although today a workspace of 4000 40-bit, twelve decimal precision mathematical computations is completely inadequate for the problems for which computers are designed, nor is anything like distributed network control conceivable, means that problem space now encompasses legacy, to the extent that not dead, as well as 64 bit address and timer width distributed control (Galloway protocological) computing, again not computing in general. (2) 2.3 It is reasonable at this time to build a machine that can conveniently handle problems several orders of magnitude more complex than are now handled by existing machines, electronic or electro-mechanical. We consequently plan on a fully automatic electronic storage facility of about 4,000 numbers of 40 binary digits each. This corresponds to a precision of 2-40 0.9 x 10-12, i.e. of about 12 decimal. We believe that this memory capacity exceeds the capacities required for most problems that one deals with at present by a factor of about 10.

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Transfers into memory as total substitution of contents and partial substitutions of operators to orders (memory location numbers). (3) 3.3 To summarize, transfers into the memory will be of two sorts: Total substitutions, whereby the quantity previously stored is cleared out and replaced by a new number. Partial substitutions in which that part of an order containing a memory location-number--we assume the various positions in the memory are enumerated serially by memory location-numbers--is replaced by a new memory location-number.

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Acknowledgment of materiality as initial design decisions concretize structural constraints and affordances, like Derrida describing struggle by Plato to wrest mythemes from historical context to transform into philosophemes. (4) 3.7 We proceed now to a more detailed discussion of the machine.

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Three levels of memory as compromises between localization within working memory and responsiveness of long term memory. (4) 4.1 the availability time for a word in the memory should be 5 to 50 sec. It is equally desirable that words may be replaced with new words at about the same rate. It does not seem possible physically to achieve such a capacity. We are therefore forced to recognize the possibility of constructing a hierarchy of memories, each of which has greater capacity than the preceding but which is less quickly accessible.
(4-5) One is accordingly led to consider the possibility of storing electrical charges on a dielectric plate inside a cathode-ray tube.

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Sense of technical determinism based on selection of memory unit, although history demonstrated multiple, divergent solutions invented worldwide. (4) 3.7 We proceed now to a more detailed discussion of the machine. Inasmuch as our experience has shown that the moment one chooses a given component as the elementary memory unit, one has also more or less determined upon much of the balance of the machine, we start by a consideration of the memory organ.

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One feasible memory organ was dielectric plate inside a cathode-ray tube, putatively a two-dimensional matrix. (4)
(4-5) One is accordingly led to consider the possibility of storing electrical charges on a dielectric plate inside a cathode-ray tube.

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Parallel storage of memory words versus serial storage by EDVAC. (5) 4.3 We accordingly adopt the parallel procedure and thus are led to consider a so-called parallel machine, as contrasted with the serial principles being instituted for the EDVAC.

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Proposal for storing 4000 words using 40 Selectrons for two to the twelfth power forty binary digit words. (5) At the present time the Princeton Laboratories of the Radio Corporation of America are engaged in the development of a storage tube, the Selectron, of the type we have mentioned above.
(5) 4.2 To achieve a total electronic storage of about 4,000 words we propose to use 40 Selectrons, thereby achieving a memory of 212 words of 40 binary digits each.

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Secondary storage medium part of input-output system demonstrating additional fuzzy borders between the canonical division of the stored program computer. (7) 4.7 It is now clear that the secondary storage medium is really nothing other than a part of our input-output system.

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Away from human decimal standard towards what seems more appropriate for machine computation, 2, 8, 16 (binary, octal, hexadecimal); noted ambivalence of floating point capability as another human convenience. (8) We feel, however, that the base 10 may not even be a permanent feature in a scientific instrument and consequently will probably attempt to train ourselves to use numbers base 2 or 8 or 16.

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Mention of floating decimal point solutions proposed for other digital computers in America and England. (8) 5.3 Several of the digital computers being built or planned in this country and England are to contain a so-called "floating decimal point." This is a mechanism for expressing each word as a characteristic and a mantissa--e.g. 123.45 would be carried in the machine as (0.12345,03), where 3 is the exponent of 10 associated with the number.

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Principle of incorporating in physical circuits only the necessary or most frequently used logical concepts, such as Accumulator. (9) The reader may remark upon our alternate spells of radicalism and conservatism in deciding upon various possible features for our mechanism. We hope, however, that he will agree, on closer inspection, that we are guided by a consistent and sound principle in judging the merits of any idea. We wish to incorporate into the machine--in the form of circuits--only such logical concepts as are either necessary to have a complete system or highly convenient because of the frequency with which they occur and the influence they exert in the relevant mathematical situations.

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Twenty pages of detail on hard wiring of basic arithmetic operations attests to materiality of even stored program computation and hence all code; example of representing negative numbers by complementation invites variable ontology view where both negative numbers and complementation operations exist at same level, not one inscribing the other. (9) 5.7 Thus we have been led to the familiar representation of negative numbers by complementation.

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Basic machine operations of fetch and execute, store, and input/output beyond Selectron memory. (29) 6.1 the orders for this computer are less than half as long as a forty binary digit number, and hence the orders are stored in the Selectron memory in pairs.
(29) Among these orders we can immediately describe two major types: An order of the first type begins by causing the transfer of the number, which is stored at a specified memory location, from the Selectrons to the Selectron register. Next, it causes the arithmetical unit to perform some arithmetical operations on this number (usually in conjunction with another number which is already in the arithmetic unit), and to retain the resulting number in the arithmetic unit. The seonc type order causes the transfer of the number, which is held in the arithmetical unit, into the Selectron Register, and from there to a specified memory location in the Selectrons. . . . An additonal type of order consists of the transfer orders of 3.5. Further orders control the inputs and the outputs of the machine.

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Decoding defined as many-to-one function table crossing dual implementations as circuitry and software running code. (29) The type of circuit we propose to use for this purpose is know as a decoding or many-one function table.
(30) 6.3 each order must contain eighteen binary digits, the first twelve identifying a memory location and the remaining six specifying an operation. It can now be explained why orders are stored in the memory in pairs. Since the same memory organ is to be used in this computer for both orders and numbers, it is efficient to make the length of each about equivalent.

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Tetrads as proto-bytes. (30) It is convenient, as will be seen in 6.8.2. and Chapter 9, Part II, to group these binary digits into tetrads, groups of 4 binary digits. . . . Outside the machine each tetrad can be expressed by a base 16 digit.

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Memory address decoder design reflected in command decoding, with strong sense of materiality of code by decoding machine operation numbers to physical circuits; clever use of error checking making connections to unused outputs. (30) The specification of the nature of the operation that is involved in an order occurs in binary form, so that another many-one or decoding function is required to decode the order. . . . Since there will not be 64 different orders, not all 64 outputs need be provided. However, it is perhaps worthwhile to connect the outputs corresponding to unused order possibilities to a checking circuit which will give an indication whenever a code word unintelligible to the control is received in the input flip-flops.
(31) The twelve flip-flops operating the four function tables used in selecting a Selectron position, and the six flip-flops operating the function table used for decoding the order, are referred to as the Function Table Register, FR.

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Control counter is heart of state transition machine, along with its clock source. (31) 6.4 until it receives an order to do otherwise, the control will take its orders from the Selectrons in sequence. Hence the order location may be remembered in a twelve stage binary counter (one capable of counting 212) to which one unit is added whenever a pair of orders is executed. This counter is called the Control Counter, CC.

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Strict enforcement of separation between internal operations and those involving input or output beyond the computer; many pages of detail on control, but not as detailed as that of the arithmetic unit, admittedly only an overview. (33) 6.6 The orders which the Control understands may be divided into two groups: Those that specify operations which are performed within the computer and those that specify operations involved in getting data into and out of the computer. . . . The internal operations which have been tentatively adopted are listed in Table 1. It has already been pointed out that not all of these operations are logically basic, but that many can be programmed by means of others.

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Serial transfer for starting up the machine; no concept of parallel (tetrad) long term memory. (39) Since, at the beginning of the problem, the computer is empty, facilities must be built into the control for reading a set of numbers from a wire when the operator presses a manual switch. . . . A detection circuit on CC will stop the process when the specified number of numbers has been placed in the memory, and the control will then be shifted to the orders located in the first position of the Selectron memory.

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Deterministic, lossless translation between binary and decimal representation of numbers. (40) 6.8.2 Since the computer operates in the binary system, some means of decimal-binary and binary-decimal conversions is highly desirable.

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Interactivity between machine and human limited to typewriter input for ad hoc data input, and a single machine instruction deployed to halt computer and notify completion by flashing a light or ringing a bell. (41) 6.8.4 . . . It is frequently very convenient to introduce data into a computation without producing a new wire. Hence it is planned to build one simple typewriter as an integral part of the computer.
(41) 6.8.5 There is one further order that the Control needs to execute. There should be some means by which the computer can signal to the operator when a computation has been concluded, or when the computation has reached a previously determined point. Hence an order is needed which will tell the computer to stop and to flash a light or ring a bell.

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Survey of evolution of high level programming languages based on unpublished source materials. (1) This paper surveys the evolution of high level programming languages during the first decade of computer programming activity. . . . The principal features of each contribution are illustrated; and for purposes of comparison, a particular fixed algorithm has been encoded (as far as possible) in each of the languages. This research is based primarily on unpublished source materials, and the authors hope that they have been able to compile a fairly complete picture of the early developments in this area.

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Who are Leonardos of our recent era, the technology billionaires, or anonymously dispersed in collectives? (1) Whether from the Medici family or from his numerous other courtly patrons, Leonardoピ career-building commissions were not as a painter, anatomist, or visionary inventor, as he is typically remembered today, but as a military engineer and architect.

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Seminal thinkers of computer science worked in recent past, compelling different historical methods. (ix) In most sciences, the seminal thinkers lived in the remote past. To uncover what they did and why they did it, we must scavenge in the historical record, picking among scraps of information, trying to separate facts from mythology.
(ix) Computer science is different. The mathematicians who first studied computation in its current form Alan Turing, Emil Post, and Alonzo Church did their work in the 1930s and 1940s.

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Objections answered: theological, heads in the sand, mathematical, argument from consciousness, argument from disabilities, Lady Lovelace objection, continuity of nervous system, informality of behavior, ESP. (1)

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Visual memory has greater storage requirements than audible memory and memory for other senses. (61) As I have explained, the problem is mainly one of programming. Advances in engineering will have to be made too, but it seems unlikely that these will not be adequate for the requirements. Estimates of the storage capacity of the brain vary from 10
10 to 1015 binary digits. I incline to the lower value and believe that only a very small fraction is used for the higher types of thinking. Most of it is probably used for the retention of visual impressions.

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A bizarre parallel for ephemeral validity but quite obvious dealing with revisions of working code. (63) The explanation of the paradox is that the rules which get changed in the learning process are of a rather less pretentious kind, claiming only an
ephemeral validity. The reader may draw a parallel with the Constitution of the United States.

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How does von Neumann musing about machine (and human) intelligence compare to Turing? (63)

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Game centric and logocentric, indeed Anglocentric popular Zizekean fantasies ground popular beliefs and attitudes about potential of computer technology, yet Turing appeals to need for sense organs: what kind of sense organs? (64) Many people think that a very abstract activity, like the playing of chess would be best. It can also be maintained that it is best to provide the machine with the best
sense organs that money can buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English.

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The markers are eventually reduced to zeros and ones, voltages. (6) In a decimal digital machine each number is represented in the same way as in conventional writing or printing, i.e. as a sequence of decimal digits. Each decimal digit, in turn, is represented by a system of markers.

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Binary comes after decimal awkwardness inherited from base ten numbering systems employed by humans: note the wastefulness of using a four bit register to represent each decimal digit. (7)

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Computing machines divided into super-analog and digital devices. (438) As you probably know, the main types of computing machines existing or being discussed or planned at this moment fall into two large classes: super-analog devices and digital devices.
(438) Roughly speaking, an analog calculation is one in which you look at some physical process which happens to have the same mathematical equations as the process youビe interested in, and you investigate this physical process physically. You do not take the physical process which you are interested in, because that is your whole reason to calculate. You always look for something which is like it but not exactly the same thing.
(439) He discussed the components of digital machines (toothed wheels, electromechanical relays, vacuum tubes, and nerve cells), the speeds of these components (including both response time and recovery time), and the need for power amplification in these components. He stressed the role of the basic logical operations (such as sensing a coincidence) in control mechanisms, including "the most elaborate control mechanism known, namely, the human nervous system.

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Measuring complexity of automaton unclear until considering machines. (439) It is not completely obvious how to measure the complexity of an automaton. For computing machines, probably the reasonable way is to count how many vacuum tubes are involved.
(440) If you can repeat an elementary act like switching with a vacuum tube 1 million times per second, that does not mean of course that you will perform anything that is mathematically relevant 1 million times per second.

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Recognition that problem of memory distorts modus operandi of early computing. (442) You may have noticed that I have already introduced one distinction, namely, the total numerical material produced in a process. The other thing which matters is how much you need simultaneously. This is probably the most vexing problem in modern computing machine technology. Itピ also quite a problem from the point of view of the human organism, namely, the problem of memory.
(442) Hence in both the computer and the human nervous system, the dynamic part (the switching part) of the automaton is simpler than the memory.
(443) He then estimated the memory capacity of an ordinary printed page to be about 20 thousand units, and remarked that this is about the memory capacity of the digital computers under consideration at that time.
(443) The planning may be difficult, input and output may be cumbersome, and so on, but the main trouble is that it has a phenomenally low memory for the computing to be done. The whole technique of computing will be completely distorted by this modus operandi.
(444) In comparing artificial with natural automata there is one very important thing we do not know: whether nature has ever been subject to this handicap, or whether natural organisms involve some much better memory device.

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Hierarchy of memories. (444) Von Neumann said that at that moment there was no technique for building a memory with both an adequate capacity and a sufficiently good access time. What is done is to construct a hierarchy of memories.

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References to fictitious mechanisms of McCulloch, Pitts, Turing. (446) Both of them [McCulloch and Pitts and Turing] show that their fictitious mechanisms are exactly co-extensional with formal logics; in other words, that what their automata can do can be described in logical terms and, conversely, anything which can be described rigorously in logical terms can also be done by automata.
(446) Iノ going to describe both the work of McCulloch and Pitts and the work of Turing because they reflect two very important ways to get at the subject: the synthetic way, and the integral way. McCulloch and Pitts described structures which are built up from very simple elements, so that all you have to define axiomatically are the elements, and then their combination can be extremely complex. Turing started by axiomatically describing what the whole automaton is supposed to be, without telling what its elements are, just by describing how itピ supposed to function.
(447) They believed that the extremely amputated, simplified, idealized object which they axiomatized possessed the essential traits of the neuron, and that all esle are incidental complications, which in a first analysis are better forgotten.
(448) No matter how you formulate your conditions, you can always put a neural network in the box which will realize these conditions, which means that the generality of neural systems is exactly the same as the generality of logics.
(448-449) You see that you can produce circuits which look complicated, but which are actually quite simple from the point of view of how they are synthesized and which have about the same complexity that they should have, namely, the complexity that grammar has.
(449) It certainly follows that anything that you can describe in words can also be done with the neuron method. And it follows that the nerves need not be supernaturally clever or complicated.

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Suggestion that frequency modulation scheme more reliable than digital. (451) He then raised the question "Why has the digital notation never been used in nature, as far as we know, and why has this pulse notation been used instead?" and said that this was the kind of question he was interested in. He suggested the answer: that the frequency modulation scheme is more reliable than the digital scheme.
(451) This is not the way to make a memory for the simple reason that to use a switching organ like a neuron, or six to a dozen switching organs, as you actually would have to use because of fatigue, in order to do as small a thing as remember one binary digit, is a terrible waste, because a switching organ can do vastly more than store.
(452) In the McCulloch and Pitts theory the conclusion was that actual automata, properly described and axiomatized, are equivalent to formal logics. In Turingピ theory the conclusion is the reverse. Turing was interested in formal logics, not in automata. He was concerned to prove certain theorems about an important problem of formal logics, the so-called Entschiedungsproblem, the problem of decision. The problem is to determine, for a class of logical expressions or propositions, whether there is a mechanical method for deciding whether an expression of this class is true or false. Turingピ discussion of automata was really a formal, logical trick to deal with this problem in a somewhat more transparent and more consistent way than it had been dealt with before.
(453) The importance of Turingピ research is just this: that if you construct an automaton right, then any additional requirements about the automaton can be handled by sufficiently elaborate instructions. This is true only if A is sufficiently complicated, if it has reached a certain minimum level of complexity.
(454) Turing proved that there is something for which you cannot construct an automaton; namely, you cannot construct an automaton which can predict in how many steps another automaton which can solve a certain problem will actually solve it.

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Digitization clever trick to produce extreme precision from poor precision. (464) Digitization is just a very clever trick to produce extreme precision out of poor precision.
(465) It is not surprising that this new theory of information should be like formal logics, but it is surprising that it is likely to have a lot in common with thermodynamics.
(465) It is likely that you cannot define the function of an automaton, or its efficiency, without characterizing the milieu in which it works by means of statistical traits like the ones used to characterize a milieu in thermodynamics.
(466) Also, it is quite clear from the practice of building computing machines that the decisive properties of computing machines involve balance: balances between the speeds of various parts, balances between the speed of one part and the sizes of other parts, even balances between the speed ratio of two parts and the sizes of other parts. I mentioned this in the case of the hierarchic structure of memory. All of these requirements look like the balance requirements one makes in thermodynamics for the sake of efficiency.

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Estimate of relative complexity of human nervous system compared to large computing machines of the time necessarily equivocates aspects of human thought and computation. (468) So the human nervous system is roughly a million times more complicated than these large computing machines.
(468) Thus the nervous system has a million times as many components as these machines have, but each component of the machine is about 5 thousand times faster than a neuron.
(470) The remarkable thing, however, is the enormous gap between the thermodynamical minimum (3 X 10-14 ergs) and the energy dissipation per binary act in the neuron (3 X 10-3 ergs). The factor here is 1011.

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Acoustic delay line and cathode ray tube storage. (470) The actual devices which are used are of such a nature that the store is effected, not in a macroscopic object like a vacuum tube, but in something which is microscopic and has only a virtual existence.

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Suggests predominance of trans-continuous alternation between digital and analog mechanisms in all forms of transduction based on unsuitability of pure analog mechanisms. (472) This whole trans-continuous alternation between digital and analog mechanisms is probably characteristic of every field.
(473) Pure analog mechanisms are usually not suited for very complicated situations. The only way to handle a complicated situation with analog mechanisms is to break it up into parts and deal with the parts separately and alternately, and this is a digital trick.
(473) Our artificial systems are patchworks in which we achieve desirable electrical traits at the price of mechanically unsound things. . . . And so the differences in size between artificial and natural automata are probably connected essentially with quite radical differences in materials.

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If every error has to be caught no organism would run for a millisecond; natural automata better suited to their milieu. (474) Itピ very likely that on the basis of the philosophy that every error has to be caught, explained, and corrected, a system of the complexity of the living organism would not run for a millisecond.
(474-475) To apply the philosophy underlying natural automata to artificial automata we must understand complicated mechanisms better than we do, we must have more elaborate statistics about what goes wrong, and we must have much more perfect statistical information about the milieu in which a mechanism lives than we now have.
(475) It makes an enormous difference whether a computing machine is designed, say, for more or less typical problems of mathematical analysis, or for number theory, or combinatorics, or for translating a text.
(475) What matters is that the statistical properties of problems of mathematical analysis are reasonably well known, and as far as we know, reasonably homogeneous.
(475-476) Natural automata are much better suited to their milieu than any artifacts we know. It is therefore quite possible that we are not too far from the limits of computation which can be achieved in artificial automata without really fundamental insights into a theory of information, although one should be very careful with such statements because they can sound awfully ridiculous 5 years later.

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Foreshadowing self-compilers considering automata outputing things like themselves, realizing automata shifted from physical instantiation to functional specification? (478) A complete discussion of automata can be obtained only by taking a broader view of these things and considering automata which can have outputs something like themselves. . . . Draw up a list of unambiguously defined elementary parts. Imagine that there is a practically unlimited supply of these parts floating around in a large container. One can then imagine an automaton functioning in the following manner: It also is floating around in this medium; its essential activity is to pick up parts and put them together, or, if aggregates of parts are found, to take them apart.

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Predilection for linear codes a literary, narrative habit rather than one based on maximal combinatorial cleverness. (487) There is reason to suspect that our predilection for linear codes, which have a simple, almost temporal sequence, is chiefly a literary habit, corresponding to our not particularly high level of combinatorial cleverness, and that a very efficient language would probably depart from linearity.

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Some observations about organization of natural organisms may be useful for constructing artificial automata. (391-392) Natural organisms are, as a rule, much more complicated and subtle, and therefore much less well understood in detail, than are artificial automata. Nevertheless, some regularities which we observe in the organization of the former may be quite instructive in our thinking and planning of the latter; and conversely, a good deal of our experiences and difficulties with our artificial automata can be to some extent projected on our interpretations of natural organisms.

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Divide problem into functioning of individual elements and overall organization, reminiscent of Socratic analysis in Phaedrus. (392) The organisms can be viewed as made up of parts which to a certain extent are independent, elementary units. We may, therefore, to this extent, view as the first part of the problem the structure and functioning of such elementary units individually. The second part of the problem consists of understanding how these elements are organized into a whole, and how the functioning of the whole is expressed in terms of these elements.

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Axiomatic procedure treats elements as black boxes with well-defined outside functional characteristics. (392) Axiomatizing the behavior of the elements means this: We assume that the elements have certain well-defined, outside, functional characteristics; that is, they are to be treated as "black boxes." They are viewed as automatisms, the inner structure of which need not be disclosed, but which are assumed to react to certain unambiguously defined stimuli, by certain unambiguously defined responses.

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Declaration of thousand to million order of magnitude of complexity reveals fantasy boundary of early computing theories. (393) With any reasonable definition of what constitutes an element, the natural organisms are very highly complex aggregations of these elements. . . . The number of neurons in the central nervous system is somewhere of the order of 1010. We have absolutely no past experience with systems of this degree of complexity. All artificial automata made by man have numbers of parts which by any comparably schematic count are of the order 103 to 106.

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Highest complexity due to length of chains of events. (394) The notion of using an automaton for the purpose of computing is relatively new. While computing automata are not the most complicated artificial automata from the point of view of the end results they achieve, they do nevertheless represent the highest degree of complexity in the sense that they produce the longest chains of events determining and following each other.
(394) The use of a fast computing machine is believed to be by and large justified when the computing task involves about a million multiplications or more in a sequence.
(394) The simplest way to estimate this degree of complexity is, instead of counting decimal places, to count the number of places that would be required for the same precision in the binary system of notation.

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Analogy principle that certain ranges of numbers represented by physical quantities; usefulness tied to control of noise level, signal to noise ratio. (396) A computing machine may be based on the principle that numbers are represented by certain physical quantities. . . . Operations like addition, multiplication, and integration may then be performed by finding various natural processes which act on these quantities in the desired way.
(396) The first well-integrated, large computing machine ever made was an analogy machine, V. Bushピ Differential Analyzer. This machine, by the way, did the computing not with electrical currents, but with rotating disks.
(396) The guiding principle without which it is impossible to reach an understanding of the situation is the classical one of all "communication theory"-the "signal to noise ratio." That is, the critical question with every analogy procedure is this: How large are the uncontrollable fluctuations of the mechanism that constitute the "noise," compared to the significant "signals" that express the numbers on which the machine operates? The usefulness of any analogy principle depends on how low it can keep the relative size of the uncontrollable fluctuations-the "noise level.

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Digital machine represents numbers as aggregates of digits like human decimal system; always has small round off error. (397) A digital machine works with the familiar method of representing numbers as aggregates of digits. This is, by the way, the procedure which all of us use in our individual, non-mechanical computing, where we express numbers in the decimal system.
(398) What it produces when a product is called for is not that product itself, but rather the product plus a small extra term-the round-off error. This error is, of course, not a random variable like the noise in an analogy machine. It is, arithmetically, completely determined in every particular instance. Yet its mode of determination is so complicated, and its variations throughout the number of instances of its occurrence in a problem so irregular, that it usually can be treated to a high degree of approximation as a random variable.

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Value of digital procedures in reducing computational noise level. (398-399) Thus the real importance of the digital procedure lies in its ability to reduce the computational noise level to an extent which is completely unobtainable by any other (analog) procedure. In addition, further reduction of the noise level is increasingly difficult in an analogy mechanism, and increasingly easy in a digital one. . . . This is clearly an entirely different milieu, from the point of view of the reduction of "random noise," from that of physical processes. It is here-and not in its practically ineffective absolute reliability-that the importance of the digital procedure lies.

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Consider living organisms as purely digital automata although mixed character admitted at level of organism as well as each neuronal element. (399) The nerve impulse seems in the main to be an all or none affair, comparable to a binary digit. . . . It is well known that there are various composite functional sequences in the organism which have to go through a variety of steps from the original stimulus to the ultimate effect, some of the steps being neural, that is, digital, and others humoral, that is, analogy.
(399) It is well known that such mixed (part neural and part humoral) feedback chains can produce processes of great importance.
(400) I shall consider the living organisms as if they were purely digital automata.

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Best to treat elements as black boxes with schematic descriptions, whether vacuum tubes or neurons. (401) By an all or none organ we should rather mean one which fulfills the following two conditions. First, it functions in the all or none manner under certain suitable operating conditions. Second, these operating conditions are the ones under which it is normally used; they represent the functionally normal state of affairs within the large organism, of which it forms a part. . . . I realize that this definition brings in rather undesirable criteria of "propriety" of "context," of "appearance" and "intention." I do not see, however, how we can avoid using them, and how we can forego counting on the employment of common sense in their application.
(401) Here [in the case of the vacuum tube], too, the purely electrical phenomena are accompanied by numerous other phenomena of solid state physics, thermodynamics, mechanics [as in case of neuron]. All of these are important to understand the structure of a vacuum tube, but are best excluded from the discussion, if it is to treat the vacuum tube as a "black box" with a schematic description.

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Neuron and vacuum tube functionally equivalent representatives of relay switching organs. (401-402) The neuron, as well as the vacuum tube, viewed under the aspects discussed above, are then two instances of the same generic entity, which it is customary to call a "switching organ" or "relay organ." (The electrochemical relay is, of course, another instance.) Such an organ is defined as a "black box," which responds to a specified stimulus or combination of stimuli by an energetically independent response.
(402) I shall, therefore, discuss computing machines solely from the point of view of aggregates of switching organs which are vacuum tubes.

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Extreme ratios of sizes between control elements of neurons and vacuum tubes nullified with future advances like integrated circuits. (404) The origin of this discrepancy lies in the fundamental control organ or, rather, control arrangement of the vacuum tube as compared to that of the neuron.

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Theory of automata a chapter in formal logic; look at Out of Their Minds for how computer science has evolved since. (406) Everybody who has worked in formal logic will confirm that it is one of the technically most refractory parts of mathematics. The reason for this is that it deals with rigid, all-or-none concepts, and has very little contact with the continuous concept of the real or of the complex number, that is, with mathematical analysis. Yet analysis is the technically most successful and best elaborated part of mathematics. Thus formal logic is, by the nature of its approach, cut off from the best cultivated portions of mathematics, and forced onto the most difficult part of the mathematical terrain, into combinatorics.
(406) The theory of automata, of the digital, all-or-none type, as discussed up to now, is certainly a chapter in formal logic. It would, therefore, seem that it will have to share this unattractive property of formal logic. It will have to be, from the mathematical point of view, combinatorial rather than analytical.

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Finitude important for practical automata versus formal theory: how many steps in actual chains of reasoning? (406-407) Throughout all modern logic, the only thing that is important is whether a result can be achieved in a finite number of elementary steps or not. . . . Any finite sequence of correct steps is, as a matter of principle, as good as any other. . . . In dealing with automata, this statement must be significantly modified. In the case of an automaton the thing which matters is not only whether it can reach a certain result in a finite number of steps at all but also how many such steps are needed. There are two reasons. First, automata are constructed in order to reach certain results in certain pre-assigned durations, or at least in pre-assigned orders of magnitude of duration. Second, the componentry employed has on every individual operation a small but nevertheless non-zero probability of failing. In a sufficiently long chain of operations the cumulative effect of these individual probabilities of failure may (if unchecked) reach the order of magnitude of unity-at which point it produces, in effect, complete unreliability.
(407) Thus the logic of automata will differ from the present system of formal logic in two relevant aspects.
(407) 1. The actual length of "chains of reasoning," that is, of the chains of operations, will have to be considered.

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Importance of allowing and utilizing exceptions second key difference with formal logic. (407) 2. The operations of logic (syllogisms, conjunctions, disjunctions, negations, etc., that is, in the terminology that is customary for automata, various forms of gating, coincidence, anti-coincidence, blocking, etc., actions) will all have to be treated by procedures which allow exceptions (malfunctions) with low but non zero probabilities. . . . there are numerous indications to make us believe that this new system of formal logic will move closer to another discipline which has been little linked in the past with logic. This is thermodynamics, primarily in the form it was received from Boltzmann, and is that part of theoretical physics which comes nearest in some of its aspects to manipulating and measuring information. Its techniques are indeed much more analytical than combinatorial, which again illustrates the point that I have been trying to make above.

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Poor dealing with errors symptom of lack of logical theory of automata still reckoned with today; natural automata make errors inconspicuous, but must be overcautious in design of artificial ones. (408) It is unlikely that we could construct automata of a much higher complexity than the ones we now have, without possessing a very advanced and subtle theory of automata and information. A fortiori, this is inconceivable for automata of such enormous complexity as is possessed by the human central nervous system.
(408) This intellectual inadequacy certainly prevents us from getting much farther than we are now.
(408) A simple manifestation of this factor is our present relation to error checking.
(408-409) The basic principle of dealing with malfunctions in nature is to make their effect as unimportant as possible and to apply correctives, if they are necessary at all, at leisure. In our dealings with artificial automata, on the other hand, we require an immediate diagnosis. . . . natural organisms are constructed to make errors as inconspicuous, as harmless, as possible. Artificial automata are designed to make errors as conspicuous, as disastrous, as possible. . . . With our artificial automata we are moving much more in the dark than nature appears to be with its organisms. We are, apparently, at least at present, have to be, much more "scared" by the occurrence of an isolated error and by the malfunction which must be behind it. Our behavior is clearly that of overcaution, generated by ignorance.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (409) 20131019o 0 -3+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Single error principle basis of troubleshooting. (409) almost all our error diagnosing techniques are based on the assumption that the machine contains only one faulty component. In this case, iterative subdivisions of the machine into parts permit us to determine which portion contains the fault. As soon as the possibility exists that the machine may contain several faults, these, rather powerful, dichotomic methods of diagnosis are lost.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (410) 20131019p 0 -10+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Count versus decimal expression in signal transmission example of encoding pressure value. (410) Assume, for example, that a pressure (clearly a continuous quantity) is to be transmitted. It is well known how this trick is done. The nerve which does it still transmits nothing but individual all or none impulses. How does it [nerve] then express the continuously numerical value of pressure in terms of these impulses, that is, of digits? . . . The mechanisms which achieves this "encoding" is, therefore, essentially a frequency modulation system.
(410) It is very instructive, however, that it uses a "count" rather than a "decimal expansion" (or binary expansion, etc.) method.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (410-411) 20131019q 0 -11+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Living organisms prefer counting over symbolic expression method: instance of noein versus legein; Plato says something about only humans understand abstract forms. (410-411) The counting method is certainly less efficient than the expansion method. . . . On the other hand, the counting method has a high stability and safety from error. . . . Obviously, the simplest form of achieving safety by redundancy is to use the, per se, quite unsafe digital expansion notation, but to repeat every such message several times.
(411) On may, therefore, suspect that if the only demerit of the digital expansion system were its greater logical complexity, nature would not, for this reason alone, have rejected it. It is, nevertheless, true that we have nowhere an indication of its use in natural organisms.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (412) 20131019r 0 -5+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
McCulloch and Pitts model defined by singling out inputs and correlating to outputs. (412) McCulloch and Pitts have used these units to build up complicated networks which may be called formal neural networks. . . . The functioning of such a network may be defined by singling out some of the inputs of the entire system and some of its outputs, and then describing what original stimuli on the former are to cause what ultimate stimuli on the latter.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (412) 20131019s 0 -4+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Functional equivalence of what can be presented unambiguously in finite word sequence and what can be realized by formal neural network: coextensive concepts. (412) any functioning in this sense which can be defined at all logically, strictly, and unambiguously in a finite number of words can also be realized by such a formal neural network.
(413) there is no difference between the possibility of describing a real or imagined mode of behavior completely and unambiguously in words, and the possibility of realizing it by a finite formal neural network. The two concepts are co extensive. A difficulty of principle embodying any mode of behavior in such a network can exist only if we are also unable to describe that behavior completely.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (413) 20131019t 0 -3+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Problems of realization of neural networks of practical size and putting into words: humanities tends to focus on logocentrism debate, for example OHCO thesis, and ignore the former. (413) Thus the remaining problems are these two. First, if a certain mode of behavior can be effected by a finite neural network, the question still remains whether that network can be realized within a practical size, specifically, whether it will fit into the physical limitations of the organism in question. Second, the question arises whether every existing mode of behavior can really be put completely and unambiguously into words.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (414) 20131019u 0 -12+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Need precise verbal description of visual analogy to fulfill computationalist paradigm; possibility that logic morphs toward neurology rather than reverse becomes humanities battleground. (414) Nobody would attempt to describe and define within any practical amount of space the general concept of analogy which dominates our interpretation of vision. . . . We are dealing here with parts of logics with which we have practically no past experience. . . . It is, therefore, not at all unlikely that it is futile to look for a precise logical concept, that is, for a precise verbal description, of "visual analogy." It is possible that the connection pattern of the visual brain itself is the simplest logical expression or definition of this principle.
(414) All of this does not alter my belief that a new, essentially logical, theory is called for in order to understand high complication automata and, in particular, the central nervous system. It may be, however, that in this process logic will have to undergo a pseudomorphosis to neurology to a much greater extent than the reverse.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (415) 20131019v 0 -12+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Concept of complication never clearly formulated. (415) We are inclined to suspect in a vague way the existence of a concept of "complication." This concept and its putative properties have never been clearly formulated. We are, however, always tempted to assume that they will work in this way. When an automaton performs certain operations, they must be expected to be of a lower degree of complication than the automaton itself. . . . That is, if A can produce B, then A in some way must have contained a complete description of B. In order to make it effective, there must be, furthermore, various arrangements in A that see to it that this description is interpreted and that the constructive operations that it calls for are carried out. In this sense, it would therefore seem that a certain degenerating tendency must be expected, some decrease in complexity as one automaton makes another automaton.
(415) Although this has some indefinite plausibility to it, it is in clear contradiction with the most obvious things that go on in nature. Organisms reproduce themselves, that is, they produce new organisms with no decrease in complexity.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (416) 20131019w 0 -33+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Turing theory of computing automata a way to specify complication; here is von Neumann explaining Turing machine. (416) An automaton is a "black box," which will not be described in detail but is expected to have the following attributes. It possesses a finite number of states, which need be prima facie characterized only by stating their number, say n, and by enumerating them accordingly: 1, 2, . . . n. The essential operating characteristic of the automaton consists of describing how it is caused to change its state, that is, to go over from a state i into a state j . . . As far as the machine is concerned, let the whole outside world consist of a long paper tape. . . . On each field of this strip we may or may not put a sign, say, a dot, and it is assumed that it is possible to erase as well as to write in such a dot. A field marked with a dot will be called a "1," a field unmarked with a dot will be called a "0." . . . In describing the position of the tape relative to the automaton it is assumed that one particular field of the tape is under direct inspection by the automaton, and that the automaton has the ability to move the tape forward and backward, say, by one field at a time. In specifying this, let the automaton be in the state i (= 1, . . . , n), and let it see on the tape an e (= 0, 1). It will then go over into the state j (= 0, 1, . . . , n), move the tape by p fields (p = 0, +1, -1; +1 is a move forward, -1 is a move backward), and inscribe into the new field that it sees f ( = 0, 1; inscribing 0 means erasing; inscribing 1 means putting in a dot). Specifying j, p, f as functions of i, e is then the complete definition of the functioning of such an automaton.
(417) An automaton is able to "form" a certain sequence if it is possible to specify a finite length of tape, appropriately marked, so that, if this tape is fed to the automaton in question, the automaton will thereupon write the sequence on the remaining (infinite) free portion of the tape. . . . The finite, premarked, piece of tape constitutes the "instruction" of the automaton for this problem.
An automaton is "universal" if any sequence that can be produced by any automaton at all can also be solved by this particular automaton.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (417-418) 20131019x 0 -9+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Turing machine operation no more mysterious than following instructions for using words from reading dictionary and grammar seems like quite a challenge after all, demonstrating ignorance of semiotics (Edwards, Golumbia). (417-418) Turing observed that a completely general description of any conceivable automaton can be (in the sense of the foregoing definition) given in a finite number of words. This description will contain certain empty passages, those referring to the functions mentioned earlier (j, p, f in terms of i, e), which specify the actual functioning of the automaton. When these empty passages are filled in, we deal with a specific automaton. As long as they are left empty, this schema represents the general definition of the general automaton. Now it becomes possible to describe an automaton which has the ability to interpret such a definition. In other words, which, when fed the functions that in the sense described above define a specific automaton, will thereupon function like the object described. The ability to do this is no more mysterious than the ability to read a dictionary and a grammar and to follow their instructions about the uses and principles of combinations of words. This automaton, which is constructed to read a description and to imitate the object described, is then the universal automaton in the sense of Turing. To make it duplicate any operation that any other automaton can perform, it suffices to furnish it with a description of the automaton in question and, in addition, with the instructions which that device have required for the operation under consideration.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (418) 20131019y 0 -3+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Extend Turing machine to produce other automata becomes basis of bootstrapping and self-compiling. (418) His [Turingピ] automata are purely computing machines. Their output is a piece of tape with zeros and ones on it. What is needed for the construction to which I referred is an automaton whose output is other automata.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (419) 20131019z 0 -10+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Derivation of theorem regarding self-reproduction by Turing machines pondered by Chun and others. (419) (a) Automaton A, which when furnished the description of any other automaton in terms of appropriate functions, will construct that entity. The description should in this case not be given in the form of a marked tape, as in Turingピ case, because we will not normally choose a tape as a structural element. It is quite easy, however, to describe combinations of structural elements which have all the notational properties of a tape with fields that can be marked. A description in this sense will be called an instruction and denoted by a letter I.
(419) "Constructing" is to be understood in the same sense as before. . . . One need not worry about how a fixed automaton of this sort can produce others which are larger and more complex than itself. In this case the greater size and the higher complexity of the object to be constructed will be reflected in a presumably still greater size of the instructions I that have to be furnished.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (420) 20131109a 0 -5+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Arrival at self-reproduction in aggregate result E through definite chronological and logical order: Chun asks for the details of how the instructions actually work as early example of hiding vicissitudes of execution. (420) E is clearly self-reproductive. Note that no vicious circle is involved. The decisive step occurs in E, when the instruction ID, describing D, is constructed and attached to D. When the construction (the copying) of ID is called for, D exists already, and it is in no wise modified by the construction of ID. ID is simply added to form E.

4 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata (421) 20131109 0 -7+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_of_natural_and_artificial_automata.html
Crude steps representing one particular in theory of automata direction based on complication. (421) All these are very crude steps in the direction of a systematic theory of automata. They represent, in addition, only one particular direction. This is, as I indicated before, the direction towards forming a rigorous concept of what constitutes "complication." . . . This fact, that complication, as well as organization, below a certain minimum level is degenerative, and beyond that level can become self- supporting and even increasing, will clearly play an important role in any future theory of the subject.

--4.1.2+++ {11}

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK edwards-closed_world (246) 20130901 0 -3+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_edwards-closed_world.html
Practical, contingent origins of symbolic computation in programming craft and cyborg discourse, rather than determined by theoretical concerns. (246) An intellectual history might say, anachronistically, that those practical conditions simply developed the genesis of symbolic computing, a development that merely played out an inevitable conceptual logic. But in fact symbolic computation did
not emerge mainly from theoretical concerns. Instead, its immediate sources lay in the practice of the programming craft, the concrete conditions of hardware, computer use, and institutional context, and the metaphors of language, brain, and mind : in other word, the discourse of the cyborg.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (95) 20130916 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
As Engelbart puts more succinctly in the footnote, an explicit framework-search phase preceding the research is much to be preferred; he lays out a framework, then a research program, and spends decades implementing it. (95) Before a research program can be designed to pursue such an approach intelligently, so that practical benefits might be derived within a reasonable time while also producing results of long-range significance, a conceptual framework must be searched out a framework that provides orientation as to the important factors of the system, the relationships among these factors, the types of change among the system factors that offer likely improvements in performance, and the sort of research goals and methodology that seem promising.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (96) 20120512 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
The initial interface and capability enhancements he recommends solve the problem noted by Licklider of speed mismatch and desk-surface display and control. (96) We see the quickest gains emerging from (1) giving the human the minute-by-minute services of a digital computer equipped with computer-driven cathode-ray-tube display, and (2) developing the new methods of thinking and working that allow the human to capitalize upon the computerピ help. By the same strategy, we recommend that an initial research effort develop a prototype system of this sort aimed at increasing human effectiveness in the task of computer programming.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (96-97) 20130916a 0 -8+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
Depiction of augmented architect at working station: if only we had three-foot square screens, recalling Heim. (96-97) Let us consider an augmented architect at work. He sits at a working station that has a visual display screen some three feet on a side; this is his working surface, and is controlled by a computer (his clerk ) with which he can communicate by means of a small keyboard and various other devices.
(97) With a pointer, he indicates . . . gradually the screen begins to show the work he is doing.
(97) He often recalls from the clerk his working lists of specifications and considerations to refer to them, modify them, or add to them. These lists grow into an ever more detailed, interlinked structure, which represents the maturing thought behind the actual design.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (102) 20130916d 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
Engelbart card system, inspired by Bush, is instantiated in RDBMS. (102) It would actually seem quite feasible to develop a unit record system around cards and mechanical sorting, with automatic trail-establishment and trail-following facility, and with associated means for selective copying or data transfer, that would enable development of some very powerful methodology for everyday intellectual work. . . . The relative limitations of the mechanical equipment in providing processes which could be usefully integrated into the system would soon lead to its replacement by electronic computer equipment.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (103) 20130908 0 -7+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
An imagined dialog with Joe, which Manovich is keen to identify as a description of new media with respect to the new behaviors, guiding us through the augmented workplace; what he just described fictionally The Mother of All Demos has examples of his using the computer system to handle little things over and over. (103) This computerized system is used over and over and over again to help me do little things where my methods and ways of handling
little things are changed until, lo, theyプe added up and suddenly I can do impressive new things.
(104) Joe picks up the light pen, poises his other hand over the keyset, and looks at you. You didnフ need the hint, but thanks anyway, and letピ start rearranging and cleaning up the work space instead of just dumping more raw material into it. With closer coaching now from Joe, you start through the list of statements youプe made and begin to edit, re-word, compile, and delete. Itピ fun - put that sentence back up here between these two - and blink, itピ done.
(104) You reflected that this flexible cut-and-try process really did appear to match the way you seemed to develop your thoughts. Golly, you could be writing math expressions, ad copy, or a poem, with the same type of benefit.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (104) 20131029 0 -6+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
The figure of the Initial Augmentation-Research Program has a great quote that describes the interdisciplinary approach from which dynamic media grew. (104) [Figure of Initial Augmentation-Research Program, from section IV.E] An integrated set of tools and techniques will represent an art of doing augmentation research. Although no such art exists ready-made for our use, there are many applicable or adaptable tools and techniques to be borrowed from other disciplines. Psychology, computer programming and physical technology, display technology, artificial intelligence, industrial engineering (e.g., motion and time study), management science, systems analysis, and information retrieval are some of the more likely sources.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (104-105) 20130916e 0 -6+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
Engelbart linking types go beyond one-way hyperlinks and anticipates the discussion of link types by Landow; the light pen is replaced by the mouse as the preferred pointer device. (104-105) Joe picked out one of your sentences, and pushed the rest of the text a few lines up and down from it to isolate it. He then showed you how he could make a few strokes on the keyset to designate the type of link he wanted established, and pick the two symbol structures that were to be linked by means of the light pen. He said that most links possessed a direction, i.e., they were like an arrow pointing from one substructure to another.
(105) Some good methods, plus a bit of practice, and youヅ be surprised how much a diagrammatic breakdown can help you to scan a complex statement and untangle it quickly.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (105) 20130916f 0 -12+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
Engelbart later calls example of augmenting programming capability by programming improving improvement, Type C activity; must be an essential facet of critical programming studies to develop and utilize such practices. (105) [Figure of Regeneration, from Section IV.F] we would recommend turning loose a group of four to six people (or a number of such groups) to develop means that augment their own programming capability. We would recommend that their work being by developing the capability for composing and modifying simple symbol structures, in the manner pictured in Section III-B-2, and work up through a hierarchy of intermediate capabilities toward the single high-level capability that would encompass computer programming. . . . In other words, their job assignment is to develop means that will make them more effective at doing their job.
(106) To help us get better comprehension of the structure of an argument, we can also call forth a schematic or graphical display. . . . When you get used to using a network representation like this, it really becomes a great help in getting the feel for the way all the different ideas and reasoning fit together that is, for the conceptual structuring.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect (108) 20130916g 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_engelbart-augmenting_human_intellect.html
This reuse of taggings sounds like what we have with web pages today, although its specific form for Engelbart is Hyperscope, which sounds like Licklider symbiosis, although Engelbart did not try to include speech recognition in his preliminary research program. (108) the project now has an optical character reader that will convert our external references into machine code for us. The references are available for study in the original serial form on our screens, but any structuring and tagging done by a previous reader, or ourselves, can also be utilized.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (xiii-xiv) 20140418d 0 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates discovered writing a book much like projecting the development schedule of a large software project by a small team, noting underestimation fallacy similar to programmers underestimating scaled complexity of a large project; concludes the Foreword with admission he had to retreat to his summer cabin to finish writing, a nice touch. (xiii-xiv) The process of thinking about and writing
The Road Ahead took longer than I expected. Indeed, estimating the time it would take proved to be as difficult as projecting the development schedule of a major software project. Even with able help from Peter Rinearson and Nathan Myhrvold, this book was a major undertaking. . . . The fallacy in my thinking was similar to the one software developers often run into a project then times as long is about one hundred times more complicated to write. I should have known better. To complete the book, I had to take time off and isolate myself in my summer cabin with my PC.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (1) 20140426 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
As a child Gates enjoyed privilege of using computer terminal in late 1960s at behest of Mothers Club of his private school. (1) Letting a bunch of teenagers loose on a computer was the idea of the Mothers Club at Lakeside, the private school I attended. The mothers decided that the proceeds from a rummage sale should be used to install a terminal and buy computer time for students. Letting students use a computer in the late 1960s was a pretty amazing choice at the time in Seattle and one Iネl always be grateful for.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (2) 20140426a 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Computer terminal gave kids access to apparently fun adult activity offering control with feedback. (2) We were too young to drive or to do any of the other fun-seeming adult activities, but we could give this big machine orders and it would always obey. Computers are great because when youビe working with them you get immediate results that let you know if your program works.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (2) 20140426b 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Use of BASIC language to simulate Monopoly an early programming project; example of old media as content for new media. (2) A friend at Lakeside developed a program in BASIC that simulated the play of Monopoly.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (2) 20140426c 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Appeal to childhood play extending uses of toys as essence of creativity, leading to sort of computer revolution as his generation matured. (2) this impulse to make a toy do more is at the heart of innovative childhood play. It is also the essence of creativity.
(2-3) It seems there was a whole generation of us, all over the world, who dragged that favorite toy with us into adulthood. In doing so, we caused a kind of revolution peaceful, mainly and now the computer has taken up residence in our offices and homes.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (3) 20140426d 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Prediction of next revolution being computers joining to communicate with humans and other machines; interesting use of join and revolution. (3) Now that computing is astoundingly inexpensive and computers inhabit every part of our lives, we stand at the brink of another revolution. This one will involve unprecedentedly inexpensive communication; all the computers will join together to communicate with us and for us.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (4) 20140426e 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Recognizes his position as old guard but hopes to have learned from predecessors: does that include attempting to expand everywhere and monopolize markets? (4) Today Iノ much more in the position of the computer giants of the seventies, but I hope Iプe learned some lessons from them.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (4) 20140426f 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates suggests the new network computing environment will realize ideal Adam Smith invisible hand of market in new mediated way of life; contrast to Lanier critique of it as siren server oligopolies, and positions of Rushkoff and Bauerlein. (4) I witnessed the importance of compatibility in technology, of feedback, and of constant innovation. And I think we may be about to witness the realization of Adam Smithピ ideal market, at last.
(5) It will be more than an object you carry or an appliance you purchase. It will be your passport into a new, mediated way of life.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (5) 20140426g 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Information tools as intellect amplifying symbolic mediators with family resemblance to books; contrast to Bauerlein argument that emphasis on viewer literacy diminishes traditional literacy. (5) Informational tools are symbolic mediators that amplify the intellect rather than the muscle of their users. Youビe having a mediated experience as you read this book. Weビe not actually in the same room, but you are still able to find out whatピ on my mind.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (5) 20140426h 0 -13+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
New network is not a highway, more like country lanes in sense of individualized destinations, though ultimate market is better metaphor as distance is eliminated and everything is available for trade; per Lanier, bazaar of early Internet gives way to cathedrals of top siren server destinations. (5) The term [information superhighway] was popularized by then-senator Al Gore, whose father sponsored the 1956 Federal Aid Highway Act.
(5-6) The phrase suggests landscape and geography, a distance between points, and embodies the implication that you have to travel to get from one place to another. In fact, one of the most remarkable aspects of this new communications technology is that it will eliminate distance.
(6) The term highway also suggests that everyone is driving and following the same route. This network is more like a lot of country lanes where everyone can look at or do whatever his individual interests suggest. . . . A different metaphor that I think comes closer to describing a log of the activities that will take place is that of the ultimate market. . . . Digital information of all kinds, not just as money, will be the new medium of exchange in this market.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (7) 20140426i 1 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
New network represents radical transformation of position and juxtaposition described by Thrift. (7)
(7) A new generation grows up with them, changing and humanizing them. In short, playing with them.
(7) Eventually, though, men and women realized they were not just getting a new machine [with the telephone], they were learning a new kind of communication. . . . As I write, a newer form of communication electronic mail is undergoing the same sort of process: establishing its own rules and habits.
(8) What had once been the iron monster became the mighty bearer of lifeピ best products. Again, the change in our perception was reflected in the language we used.

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Like the telephone and railroad, network will change as humans play with it and new use habits emerge. (7)
(7) A new generation grows up with them, changing and humanizing them. In short, playing with them.
(7) Eventually, though, men and women realized they were not just getting a new machine [with the telephone], they were learning a new kind of communication.

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Philosophizes about change in fundamental knowledge by print to argue transformative potential of new network, even noting personal computers have not had a major impact on everyday life yet. (8-9) The printed word changed all that. It was the first mass medium the first time that knowledge, opinions, and experiences could be passed on in a portable, durable, and available form. . . . Literacy became an important skill that revolutionized education and altered social structures.
(9) The information highway will transform our culture as dramatically as Gutenbergピ press did the Middle Ages.
(9) Personal computers have already altered work habits, but they havenフ really changed our lives much yet. When tomorrowピ powerful information machines are connected on the highway, people, machines, entertainment, and information services will all be accessible.

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Wish fulfillment by network services emphasizes access, ignoring source of interests driving exploration. (10) All of this information will be readily accessible and completely personal, because youネl be able to explore whatever parts of it interest you in whatever ways and for however long you want.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (10) 20140426m 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Assuages worldwide apprehension of the little people with the confident and optimistic outlook of a great man. (10) Every day, all over the world, people are asking about the implications of the network, often with terrible apprehension.
(11) Iプe thought about the difficulties and find that, on balance, Iノ confident and optimistic. . . . I feel incredibly lucky that I am getting the chance to play a part in the beginning of an epochal change for a second time.

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Gates and friends were inspired by childhood exposure to DEC PDP-8, developing belief that everyone would eventually be able to use computers. (11-12) When I was in high school, it cost about $40 an hour to access a time-shared computer using a Teletype for that $40 an hour you got a slice of the computerピ precious attention. This seems odd today, when some people have more than one PC and think nothing of leaving them idle for most of the day. Actually, it was possible even then to own your own computer. If you could afford $18,000, Digital Equipment Corporation made the PDP-8. . . . Despite its limitations, the PDP-8 inspired us to indulge in the dream that one day millions of individuals could possess their own computers.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (12) 20140426o 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
School schedulers likely early programming projects since kids were exposed to programming at school, as I was; recounts manipulating software to put himself in class of mostly girls. (12) A bunch of us, including Paul Allen, got entry-level software programming jobs. For high school students the pay was extraordinary about $5,000 each summer, part in cash and the rest in computer time. . . . One of the programs I wrote was the one that scheduled students in classes. I surreptitiously added a few instructions and found myself nearly the only guy in a class full of girls.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (12) 20140426p 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Discovery of Intel 8008 in electronics magazine reminder that computing did not emerge autochthnonously but rather in context of consumer and hobbyist electronics market; Gates and Allen developed a machine to analyze traffic monitor data. (12) One summer day in 1972, when I was sixteen and Paul was nineteen, he showed me a ten-paragraph article buried on page 143 of Electronics magazine. It was announcing that a young firm named Intel had released a microprocessor chip called the 8008.
(14) Paul and I wondered what we could program the 8008 to do. He called up Intel to request a manual. We were a little surprised when they actually sent him one.

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Unforeseen potential of 8088 included need for software to explore new uses of cheap computing. (14-15) In the spring of 1974, Electronics magazine announced Intelピ new 8080 chip ten times the power of the 8008 inside the Traf-O-Data machine. . . . It seemed obvious to us that if a tiny chip could get so much more powerful, the end of big unwieldy machines was coming.
(15) Not even the scientists at Intel saw its full potential.
(15) It seemed to us people would find all kinds of new uses for computing if it was cheap. Then, software would be the key to delivering the full potential of these machines.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (17) 20140426r 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Epic narrative of development of Microsoft BASIC including simulating 8088 chip on big machine at Harvard, long hours, and self funding. (17) Undaunted, Paul studied a manual for the chip, then wrote a program that made a big computer at Harvard mimic the little Altair. This was like having a whole orchestra available and using it to play a simple duet, but it worked.
(17) Some days I didnフ eat or see anyone. But after five weeks, our BASIC was written and the worldピ first microcomputer software company was born. In time we named it Microsoft.
(18) From the start, Paul and I funded everything ourselves. Each of us had saved some money. Paul had been well paid at Honeywell, and some of the money I had came from late-night poker games in the dorm.

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Importance of original vision of very low cost computing; compare to original vision of Stallman and other default philosophers of computing. (18) Of course, there is no simple answer, and luck played a role, but I think the most important element was our original vision.
(18) We glimpsed what lay beyond that Intel 8088 chip, and then acted on it. We asked, What if computing were nearly free? . . . From the beginning we set off down a road that was headed in the right direction.

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New network computing promise of almost free communication has ignited national imagination the way space program did. (18-19) Now there is a new horizon, and the relevant question is, What if communicating were almost free? The idea of interconnecting all homes and offices to a high speed network has ignited this nationピ imagination as nothing has since the space program.
(19) I spend a good deal of time thinking about business because I enjoy my work so much. Today, a lot of my thoughts are about the highway.

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Need to consider ways technology is changing how information is handled by humans and machines, launching brief, familiar historical narrative passing from ancient numerical manipulation through Babbage to Turing, Shannon, and von Neumann. (21) To understand why information is going to be so central, itピ important to know how technology is changing the ways we handle information.
(22) The idea of using an instrument to manipulate numbers isnフ new.
(22) As early as the 1830s, he [Babbage] was drawn to the idea that information could be manipulated by a machine if the information could be converted into numbers first.

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Babbage conceived information processing in terms of cotton milling, adding essential notion of software to instruct how it was performed. (22) He lacked the terms we now use to refer to the parts of his machine. He called the central processor, or working guts of his machine, the mill. He referred to his machineピ memory as the store. Babbage imagined information being transformed the way cotton was drawn from a store (warehouse) and milled into something new.
(22) It is a comprehensive set of rules a machine can be given to instruct it how to perform particular tasks.
(23) For the next century mathematicians worked with the ideas Babbage had outlined and finally, by the mid-1940s, an electronic computer was built based on the principles of his Analytical Engine. . . . Three major contributors were Alan Turing, Claude Shannon, and John von Neumann.

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Credit to Shannon for implementing Boolean logic via electrical circuits, for which Gates gives a tutorial of binary numbers using different wattage light bulbs. (23) In the late 1930s, when Claude
Shannon was still a student, he demonstrated that a machine executing logical instructions could manipulate information. His insight, the subject of his masterピ thesis, was about how computer circuits closed for true and open for false could perform logical operations, using the number 1 to represent true and 0 to represent false.

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Credit ENIAC and von Neumann for stored program computer architecture. (26) ENIAC was more like an electronic calculator than a computer, but instead of representing a binary number with on and off settings on wheels the way a mechanical calculator did, it used vacuum tube switches.
(27) The
von Neumann architecture, as it is known today, is based on principles he articulated in 1945 including the principle that a computer could avoid cabling changes by storing instructions in its memory.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (31) 20140427d 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Data compression crucial to expanding computing capacity, but bandwidth limitations still hindering information highway; widespread fiber optic cable is the solution. (31) The information highway will use compression, but there will still have to be a great deal of bandwidth. One of the main reasons we donフ already have a working highway is that there isnフ sufficient bandwidth in todayピ communication networks for all the new applications. And tehre wonフ be until fiber-optic cable is brought into enough neighborhoods.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (31-32) 20140427e 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Lesson in exponential doubling using fable of grains on chessboard, applied to microprocessor evolution; compare to Kurzweil. (31-32) No experience in our everyday life prepares us for the implications of a number that doubles a great number of times exponential improvements. One way to understand it is with a fable.
(33) Exponential growth, even when explained, seems like a trick.

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Predictions and prescriptions about improvements in memory, storage, and transmission of digital data that will bring about the highway; note prediction of single wire to household versus conjunction of multiple wired and wireless interfaces, contrast between stone age knife and Ghiberti doors as commerical orientation of contemporary Internet. (34) we look toward an exotic improvement called a holographic memory, which can hold terabytes of characters in less than a cubic inch of volume.
(34) At some point not far in the future, a single wire running into each home will be able to deliver all of a householdピ digital data.
(34) But we can no more imagine what the information highway will carry in twenty-five years than a Stone Age man using a crude knife could have envisioned Ghibertiピ Bapistery doors in Florence. Only when the highway arrives will all its possibilities be understood. However, the last twenty years of experience with digital breakthtroughs allow us to understand some of the key principles and possibilities for the future.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (35) 20140427g 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
To avoid repeating mistakes companies must understand critical factors: negative and positive spirals, initiating rather than following trends, importance of software, role of compatibility. (35) Companies investing in the highway will try to avoid repeating the mistakes made in the computer industry over the past twenty years. I think most of these mistakes can be understood by looking at a few critical factors. Among them are negative and positive spiral, the necessity of initiating rather than following trends, the importance of software as opposed to hardware, and the role of compatibility and the positive feedback it can generate.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (36) 20140427h 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Examples of Olsen and Wang as faltering visionaries at dawn of personal computer era. (36) Throughout my youth the hot computer firm was Digital Equipment, known as DEC. For twenty years its positive spiral seemed unstoppable. Ken Olsen, the companyピ founder, was a legendary hardware designer and hero of mine, a distant god.
(37) Two decades later, Olsenピ vision faltered. He couldnフ see the future of small desktop computers.
(37) Another visionary who faltered was An Wang.
(37) The kind of insight that had led him to abandon calculators could have led to success in personal computer software in the 1980s, but he failed to spot the next industry turn. Even though he developed great software, it was tied proprietarily to his word processors.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (37) 20140427i 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
IBM failed to respond to market-driven compatibility with mainframe technology; Gates urges information highway creators to recall this lesson. (37) IBM was another major company that missed technological changes at the start of the PC revolution.
(38) Under the direction of young Tom, as Watsonピ son and successor was known, the company gambled $5 billion on the novel notion of scalable architecture all the computers in the System/360 family, no matter what size, would respond to the same set of instructions.
(38) System/360 was a runaway success and made IBM the powerhouse in mainframe computers for the next thirty years.
(39) Market-driven compatibility is an important lesson for the future personal-computer industry. It should also be remembered by those creating the highway. Customers choose systems that give them a choice of hardware suppliers and the widest variety of software applications.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (41) 20140427j 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Narrative of Microsoft BASIC as crucial software ingredient for early personal computers when writing software was a primary activity of hobbyists; foregrounds piracy concerns and need for copyright protection. (41) We provided BASIC for most of the early personal computers. This was the crucial software ingredient at that time, because users wrote their won applications in BASIC rather than buying packaged applications.
(41) Microsoftピ strategy was to get computer companies such as Radio Shack to buy licenses to include our software with the personal computers they sold (like the Radio Shack TRS-80, for example) and pay us a royalty. One reason we took that approach was software piracy.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (41) 20140427k 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Concern that Internet becomes pirate paradise; did not foresee floss as key component to its growth. (41) Fortunately, today most users understand that software is protected by copyright. . . . We will have to be extremely careful to make sure the upcoming highway doesnフ become a pirateピ paradise.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (43) 20140427l 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Importance of stock options as incentive for building small businesses. (43) Shared ownership through the stock options Microsoft offered most of its employees has been more significant and successful than anyone would have predicted. Literally billions of dollars of value have accrued to them. The practice of granting employee stock options, which has been widely and enthusiastically accepted, is one advantage the United States has that will allow it to support a disproportionate number of start-up successes, building on opportunities the forthcoming era will bring.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (44) 20140427m 0 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Low cost, high volume licensing key to success of Microsoft BASIC. (44) Microsoft licensed the software at extremely low prices It was our belief that money could be made betting on volume. . . . We were very responsive to all the hardware manufacturers requests. We didnフ want to give anyone a reason to look elsewhere.
(44) Our strategy worked. Virtually every personal-computer manufacturer licensed a programming language from us.
(44) Along the way, Microsoft BASIC became an industry software standard.

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Importance of de facto standards evolving in the marketplace through positive spirals; compare to scholarly histories of development of network protocols emphasizing more formal, collaborative processes. (45) De facto standards often evolve in the marketplace through an economic mechanism very similar to the concept of the positive spiral that drives successful businesses, in which success reinforces success. This concept, called positive feedback, explains why de facto standards often emerge as people search for compatibility.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (46) 20140427o 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Videocassette recorder format battle as example of positive feedback emergence of de facto standard, and qualitative change in role a technology plays through quantitative change in acceptance level; compare to SCOT accounts. (46) Perhaps the most famous industry demonstration of the power of positive feedback was the videocassette-recorder format battle of the late 1970s and early 1980s.
(46) Once VHS emerged as the apparent standard, in about 1983, an acceptance threshold was crossed and the use of the machines, as measured by tape sales, turned abruptly upward.
(46) This is an example of how a quantitative change in the acceptance level of a new technology can lead to a qualitative change in the role the technology plays. Television is another.

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Use of 16 bit microprocessor changed potential of personal computer from toy to business tool; reading Gates critically as a default philosopher of computing is just taking Latour and other SCOT theorists seriously. (47)
(48) Working together with the IBM design team, we promoted a plan for IBM to build one of the first personal computers to use a 16-bit microprocessor chip, the 8088. The move from 8 to 16 bits would take personal computers from hobbyist toys to high-volume business tools.

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Account of how IBM plan to bring PC to market rapidly steered development of 16 bit DOS by a third party developer. (47) IBM wanted to bring its personal computer to market in less than a year. In order to meet this schedule it had to abandon its traditional course of doing all the hardware and software itself.
(48) Working together with the IBM design team, we promoted a plan for IBM to build one of the first personal computers to use a 16-bit microprocessor chip, the 8088. The move from 8 to 16 bits would take personal computers from hobbyist toys to high-volume business tools.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (48) 20140427q 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Credit to Paterson as putative father of MS-DOS; as open design strategy, PC-DOS one of three OS choices available for IBM PC. (48) IBM, with its reputation and its decision to employ an open design that other companies could copy, had a real chance to create a new, broad standard in personal computing. We wanted to be a part of it. So we took on the operating system challenge. We bought some early work from another Seattle company and hired its top engineer, Tim Paterson. With lots of modifications the system became the Microsoft Disk Operating System, or MS-DOS. Tim became, in effect, the father of MS-DOS.
(48) Few remember this now, but the original IBM PC actually shipped with a choice of three operating systems our PC-DOS, CP/M-86, and the UCSD Pascal P-system.

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Microsoft leveraged licensing strategy that was not exclusive to IBM. (49) Our goal was not to make money directly from IBM, but to profit from licensing MS-DOS to computer companies that wanted to offer machines more or less compatible with the IBM PC. IBM could use our software for free, but it did not have an exclusive license or control of future enhancements.

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For PC users software became the center around which hardware was chosen. (50) The IBM standard became the platform everybody imitated. A lot of the reason was timing and its use of a 16-bit processor.
(50-51) Within three years almost all the competing standards for personal computers disappeared. The only exceptions were Appleピ Apple II and Macintosh. . . . Although buyers of a PC might not have articulated it this way, what they were looking for was the hardware that ran the most software, and they wanted the same system the people they knew and worked with had.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (50-51) 20140427t 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates takes credit for driving advance of graphical operating system to widen PC adoption with a simpler user interface, inspired by Xerox PARC; example of conscious technological change driven by a default philosopher of computing. (50-51) By 1983, I thought our next step should be to develop a graphical operating system. . . . In order to realize our vision, PCs had to be made easier to use not only to help existing customers, but also to attract new ones who wouldnフ take the time to learn to work with a complicated interface.
(51) Researchers at Xeroxピ now-famous Palo Alto Research Center in California explored new paradigms for human-computer interaction. They showed that it was easier to instruct a computer if you could point at things on the screen and see pictures.

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Shift in means of instructing computers by manipulating pictures rather than text must be considered in relation to side effect for humans, where Kemeny praised instructing the computer by programming. (50-51) By 1983, I thought our next step should be to develop a graphical operating system. . . . In order to realize our vision, PCs had to be made easier to use not only to help existing customers, but also to attract new ones who wouldnフ take the time to learn to work with a complicated interface.
(51) Researchers at Xeroxピ now-famous Palo Alto Research Center in California explored new paradigms for human-computer interaction. They showed that it was easier to instruct a computer if you could point at things on the screen and see pictures.

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Microsoft collaborated with Steve Jobs on Word and Excel for Macintosh before Windows conceived. (54) We worked closely with Apple throughout the development of the Macintosh. Steve Jobs led the Macintosh team. Working with him was really fun. Steve has an amazing intuition for engineering and design as well as an ability to motivate people that is world class.
(54) We crated a word processor, Microsoft Word, and a spreadsheet, Microsoft Excel, for the Macintosh.

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Mistake by Apple to limit OS licensing to its own hardware being repeated by telephone and cable companies. (54) Mistakes such as Appleピ decision to limit the sale of its operating-system software for its own hardware will be repeated often in the years ahead. Some telephone and cable companies are already talking about communicating only with the software they control.

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Gates views success of IBM in 1980s as evidence of success of market-driven, de facto standard generating capitalism. (55) Throughout the 1980s, IBM was awesome by every measure capitalism knows. In 1984, it set the record for the most money ever made by any firm in a single year--$6.6 billion of profit.

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Development of OS/2, OfficeVision, and PS/2 closely controlled by IBM corporate crusade to implement System Application Architecture strategy, in stark contrast to open PC standard; designed for mainframe customer and stymied by need for corporate consensus. (57) This time it wasnフ like when we did MS-DOS. IBM wanted to control the standard to help its PC hardware and mainframe businesses. IBM became directly involved in the design and implementation of OS/2.
(57-58) OS/2 was central to IBMピ corporate software plans. It was to be the first implementation of IBMピ Systems Application Architecture, which the company ultimately intended to have as a common development environment across its full line of computers from mainframe to midrange to PC. . . . IBMピ extensions of OS/2 called Extended Edition included communication and database services. And it planned to build a full set of office applications to be called OfficeVision to work on top of Extended Edition. . . . The development of OfficeVision required another team of thousands. OS/2 was not just an operating system, it was part of a corporate crusade.
(58) IBMピ previous software projects almost never caught on with PC customers precisely because they were designed with a mainframe customer in mind.
(58) IBM, with more than 300,00 employees, was also stymied by its commitment to company-wide consensus.
(59) In April 1987, IBM unveiled its integrated hardware/software, which was supposed to beat back imitators. The clone-killer hardware was called PS/2 and it ran the new operating system, OS/2.
(59) The PS/2ピ Microchannel was an elegant replacement for the connection bus in the PC AT. But it solved problems that most customers didnフ have.

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Definition of open by Gates as offering hardware and software applications choices in spite of history of monopolizing practices by his company. (60) Although the term open is used in many different ways, to me it means offering choice in hardware and software applications to the customer.

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IBM lost hold on controlling PC hardware architecture through failed PS/2 Microchannel; Microsoft Windows at lower end of family strategy looked better than OS/2 at high end. (60) Customers rejected Microchannel in favor of machines with the old PC AT bus. . . . The real casualty was that IBM lost control of personal-computer architecture. Never again would they be able to move the industry singlehanded to a new design.
(60) Despite a great deal of promotion from both IBM and Microsoft, customers thought OS/2 was too unwieldy and complicated. The worse OS/2 looked, the better Windows seemed. . . . We call this the family strategy.

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Open Software Foundation promoting UNIX an attempt to standardize operating system for multiple architectures; failed to get positive feedback cycle going from committee of competing vendors the way floss later would from community of volunteers. (60) In the spring of 1988, it joined other computer makers in establishing the Open Software Foundation to promote UNIX, an operating system that had originally been developed at AT&Tピ Bell Labs in 1969 but over the years had splintered into a number of versions.
(61) The Open Software Foundation was the most promising of several attempts to unify UNIX and create a common software architecture that would work on various different manufacturers hardware. In theory, a unified UNIX could get a positive-feedback cycle going. But despite significant funding, it turned out to be impossible for the Open Software Foundation to mandate cooperation from a committee of vendors who were competing for each sale.
(61-62) The problems of the Open Software Foundation and similar initiatives point up the difficulty of trying to impose a standard in a field in which innovation is moving rapidly and all the companies that make up the standards committee are competitors.

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Thousands of wasted years of effort trying to deliver next generation personal computing platform by IBM and Microsoft. (62) Analysts estimate that IBM poured more than $2 billion into OS/2, OfficeVision, and related projects. If IBM and Microsoft had found a way to work together, thousands of people-years the best years of some of the best employees at both companies would not have been wasted. If OS/2 and Windows had been compatible, graphical computing would have become mainstream years sooner.

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Hardware advances and end of life the change driver now; prediction of new major Windows versions every two to three years, with Internet and speech recognition major draws. (63) Microsoft has to do its best to make new versions so attractive in terms of price and features that people will want to change. This is hard because a change involves a big overhead for both developers and customers. Only a major advance is able to convince enough users it is worth their while to change. With enough innovation it can be done. I expect major new generations of Windows to come along every two to three years.
(64) For instance, the Internet is becoming so important that Windows will only thrive if it is clearly the best way to gain access to the Internet. . . . When speech recognition becomes genuinely reliable, this will cause another big change in operating systems.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (64) 20140625c 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Microsoft tactic of hiring managers with experience in failing companies because they are forced to be creative. (64) In recent years, Microsoft has deliberately hired a few managers with experience in failing companies. When youビe failing youビe forced to be creative, to dig deep and think, night and day.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (66) 20140625d 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Asynchronous communication forms offer increased variety and selection possibilities, bolstering assumption that information highway technology will make our lives easier and better; contrast to criticism by Bauerlein and others of resulting bad habits. (66) Once you make a form of communication asynchronous, you can also increase the variety and selection possibilities.
(66) The highway will enable capabilities that seem magical when they are described, but represent technology at work to make our lives easier and better.
(67) The information highway will make it feel as though all the intermediary machinery between you and the object of your interest has been removed.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (68) 20140625e 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Lesson about PC killer applications from Lotus 1-2-3 to combination of services predicted of the information highway; note the ordering of offerings seems inverse of current prioritization on social networking, commerce and entertainment, with the personal search for knowledge minimized. (68) Killer applications help technological advances change from curiosities into moneymaking essentials.
(69) The first killer application for the original IBM PC was Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet tailored to the strengths of that machine. The Apple Macintoshピ killer business applications were Aldus PageMaker for designing documents to be printed, Microsoft Word for word processing, and Microsoft Excel for spreadsheets.
(69) The highway will come about because of a confluence of technological advances in both communications and computers. No single advance would be able to produce the necessary killer applications. But together these will. The highway will be indispensable because it will offer a combination of information, education services, entertainment, shopping, and person-to-person communication.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (71) 20140625f 0 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Viewing distance between television and computer monitor as media-specific characteristic; digital whiteboard more like television, notebooks and mobile devices more like PCs. (71) However much like a PC the set-top box becomes, there will continue to be a critical difference between the way a PC is used and a television is used: viewing distance.
(72) One new form will be the digital white board: a large wall-mounted screen, perhaps an inch thick, that will take the place of todayピ blackboards and white boards. . . . These devices will show up first in conference rooms, then private offices and even homes.
(72) Todayピ telephone will connect to the same networks as the PCs and TVs. Many future phones will have small, flat screens and tiny cameras.
(73) Notebook computers will continue to get thinner until they are nearly the size of a tablet of paper.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (71) 20140625g 0 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
While correct that mobile phones will have screens and cameras and notebook computers will approach paper tablet proportions, failed prediction that digital whiteboards will replace blackboards should be considered in terms of Heim electric writing and Hayles MSA. (71) However much like a PC the set-top box becomes, there will continue to be a critical difference between the way a PC is used and a television is used: viewing distance.
(72) One new form will be the digital white board: a large wall-mounted screen, perhaps an inch thick, that will take the place of todayピ blackboards and white boards. . . . These devices will show up first in conference rooms, then private offices and even homes.
(72) Todayピ telephone will connect to the same networks as the PCs and TVs. Many future phones will have small, flat screens and tiny cameras.
(73) Notebook computers will continue to get thinner until they are nearly the size of a tablet of paper.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (74) 20140625h 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Wallet PC as separate information appliance subsumed in mobile phone, in which case Apple wins with the iPhone. (74) Youネl be able to keep all these and more in another information appliance we call the wallet PC.
(75) When wallet PCs are ubiquitous, we can eliminate the bottlenecks that now plague airport terminals, theaters, and other locations where people queue to show identification or a ticket.
(75) Wallet PCs with the proper equipment will be able to tell you exactly where you are anyplace on the face of Earth.
(76) In fact, I think of the wallet PC as the new Swiss Army knife.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (77) 20140625i 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Kiosks will provide information highway and wallet PC features to the masses. (77) If you arenフ carrying a wallet PC, youネl still have access to the highway by using kiosks some free, some requiring payment of a fee which will be found in office buildings, shopping malls, and airports in much the same spirit as drinking fountains, rest rooms, and pay phones.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (77-78) 20140625j 0 -12+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Speech and handwriting recognition still Holy Grails despite admitted optimism by Gates that generic text recognition was more feasible. (77-78) You wonフ necessarily have to point to make your point. Eventually weネl also be able to speak to our televisions, personal computers, or other information appliances. At first weネl have to keep to a limited vocabulary, but eventually our exchanges will become quite conversational. . . . Itピ much more difficult for a computer to decipher an arbitrary sentence, but in the next ten years this too will become possible.
(78) I was overly optimistic about how quickly we would be able to create software that would recognize the handwriting of a broad range of people. . . . It turned out that getting a computer to recognize handwriting is as difficult as getting one to recognize speech.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (80) 20140625k 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Examples of filters, spatial navigation and agents as new knowledge tools latent in information highway. (80) Youネl also be able to set up filters, which are really just standing queries. Filters will work around the clock, watching for new information that matches an interest of yours, filtering out everything else.
(81) Spatial navigation, which is already being used in some software products, will let you go where the information is by enabling you to interact with a visual model of a real or make-believe world.
(82) Spatial navigation can also be used for touring. If you want to see reproductions of the artwork in a museum or gallery, youネl be able to walk through a visual representation, navigating among the works much as if you were physically there.
(83) The last type of navigational aid, and in many ways the most useful of all, is an agent.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (80) 20140625l 2 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Account of virtual navigation through museum gallery reflects privileged, prior embodied experience; Bauerlein connects these features to tendency of dumbest generation to not look beyond its own self interests. (80)
(81) Spatial navigation, which is already being used in some software products, will let you go where the information is by enabling you to interact with a visual model of a real or make-believe world.
(82) Spatial navigation can also be used for touring. If you want to see reproductions of the artwork in a museum or gallery, youネl be able to walk through a visual representation, navigating among the works much as if you were physically there.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (84) 20140625m 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Agents as softer software; relate to Thrift on changes senses of position and juxtaposition. (84) Agents will know how to help you partly because the computer will remember your past activities. It will be able to find patterns of use that will help it work more effectively with you. . . . I call this softer software.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (84) 20140625n 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Desire for agent to take over human functions like managing project schedules, though current versions do not remember much or reason well, and may become too annoying. (84) The computer today is like a first day assistant. It needs explicit first-day instructions all the time.
(84-85) If an agent that could learn were available now, I would want it to take over certain functions for me. . . . If the built-in agent tries to be too smart and anticipates and confidently performs unrequested or undesired services, it will be annoying to users who are accustomed to having explicit control over their computers.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (85) 20140625o 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Social user interface provided by agents and softer software may be considered creepy attempts to humanize computer, but notes high degree of deference given to mechanical agents; relate Hayles on uncanny valley and Turkle on robotic moment. (85) An agent that takes on a personality provides a social user interface.
(85-86) Some people, hearing about software software and social interface, find the idea of a humanized computer creepy. . . . In programs such as Microsoft Bob, they have demonstrated that people will treat mechanical agents that have personalities with a surprising degree of deference. It has also been found that users reactions differed depending on whether the agentピ voice was female or male.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (86) 20140625p 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Types of navigation fairly clear, and predictions that while many emergent uses will be humorous and entertaining, others will be strictly practical and serious; does not predict much yet about emergence of side of highway opposite humans, Lanier siren servers. (86) We have a fairly clear idea of what sorts of navigation weネl have on the highway. Itピ less clear what weネl be navigating through, but we can make some good guesses. Many applications available on the highway will be purely for fun.
(87) Other applications will be strictly practical.
(87) Still other applications will be completely serious.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (89-90) 20140429 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Repeating competition that shaped PC industry creating software components of information highway, but emphasizing standards for interoperability of applications such as user profiles; contention between vendors and what network layer to utilize for such purposes. (89-90) The same sort of competition that took place within the PC industry during the 1980s is taking place now to create the software components that will constitute the information highway platform.
(90) To make it possible for applications to work together seamlessly, the platform will have to define a standard for user profiles so that information about user preferences can be passed from one application to another.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (91) 20140429a 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Investors must believe new revenues comparable to cable television are possible. (91) To finance the construction, investors will have to believe new services will generate almost as much revenue again as cable television does today.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (95) 20140429c 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Web browsing software available for most machines for free, and will likely be bundled in future operating systems; the book itself is bundled with a browser on CDROM. (95) The software to browse the Web is also available for all machines, generally for free. You can Web browse using the CD that comes with this book. In the future, operating systems will integrate Internet browsing.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (95) 20140429d 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Nod to TCP/IP and Web protocols actualizing predictions about interactive books and hyperlinks made by Ted Nelson, though current culture likely viewed as quaint by future users, noting lack of security and billing system. (95) The Internetピ unique position arises from a number of elements. The TCP/IP protocols that define the transport level support distributed computing and scale incredibly well. The protocols that define Web browsing are extremely simple and have allowed servers to handle immense amounts of traffic reasonably well. Many of the predictions about interactive books and hyperlinks made decades ago by pioneers like Ted
Nelson are coming true on the Web.
(96) The current Internet lacks security and needs a billing system. Much of the Internet culture will seem as quaint to future users of the information highway as stories of wagon trains and pioneers on the Oregon Trail do to us today.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (96) 20140429e 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Internet has always been magnet for hackers, which Gates defines negatively. (96) Because the Internet originated as a computer-science project rather than a communications utility, it has always been a magnet for
hackers programmers who turn their talents toward mischief or malice by breaking into the computer systems of others.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (97) 20140429f 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates fascinated by financial model allowing appearance of cheap access; pricing structure encourages use once connected since too complicated to track time and distance of individual use. (97) The financial model that allows the Internet to be so suspiciously cheap is actually one of its most interesting aspects.
(98) The foundation of the Internet consists of a bunch of these leased lines connected by switching systems that route data.
(99) This works because the costs are based on paying for capacity, and the pricing has simply followed. It would require a lot of technology and effort for the carriers to keep track of time and distance. Why should they bother if they can make a profit without having to? This pricing structure means that once a customer has an Internet connection there is no extra cost for extensive use, which encourages usage.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (99) 20140429g 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Technical challenge of handling real time content like audio and video. (99) One technical challenge still facing the Internet is how to handle real time content specifically audio (including voice) and video.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (100) 20140429h 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Despite much free and user-generated content, believes most attractive information will be produced with profit in mind; thus development siren servers not predicted. (100) Although a great deal of information, form NASA photos to bulletin board entries donated by users, will continue to be free, I believe the most attractive information, whether Hollywood movies or encyclopedic databases, will continue to be produced with profit in mind.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (101) 20140429i 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Microsoft promoting ISDN investment by phone companies as key to increasing bandwidth; try SCOT study of ISDN versus cable adoption for broadband services. (101) ISDN was invented more than a decade ago, but without PC application demand almost no one needed it. Itピ amazing that phone companies invested enormous sums in switches to handle ISDN with very little idea of how it would be used. . . . We are among companies working to convince phone companies all over the world to lower these charges in order to encourage PC owners to connect, using ISDN.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (104-105) 20140429j 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
ATM predicted to the communications protocol for routing packets. (104-105) This routing of packets will be accomplished through the use of a communications protocol known as asynchronous transfer mode, or ATM (not to be confused with automatic teller machine ). It will be one of the building blocks of the information highway.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (106) 20140429k 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Predicts security will thwart government surveillance, yet applications will be extremely easy to use; post-9/11 social and political impact has altered this apparently inevitable expansion of individual freedom. (106) Soon any child old enough to use a computer will be able to transmit encoded messages that no government on earth will find easy to decipher. This is one of the profound implications of the spread of fantastic computing power.
(107) Keep in mind that regardless of how complicated the system is technically, it will be extremely easy for you to use. Youネl just tell your information appliance what you want it to do and it will seem to happen effortlessly.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (108) 20140429l 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Acknowledgement of need for competent security and authenticity verification introduces lesson on private/public key encryption protocols; mailbox analogy recalls Turkle concern about government surveillance during McCarthy era. (108) The world will become quite reliant on this network, so it is important that security be handled competently. You can think of the information highway as a postal network where everyone has a mailbox that is impervious to tampering and has an unbreakable lock.
(109) Key encryption allows more than just privacy. It can also assure the authenticity of a document because a private key can be used to encode a message that only the public key can decode.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (113) 20140503 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Successful digital documents will offer new media specific features, redefining the term document itself as well as related terms like author, office, textbook. (113) The first digital documents to achieve widespread use will do so by offering new functionality rather than simply duplicating the older medium.
(113) The exciting aspect of digital documentation is the redefinition of the document itself.
(113) This will cause dramatic repercussions. We will have to rethink not only what is meant by the term document, but also by author, publisher, office, classroom, and textbook.
(114) Some documents are so superior in digital form that the paper version is rarely used.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (116) 20140503a 0 -12+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Linear ordering of paper documents with redundant references will remain for narrative fiction, counter to claims of electronic literature producers and their theorists like Hayles; artistic judgment that linearity intrinsic to storytelling. (116) For as long as weプe had paper documents or collection of documents, we have been ordering information linearly, with indexes, tables of contents, and cross references of various kinds to provide alternate means of navigation. . . . This redundancy was to make information easier to find.
(118) Among all the types of paper documents, narrative fiction is one of the few that will not benefit from electronic organization. . . . Likewise, weネl continue to watch most movies from start to finish. This isnフ a technological judgment it is an artistic one. Their linearity is intrinsic to the storytelling process.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (120) 20140503b 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Friction of production and distribution of paper documents reduces variety and leaves little profit for author; brief history of its reduction by development of printing press and Xerox copier tells texts and technology narrative. (120) This doesnフ mean that information will be free, but the cost of distributing it will be very small.
(120) By the time the consumer selects the book and the cash register rings, the profit for the author can be a pretty small piece of the pie compared to the money that goes to the physical aspect of delivering information on processed wood pulp. I like to call this the friction of distribution, because it holds back variety and dissipates money away from the author and to other people.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (120-121) 20140503c 0 -11+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Printing press taught us to read by positive feedback after generating an installed base of readers, making print a useful means of storing information; compare to development of computer use and programming. (120-121) The printing press created a mass medium because it offered low-friction duplication. . . . Until there was a real reason to create an installed base of literate people, the written word wasnフ really useful as a means for storing information. Books gave literacy critical mass, so you can almost say that the printing press taught us to read.
(121) The 914 copier, by making it possible to reproduce modest numbers of documents easily and inexpensively, set off an explosion in the kinds and amount of information distributed to small groups. . . . Most of these copies would never be made if the technology wasnフ so cheap and easy.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (122) 20140503d 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Distribution friction of broadcast television and movies even higher than print media; lower costs of cable distribution led to channel expansion, but self publishing risks lowered by xerography and cable television incomparable to variety of Internet bulletin boards. (122) Costs are much high in broadcast television or movies, so itピ tougher to try something risky.
(122) Cable television increased the number of programming choices, although it wasnフ started with that intention.
(123) The Internet is the greatest self-publishing vehicle ever. Its bulletin boards have demonstrated some of the changes that will occur when everyone has access to low-friction distribution and individuals can post messages, images, or software of their own creation.
(124) Mail or telephone communications are find for a one-on-one discussion, but they are also pretty expensive if you are trying to communicate with a group.
(125) Almost any topic you can name has a group communicating about it on the network.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (125) 20140503e 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Deploys same argument against software piracy for evolving great online content, calling for mechanisms for paying authors and publisher through advertisers and other new options, but per Lanier we got siren servers instead: a missed objective like Kemeny feared would happen with bungled programming instruction. (125) Significant investments will be required to develop great on-line content that will delight and excite PC users and raise the number on-line from 10 percent up to 50 percent, or even the 90 percent I believe it will become. Part of the reason this sort of investment isnフ happening today is that simple mechanisms for authors and publishers to charge their users or to be paid by advertisers are just being developed.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (125-126) 20140503f 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Revenue flow to information providers will birth a new mass medium; most critics see this as opportunity for everyone, success for very few. (125-126) Over the next several years the evolution of on-line services will solve these problems and create an incentive for suppliers to furnish great material. There will be new billing options monthly subscriptions, hourly rates, charges per item accessed, and advertising payments so that more revenue flows to the information providers. Once that happens a successful new mass medium will come into existence. This might take several years and a new generation of network technology, such as ISDN and cable modems, but one way or another it will happen. When it does, it will open tremendous opportunities for authors, editors, directors every creator of intellectual property.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (126) 20140503g 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Per McLuhan and Hayles, new medium will initially contain old media, as lessons from study of CDROM development recalls for application to online content: offering interactivity is new feature TV lacks being leveraged in games, though suspension of disbelief is fragile, as Ryan discusses with more nuance. (126) Whenever a new medium is created, the first content offered is brought over from other media.
(126) The development of CD-ROMs multimedia versions of audio compact discs provides some lessons that can be applied to the creation of on-line content.
(127) Multimedia CD-ROMs are popular today because they offer users interactivity rather than because they have imitated TV.
(127) The success of these games has encouraged authors to begin to create interactive novels and movies in which they introduce the characters and the general outline of the plot, then the reader/player makes decisions that change the outcome of the story. . . . The suspension of disbelief essential to the enjoyment of great fiction is fragile and may not hold up under the heavy-handed use of interactivity.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (128) 20140503h 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Too much effort still required for users to create multimedia content; predicts future PC developments will give amateurs same tools as professionals. (128) The technologies underlying the CD-ROM and on-line services have improved dramatically, but very few computer users are creating multimedia documents yet. Too much effort is still required. . . . PC software for editing film and creating special effects will become as commonplace as desktop-publishing software. Then the difference between professionals and amateurs will be one of talent rather than access to tools.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (129) 20140503i 0 -16+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Predicts simulation will overtake recording reality, pointing to virtual reality destinies fooling the senses, beginning with hearing and vision. (129) It will be possible for a software program to fabricate scenes that will look as real as anything created with a camera. . . . And as synthesis gets cheaper it will be used more and more: if we can bring Tyrannosaurus rex back to life, can Elvis be far behind?
(130) As the fidelity of visual and audio elements improves, reality in all its aspects will be more closely simulated. This virtual reality, or VR, will allow us to go places and do things we never would be able to otherwise.
(131) The software will have to figure out how to describe the look, sound, and feel of the artificial world down to the smallest detail. That might sound overwhelmingly difficult, but actually itピ the easy part. . . . The really hard part about VR is getting the information to convince the userピ senses.
(131) Hearing is the easiest sense to fool; all you have to do is wear headphones.
(131) Your eyes are harder to fool than your ears, but vision is still pretty straightforward to simulate.
(132-133) The total amount of information a computer would have to calculate to pipe senses into the tactel suit is somewhere between one and ten times the amount required for the video display on a current PC.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (133) 20140503j 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Best descriptions of VR come from cyberpunk science fiction of Gibson, and history suggests big early market will be virtual sex, for which video porn has already proven the rule. (133) The best descriptions of VR actually come from so-called cyberpunk science fiction like that written by William Gibson.
(133) If historical patterns are a guide, a big early market for advanced virtual-reality documents will be virtual sex.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (133-134) 20140627a 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Hopes for multimedia avant garde seem foiled by advance of mundane content and game realism; following Sterne, have online viewing adopted such lowered expectations? (133-134) Will the next decade bring us the [D. W.] Griffiths and [Sergei] Eisensteins of multimedia? There is every reason to think they are already tinkering with the existing technology to see what it can do and what they can do with it.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (135-136) 20140512 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Obvious that software and networks will be nervous system of organizations and encourage decentralization, whereas impact on artistic output less clear; compare to Castells and Manovich. (135-136) Software will become friendlier, and companies will base the nervous systems of their organizations on networks that reach every employee and beyond, into the world of suppliers, consultants, and customers. The result will be companies that are more effective and, often, smaller. In the longer run, as the information highway makes physical proximity to urban services less important, many businesses will decentralize and disperse their activities, and cities, like companies, may be downsized.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (137) 20140512a 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Personal computers allow small businesses to operate like larger ones. (137) We can only speculate on how an artistピ output might be helped, but it is quite clear that personal computers improve business processes, efficiency, and accuracy.
(138) Itピ kind of amazing how many different tasks a small-business owner has to master. Someone runnign a small business can buy one PC and a few software packages, and she will have electronic support for all the different functions she is performning.
(138) PCs do away with the huge overhead large businesses incur staying coordinated through meetings, policies, and internal processes. Electronic mail has done more for big companies than for small companies.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (139) 20140512b 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Examples of spreadsheets, and predictions of high quality graphics three-dimensional graphics, speech recognition, and networking present benefits of PCs and the information highway reminiscent of Theuth of Phaedrus since Gates is planning to implement his visions. (139) When the first electronic spreadsheets appeared in 1978, they were a vast improvement over paper and pencil. What they made possible was putting formulas behind each element in a table of data. These formulas could refer to other elements of the table. Any change in one value would immediately affect the other cells.
(139) Increases in computer speed will soon allow PCs to display very high quality three-dimensional graphics. These will permit us to show data in a more effective way than todayピ two-dimensional presentations. Other advances will make it easy to explore databases by posing questions orally.
(141) Over the next few years, as speech recognition, social interfaces, and connections to the information highway are incorporated into core applications, I think individuals and companies will find the productivity enhancements these improved applications will bring extremely attractive.

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Email in use internally at Microsoft since early 1980s, but there are concerns of security and privacy over external networks. (142) At Microsoft, because weビe in the technology business, we began using electronic communication early. We installed our first e-mail system in the early 1980s.
(145) You can get a message to almost anyone who has a PC and a modem, although for certain communications privacy is a problem because transmissions across the Internet are not very secure.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (145) 20140512d 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Appeals to unforeseen uses of electronic mail like paying bills, scheduling meetings, and exchanging documents, although still difficult to ask questions and dispute charges asynchronously. (145) Future advances in electronic mail will streamline lots of activities we may not even realize are inefficient. For example, think about how you pay bills.
(145) When a bill comes in, the device will show your payment history. If you want to inquire about the bill, youネl do it asynchronously at your convenience by sending e-mail: Hey how come this charge is so high?
(148) It will also be easier to schedule meetings because software wil handle it.
(148) Clients will expect their lawyers, dentists, accountants, and other professionals to be able to schedule appointments and exchange documents electronically.

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Videoconferencing and synchronous sharing have not matured as quickly as predicted, although we are accustomed to watching video meetings; assumes people more attentive if they know they are on camera, side communications will be easier, and unwritten rules will be forced to be made more explicit with network mediation. (149) The meetings they schedule will more and more often be conducted electronically, using shared-screen videoconferencing. . . . Geographically distant collaborators will be able to work together in rich ways. This is synchronous or real-time sharing, which means that the computer screens will keep up with the people using them.
(149) Weビe already accustomed to watching video meetings.
(149-150) Such meetings will become very popular because they save time and money and are often more productive than audio-only phone conferences or even fact-to-face meetings, because people seem to be more attentive if they know they are on-camera.
(150-151) How will people whisper, roll their eyes at a tedious speaker, or pass notes? Actually, clandestine communication will be simpler at a video meeting because the network will facilitate individual communications on the side. Meetings have always had unwritten rules, but when the network is mediating videoconferences, some rules will have to become explicit.

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Realistic synthetic images. (151) As computers become more powerful, it will be possible for a standard PC to fabricate realistic synthetic images.

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Future jobs will specify in office and out of office hours, and use of part time labor by customer service organizations will expand; cell phone and Internet use at work loosens boundaries inside the office. (152) A decade form now, advertisements for many jobs will list how many hours a week of work are expected and how many of those hours, if any, are inside hours at a designated location such as an office. Some jobs will require that the employee already have a PC so he can work at home. Customer-service organizations will be able to use part-time labor very easily.
(152) An employee in an office is assumed to be working the whole time, but the same employee working at home might be credited (perhaps at a different rate) only for the time he or she is actually performing work.

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Reengineering boundaries inside workplace, next between suppliers and customers, as Castells, Spinuzzi, Boltanski and Chiapello studied. (153) A single office or cubicle could serve several people whose inside hours were staggered or irregular. . . . Wherever a worker logged on, his or her familiar office surroundings could follow, courtesy of digital white boards and the information highway.
(153) To date, most reengineering has focused on moving information inside the company in new ways. The next movement will be to redefine the boundary between the company and its customers and suppliers.
(153) E-mail is a powerful force for flattening the hierarchies common to large companies. If communications systems are good enough, companies donフ need as many levels of management.
(154) As technology makes it easier for a business to find and collaborate with outside expertise, a huge and competitive market for consultants will arise.
(154) Lots of companies will eventually be far smaller because using the information highway will make it easy to find and work with outside resources.

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Allow escape for the privileged from social problems of crowded urban areas; despite predicted savings, positive feedback cycle encouraging rural living may not scale, and would affect urban tax base, aggravating woes. (155) Geographic dispersion will affect much more than corporate structure. Many of todayピ major social problems have arisen because the population has been crowded into urban areas.
(155) For those who have a connection ot it, the highway will substantially reduce the drawbacks of living outside a big city.
(155) This could set off a positive-feedback cycle, encouraging rural living.
(156) If the average office worker in any major city stayed home one or two days a week, the decreases in gasoline consumption, air pollution, and traffic congestion would be significant. The net effect, however, is hard to foresee. If those who moved out of cities were mostly the affluent knowledge workers, the urban tax base would be reduced. This would aggravate the inner cityピ woes and encourage other affluent people to leave. But at the same time, the urban infrastructure might be less heavily loaded. Rents would fall, creating opportunities for a better standard of living for some of those remaining in the cities.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (157-158) 20140514 0 -11+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Ideal markets realized by electronic information exchange, expected that the network will function as impartial middleman creating a heaven for shoppers; contrast to Lanier assessment that the systems have been designed to advantage siren servers. (157-158) A few markets are already working fairly close to Smithピ ideal. Investors buying and selling currency and certain other commodities participate in efficient electronic markets that provide nearly complete instantaneous information about worldwide supply, demand, and prices. Everyone gets pretty much the same deal because news about all offers, bids, and transactions speeds across wires to trading desks everywhere.
(158) The information highway will extend the electronic marketplace and make it the ultimate go-between, the universal middleman. . . . This will carry us into a new world of low-friction, low-overhead capitalism, in which market information will be plentiful and transaction costs low. It will be a shopperピ heaven.
(160) Youネl be able to examine product reviews in search of less biased information.
(160) If youビe thinking of doing business with a company or buying a product, youネl be able to check what others say about it.

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Alludes to cultural segmentation and standardization through evolving netiquette, though still frontier mentality in 1995; need more sophisticated regulation mechanisms. (161) Already, a network etiquette, or netiquette, is evolving. As the information highway becomes societyピ town square, we will come to expect it to conform to our cultureピ mores. There are vast cultural differences around the world, so the highway will be divided into different parts, some dedicated to various cultures, and some specified for global usage. So far, a frontier mentality has prevailed, and participants in electronic forums have been known to lapse into behavior that is antisocial and even illegal.
(162) We need a more sophisticated process to gather consensus opinions without depending on the Attorney Generalピ Consumer Complaints Division to act as a filter. We will have to find some way to force people to turn their volume down so the highway doesnフ become an amplifier for libel or slander or an outlet for venting irritation.
(162) Politicians are already wrestling with the question of when an on-line service should be treated as a common carrier and when it should be treated as a publisher.

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Predicts need for sales consultants as binding between advice and sales diminishes. (164) If you canフ find exactly the advice you need on the highway, you will be able to hire a knowledgeable sales consultant, for five minutes or an afternoon, via videoconference. She will help you choose products, which your computer will then buy for you from the cheapest reliable source.
(164) I expect the traditional binding together of advice and sales to be much less prevalent, because although the advice appears free to the customer, it is paid for by the stores and services that offer it. This cost then gets added on to the price of the goods. Stores that are charging more because they offer advice will have increasing difficulty competing with the discounters who will operate on the information highway.

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Product placement and unobtrusively buying opportunities; compare to recently announced Amazon phone. (165) In the future, companies may pay not only to have their products on-screen, but also to make them available for you to buy. You will have the option of inquiring about any image you see. This will be another choice the highway will make available unobtrusively.

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Manufacturing will embrace just in time customization and delivery will be big business. (166) Customization will become an important way for a manufacturer to add value.
(167) Delivering goods ordered over the highway will become a big business. There will be amazing competition, and as volume becomes enormous, delivery will get very inexpensive and fast.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (167) 20140514f 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Newsletter style customized information before the blogging craze. (167) Customized information is a natural extension of the tailored consultation capabilities of the highway.

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Crucial that individuals have access to their profile information, and access by third parties are regulated: exactly what we do not have under siren server oligopolies. (169) Needless to say, there will be lots of controversy and negotiation about who can get access to your profile information.

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Overly optimistic about email filtering; incentives to look at advertising as response to automated message filtering. (173) You wonフ be drowned by the deluge of unimportant information because youネl use software to filter incoming advertising and other extraneous messages and spend your valuable time looking at those messages that interest you. Most people will block e-mail ads except for those about product areas of particular concern. One way for the advertiser to capture your attention will be to offer a small amount of money a nickel or a dollar, perhaps if you will look at an ad.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (175) 20140514i 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Innovations in licensing intellectual property and releasing content. (175) The information highway will enable innovations in the way that intellectual property, such as music and software, is licensed.
(175) This personal, lifetime buyout of rights is similar to what we do today when we buy a music disc or tape, or book, except that there is no physical medium involved.
(177) On the information highway various release windows for content will almost certainly be tried.
(177-178) The transferability of information will be another big pricing issue. . . . If the average buyer lent his or her albums and books frequently, fewer would be sold and prices would be higher.

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Roles of middlemen and physical travel for meetings will erode. (178) Efficient electronic markets area going to change a lot more than just the ratio of renting to buying for entertainment. Almost any person or business that serves as a middleman will feel the heat of electronic competition.
(179) Videoconferences of all sorts will increasingly become alternatives to having to drive or fly to a meeting.

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Direct consumer access to financial markets will increase volume of transactions; asserts Microsoft will not become a bank or store. (181) Financial services companies will still thrive. The basic economics of the industry will change, but the volume of transactions will skyrocket as the information highway gives the average consumer direct access to financial markets.
(182) When I prognosticate about the future changes in an industry, people often wonder if Microsoft plans to go into that field. Microsoftピ competence is in building great software products and the information services that go with them. We will not become a bank or a store.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (182-183) 20140514l 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Optimistic employment outlook based on tasks undone and new tasks engendered by the information highway, but not considering transformation and effects of the spirit of capitalism. (182-183) There is a nearly infinite number of tasks left undone in services, education, and urban affairs, to say nothing of the workforce the highway itself will require. So this new efficiency will create all softs of exciting employment opportunities.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (183) 20140514m 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Victorious capitalism is the best constructed economic system, and the information highway will magnify its advantages: Adam Smith would be pleased, and consumers will enjoy the benefits. (183) Capitalism, demonstrably the greatest of the constructed economic systems, has in the past decade clearly proved its advantages over the alternative systems. The information highway will magnify those advantages. It will allow those who produce goods to see, a lot more efficiently than ever before, what buyers want, and will allow potential consumers to buy those goods more efficiently. Adam Smith would be pleased. More important, consumers everywhere will enjoy the benefits.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (184) 20140515 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Privileged experience offers examples of education humanizing education. (184) Some fear that technology will dehumanize formal education. But anyone who has seen kids working together around a computer, the way my friends and I first did in 1968, or watched exchanges between students in classrooms separated by oceans, knows that technology can humanize the educational environment.

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Gardner argues for multiple methods to accommodate every kind of learner: contrast to Bauerlein assessment of failure of technologically enhanced classrooms to yield improvements. (185) [Howard] Gardner recommends that schools be filled with apprenticeships, projects, and technologies so that every kind of learner can be accommodated. We will discover all sorts of different approaches to teaching because the highwayピ tools will make it easy to try various methods and to measure their effectiveness.

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Mass customized curriculum, or new models of technology assisted standardized curriculum? (185) Multimedia documents and easy-to-use authoring tools will enable teachers to mass-customize a curriculum.

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Emphatic that technology will not replace roles of teachers, administrators, parents, or students; contrast to arguments about effects of new spirit of capitalism and formation of projective city. (185) There is an often-expressed fear that technology will replace teachers. I can say emphatically and unequivocally, IT WONサ. The information highway wonフ replace or devalue any of the human educational talent needed for the challenges ahead: committed teachers, creative administrators, involved parents, and, of course, diligent students.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (185-186) 20140515e 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Assumed procedural enthymeme that using the Internet will encourage children to discover and exploit their native talents regardless of social and familial environment. (185-186) In time, this access will help spread educational and personal opportunities even to students who arenフ fortunate enough to enjoy the best schools or the greatest family support. It will encourage a child to make the most of his or her native talents.
(187) Classroom learning will include multimedia presentations, and homework will involve exploring electronic documents as much as textbooks, perhaps even more. Students will be encouraged to pursue areas of particular interest, and it will be easy for them to do so. Each pupil will be able to have his own question answered simultaneously with the other students queries. A class will spend part of a day at a personal computer exploring information individually or in groups.

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Positive feedback effect on education by increasing education workforce, sharing materials, and rewarding best practices. (187) As innovation has improved the standard of living, there has always been an increase in the portion of the workforce dedicated to education.
(188) The network will enable teachers to share lessons and materials, so that the best educational practices can spread.
(189) Corporations wanting to help with education could provide recognition and cash awards to teachers whose materials are making a difference.

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Educational software systems will keep better records to reveal individual needs, and teachers will have more time and energy to meet those needs once relieved of tedious paperwork. (190) Teachers will be able to keep a cumulative record of a studentピ work, which can be reviewed at any time or shared with other instructors.
(190) Special software programs will help summarize information on the skills, progress, interests, and expectations of students. Once teachers have enough information on a student and are relieved of a lot of tedious paperwork, they will have more energy and time to meet the revealed individual needs of that student.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (191) 20140515h 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Parents can help kids by teaching them the software they use at work, a great marketing strategy for Microsoft. (191) Parents may also help their children at school by teaching them to use the software they use in their work.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (195) 20140515i 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Despite prior emphatic denial, social interfaces will become substitutes for search, dialogue, and coaching; compare to primers in Stephenson Diamond Age. (195) Computers with social interfaces will figure out how to present information so that it is customized for the particular user. Many educational software programs will have distinct personalities, and the student and the computer will get to know each other. . . . The machine, like a good human teacher, wonフ give in to a child who has lopsided interests. Instead it will use the childピ predilections to teach a broader curriculum.
(195) Children with learning disabilities will be particularly well served.

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Believes attitude toward tests will change through self-quizzing, for those students who care to do so. (195) Another benefit of computer aided learning will be the way many students come to view tests.
(196) The interactive network will allow students to quiz themselves anytime, in a risk-free environment. . . . There should be less apprehension about formal tests and fewer surprises, because ongoing self-quizzing will give each student a better sense of where he or she stands.

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Prelude to gamefication. (197) Itピ easier to create an addictive game than it is to expose a child to a world of information in an appealing way.
(197) However, as textbook budgets and parental spending shift to interactive material, there will be thousands of new software companies working with teachers to create entertainment-quality interactive learning materials.

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Choice among materials and types of schooling. (198) The highway will allow new methods of teaching and much more choice. Quality curriculums can be created with government funding and made available for free. Private vendors will compete to enhance the free material. The new vendors might be other public schools; public-school teachers or retired teachers going into business for themselves; or some privately run, highway-based school service programing wanting to prove its capabilities.
(198) The highway will also make home schooling easier.

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Learning with computer springboard for learning away from computer promotes role of teacher as coach. (198) Learning with a computer will be a springboard for learning away from the computer.
(198) Successful teachers will act as coaches, partners, creative outlets, and communications bridges to the world.

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Use of simulations and models combines gamefication with education particularly well with science topics; eventually VR rooms. (199) The teaching of science lends itself particularly well to using models. . . .
SimLife, a popular software program, simulates evolution, so kids get to experience the process instead of just getting facts about it. . . . Maxis Software, the publisher of SimLife, also produces another program, SimCity, which lets you design a city with all of its interrelated systems, such as roads and public transportation.
(199) When science is made more interesting in these ways, it should appeal to a broader set of students.
(200) Iノ sure that at some point schools will have virtual-reality equipment or maybe even VR rooms, the way some now have music rooms and theaters to allow students to explore a place, an object, or a subject in this engrossing, interactive way.

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Asserts technology will not isolate students by giving examples of successes in collaborative learning, email, learning circles, ignoring majority experience that Bauerlein and Turkle highlight of forms of collaboration that are at best being alone together; he makes the assumption that what happens in most creative classrooms using technology foreshadows eventual norms. (200) Technology will not, however, isolate students. One of the most important education experiences is collaboration. In some of the worldピ most creative classrooms, computers and communications networks are already beginning to change the conventional relationships among students themselves, and between students and teachers, by facilitating collaborative learning.
(201) College students everywhere already understand the joys of e-mail, both for educational purposes and to keep in touch inexpensively with family and friends, including high school friends who have gone to other universities.
(202) Many classrooms, in different states and countries, are already linking up in what are sometimes called learning circles.

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Opportunities for unofficial students to seek lifelong learning, altering focus of education from institution to individual, as described by Boltanski and Chiapello of the projective city. (203) The highwayピ educational possibilities will also be open to the worldピ unofficial students. People anywhere will be able to take the best courses taught by great teachers. The highway will make adult education, including job training and career-enhancement courses, more readily available.
(204) Whatever problems direct access to unlimited information may cause, the benefits it will bring will more than compensate. I enjoyed school but I pursued by strongest interests outside the classroom. I can only imagine how access to this much information would have changed my own school experience. The highway will alter the focus of education from the institution to the individual. The ultimate goal will be changed from getting a diploma to enjoying lifelong learning.

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True the geographically distant people can communicate with more ease, for example virtual dating practiced by Gates and online games; does not consider lowered expectations when in person that Turkle and Rushkoff call being alone together. (206) The new communications capabilities will make it far easier than it is today to stay in touch with friends and relatives who are geographically distant. . . . In the future this sort of virtual dating will be better because the movie watching could be combined with a videoconference.
(207) Friendships formed across the network will lead naturally to getting together in person.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (207-208) 20140519b 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Example of Warren Buffet warming to the highway to play bridge is definitely an outlier. (207-208) He [Buffet] wasnフ interested until he found out he could play bridge with friends all over the country through an on-line service. . . . Despite the fact that he had studiously stayed away from technoogy and technology investing, once he tried the computer, he was hooked.

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Predictions about explosion in online gaming, interactive television game shows, gambling, interest communities no matter how specific. (208) I think on-line computer-game playing will catch on in a big way.
(208) TV game shows will evolve to a new level when viewer feedback is added.
(208) Gambling is going to be another way to play on the highway.
(210) On the information highway there will be applications to help you find people and information that intersect with your interests, no matter how specific.

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Online communities. (211) You wonフ be overwhelmed by the number of choices of communities any more than you are now by the telephone system. Youネl look for a group that interests you in general, and then youネl search through it for the small segment you want to join. I can imagine the administration of every municipality, for example, becoming the focus of an electronic community.
(211) As on-line communities grow in importance, they will increasingly be where people will turn to find out what the public is really thinking.

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Concerns about access to more information than overseers desire. (212) Itピ not just medical researchers who will be affected by so much access to information. One of the biggest concerns is parents having to contend with children who can find out about almost anything they want to, right from a home information appliance.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (212-213) 20140519f 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Belief that more choices come with more information, and less face-to-face visits do not isolate us; believes we will have better control over access to our attention by others by explicitly indicating allowable interruptions. (212-213) On balance, the advantages will greatly outweigh the problems. The more information there is available, the more choices we will have. . . . We may visit face-to-face less often than we did a century ago because we can pick up the telephone, but this doesnフ mean we have become isolated.
(213) In the future, when you will be able to work anywhere, reach anyone from anywhere, and be reached anywhere, you will be able to determine easily who and what can intrude. By explicitly indicating allowable interruptions, you will be able to reestablish your home or anywhere you choose as your sanctuary.

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Lots of overhead implicit in regulating interruptions that have not come to fruition yet, habituating us to being always on instead, per Rushkoff. (213) Incoming communications will be tagged by source and type for instance, ads, greetings, inquiries, publications, work-related documents, or bills. Youネl set explicit delivery policies. Youネl decide who can make your phone ring during dinner, who can reach you in your car, or when youビe on vacation, and which kinds of calls or messages are worth waking you for in the middle of the night.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (217) 20140519i 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Electronic pin will allow house computers to track movement of occupants; array of monitors foreshadows Manovich big data displays. (217) First thing, as you come in, youネl be presented with an electronic pin to clip to your clothes. This pin will connect you to the electronic services of the house.
(218) Recessed into the east wall will be twenty-four video monitors, each with a 40-inch picture tube, stacked four high and six across. These monitors will work cooperatively to display large images for artistic, entertainment, or business purposes.
(218) The electronic pin you wear will tell the house who and where you are, and the house will use this information to try to meet and even anticipate your needs all as unobtrusively as possible. Someday, instead of needing the pin, it might be possible to have a camera system with visual recognition capabilities, but thatピ beyond current technology.

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Combining traditions of unobtrusive service and treatment based on possession of symbolic objects. (221) A house that tracks its occupants in order to meet their particular needs combines two traditions. The first is the tradition of unobtrusive service, and the other is that an object we carry entitles us to be treated in a certain way.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (221-222) 20140519k 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates does not expect robots in widespread consumer use beyond intelligent toys; evident that his philosophy of robotics assumes computationally intensive representational processing, contra later Clark and Chalmers. (221-222) I am certainly not preparing for that, because I think it will be many decades before robots are practical. The only ones I expect to see in widespread use soon are intelligent toys. . . . The reason I doubt intelligent robots will provide much help in actual housework in the foreseeable future is that it takes a great deal of visual intelligence and dexterity to prepare food or change diapers.

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Instrumentation in Gates house that tracks and remembers user preferences, and tallies all sorts of things, will become substrate of information highway. (222) This sort of instrumentation can provide significant energy savings. . . . Energy-demand management can save a lot of money and help the environment by reducing peak loads.
(223) A house that tries to guess what you want has to be right often enough that you donフ get annoyed by miscalculations.
(223) In fact, the house will remember everything it learns about your preferences.
(223) When we are all on the information highway, the same sort of instrumentation will be used to count and keep track of all sorts of things, and the tallies will be published for anyone who cares to pay attention.
(224) Counts of crime reports, campaign contributions by area, and almost any other kind of public or potentially public information will be ours for the asking.

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Gates company Corbis building archive of digital images; believes easy access to reproductions will not reduce interest in experiencing real works, but misses convergence of interest on mundane images popular on social media networks that Bauerlein decries. (224) A few years ago I started a small company, now called Corbis, in order to build a unique and comprehensive digital archive of images of all types.
(225) I believe quality images will be in great demand on the highway.
(225) Although some of the images will be of artworks, that doesnフ mean I believe that reproductions are as good as the originals. Thereピ nothing like seeing the real work. I believe that easy-to-browse image databases will get more people interested in both graphic and photographic art.
(226) Exposure to the reproductions is likely to increase rather than diminish reverence for real art and encourage more people to get out to museums and galleries.

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Need widespread broadband access to create large market that drives investments. (228) The investments will be driven by faith that the market will be large. Neither the full highway nor the market will exist until a broadband network has been brought to most homes and businesses.
(228) The public itself canフ know, because it hasnフ had experience with video-capable interactive networks and applications. . . . My view is that the highway wonフ be a sudden, revolutionary creation but that the Internet, along with evolution in the PC and PC software, will guide us step by step to the full system.

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Trials will determine what applications will appeal to the public and become killer apps of the Internet; does not mention porn. (230) These forthcoming trials will give companies the opportunity to look for the equivalents of the spreadsheet unexpected killer applications and services that will capture the imagination of consumers and build a financial case for rolling out the highway. Itピ almost impossible to guess what applications will or wonフ appeal to the public. Customers needs and desires are so personal. . . . For instance, I hope to be able to use the highway to stay up-to-date on medical advances.

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Entrepreneurship and market-driven decisions will shape development of information highway as it did the personal computer industry. (231) Entrepreneurship will play a major role in shaping the development of the information highway, the same way it shaped the personal-computer business. Only a handful of companies that made mainframe software managed the transition to personal computers. Most successes came from little start-ups, run by people who were open to new possibilities.
(231) The good news is that people learn from both the successes and the failures, and the net result is rapid progress.
(231) By letting the marketplace decide which companies and approaches win and which lose, many paths are explored simultaneously.

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Deregulations of communications needed; look at successes and failures of PTT monopolies in other countries, as Abbate does. (232) Federal regulations currently prevent cable and phone companies from offering a general-purpose network that would put them in competition with each other. The first thing most governments have to do to help the highway start is to deregulate communications.
(233) Outside the United States, matters are complicated by the fact that in many countries the regulated monopolies have been agencies owned by the government itself.

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Philosophical position do not legislate compatibility for computing technology because it is so dynamic. (234) One area itピ clear government should stay out of is compatibility. Some have suggested that governments set standards for networks, to guarantee that they interoperate.
(234) In the world of computing, technology is so dynamic that any company should be able to come out with whatever new product it wants and let the market decide if it has made the right set of trade-offs.

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Advantage of Singapore population density and focus on infrastructure, with admission that cultural maintenance requires mechanisms besides censorship. (235-236) In Singapore, the population density and political focus on infrastructure makes it certain that this nation will be a leader. . . . He [Lee Kuan Yew] said Singapore recognizes that in the future it will have to rely on methods other than censorship to maintain a culture that sacrifices some Western-style freedom in exchange for a strong sense of community.

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China wishes to enter information highway while maintaining control, foreshadowing mass data collection and surveillance practices. (236) In China, however, the government seems to believe it can have it both ways. . . . Wu said Beijing will adopt unspecified management measures to control inflows of data on all telecommunications services as they evolve in China. . . . He may not understand that to implement full Internet access and maintain censorship, you would almost have to have someone looking over the shoulder of every user.

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France Minitel has already stimulated interest with online systems, Germany lowered ISDN prices, and PC penetration higher in Nordic countries than in the US, whereas Japanese adoption hindered by character set and entrenched word processing machine business. (236) In France, the pioneering on-line service, Minitel, has fostered a community of information publishers and stimulated broad familiarity with on-line systems in general.
(236) In Germany, Deutsche Telekom lowered the price of ISDN service dramatically in 1995. This has led to a significant increase in the number of users connecting personal computers.
(236) The level of PC penetration in business is even higher in the Nordic countries than in the United States.
(236-237) The use of personal computers in businesses, schools, and homes is significantly less widespread in Japan than in other developed countries. This is partly because of the difficulty of entering kanjii characters on a keyboard, but also because of Japanピ large and entrenched market for dedicated word-processing machines.

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South Korea has large percentage of PCs going into homes, where Gates sees a lucrative market. (237) In South Korea, although significantly fewer PCs per capita are being sold than in the United States, more than 25 percent of the machines are going into homes. This statistic demonstrates how countries with a strong family structure that put great emphasis on getting ahead by educating children will be fertile ground for products that provide educational advantages.

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New Zealand success with privatized phone company shows value of open telecommunications market; praise for procompetition regulations and concern about government sponsored boondoggles like Japanese Hi-Vision TV project, but no credit to government sponsorship of Arpanet and TCP/IP. (237) New Zealand has the most open telecommunications market in the world, and its newly privatized phoen company has set an example of how effective privatization can be.
(238) No taxpayer money will be needed to build the highway in industrialized countries with pro-competition regulations.
(238) A government bootstrap could, in principle, cause an information highway to be built sooner than might happen otherwise, but the very real possibility of an unattractive outcome has to be considered carefully. Such a country might end up with a boondoggle, white-elephant information highway built by engineers out of touch with the rapid pace of technological development.
(238) Something like this happened in Japan with the Hi-Vision high-definition television project.

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Expects ISDN adoption to outpace broadband cable solutions; ambitions of both go beyond providing access. (241) The opportunity to provide ISDN to PC users will provide new revenues to phone companies that want to bring the price levels down to establish a mass market. I expect ISDN adoption to get off to a faster start than PC cable modes.
(241) The ambitions of cable and phone companies go well beyond simply providing a pipe for bits.

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Other providers include railroad companies, satellites, and ground-based wireless. (243) Cable and phone industries will be the primary, but not the only, competitors to provide the network. Railroad companies in Japan, for example, recognize that the rights-of-way they have for their tracks would be ideal for long fiber-optic cable runs.
(244) Teledisc, a company that my friend, cellular telephone pioneer Craig McCaw, and I have invested in, is working on overcoming the limits of satellite technology by using a large number of low-orbit satellites.
(244) Another rapidly advancing technology is ground-based wireless communication.

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Use generic PCs to do the work coordinating network services and spawn new devices like set-top boxes; did not foresee floss as viable software solution. (245) Software companies naturally see their product as the answer. Software is so inexpensive to duplicate that substituting it for costly hardware reduces system costs. Another competition is shaping up to supply the software platforms that will run tehse servers.
(245-246) At Microsoft, our only hammer is software. We expect that the highwayピ intelligence will be evenly divided between servers and information appliances. . . . Our approach is to make the coordination of the highway a software problem and then use the highest-volume (and therefore cheapest) computers to do the work the same ones used in the PC industry.
(246) We believe tools and applications available on the PC today can be used to build new applications. For instance, we think set-top boxes should be able to run most of the CD-ROM titles for PCs that will appear over the next decade.

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Market will influence user interface, funding mechanisms, and technical aspects of network design. (247) The are open questions such as to what extent these platforms will share a personality or user interface.
(247) There are other, similar decisions awaiting judgment of the marketplace. For instance, will advertising play a large role in underwriting information and entertainment, or will customers pay directly for most services?
(247) The market will also influence technical aspects of network design. Most experts believe that the interactive network will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), but today ATM costs too much to use.

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Skeptical of corporate mergers because most businesses have a core competency; alliances preferred. (248) I have always believed businesses that concentrate on a very few core competencies will do the best.
(248) Beware! Mergers that are attempts to bring all aspects of highway expertise into one organization should be viewed skeptically.
(249) We believe in alliances and are eager to participate in them. Our core mission, however, is to build a number of software components for the information highway.

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Requirement of mostly free computing has led to siren server oligopolies according to Lanier; Gates points to shift from other traditional sources of information and entertainment. (256) However, personal computer are still too expensive for most people. Before the information highway can become fully integrated into society, it must be available to virtually every citizen, not just the elite, but this does not mean that every citizen has to have an information appliance in his home.
(256) Eventually the costs of computing and communications will be so low, and the competitive environment so open, that much of the entertainment and information offered on the highway will cost very little. Advertising income will allow a lot of content to be free. However, most service providers, whether they are rock bands or consulting engineers or book publishers, will still ask that users make a payment.
(256-257) A large portion of the money you will spend on highway services you spend today for the same services in other forms. . . . Most of the money that now goes to local telephone service, long-distance service, and cable television will be available to spend on the highway.

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Example of unfair tax burden on the wealthy for using public services applied to universal service doctrine for media access in rural areas. (260) Through the income tax and other taxes, people with high incomes pay more for roads, schools, the army, and every other government facility than the average person does. It cost me more than $100 million last year to get those services because I paid a significant capital gains tax after selling some Microsoft shares.
(260) We should expect heated debate about whether the government should subsidize connections to rural areas, or impose regulations that cause urban users to subsidize rural ones. The precedent for this is a doctrine known as universal service, which was created to subsidize rural mail, phone, and electrical services in the United States. It dictates a single price for the delivery of a letter, a phone call, or electrical power regardless of where you live.
(260) There was no equivalent policy for the delivery of newspapers or radio or television reception.
(261) Because many people will find the combination of rural lifestyle and urban information attractive, network companies will have an incentive to run fiber-optic lines to high-income remote areas.

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Another convergence reducing importance of national boundaries. (262) The presence of advanced communications systems promises to make nations more alike and reduce the importance of national boundaries.

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Gates proposes speed bumps as voluntary resistance to VR addiction for those becoming Weizenbaum computer bums or robotic moment. (264) If you were to find yourself escaping into these attractive worlds too often, or for too long, and began to be worried about it, you could try to deny yourself entertainment by telling the system, No matter what password I give, donフ let me play any more than half an hour of games a day.
(264) Speed bumps help a lot with behavior that tends to generate day-after regrets. . . . Frankly, Iノ not too concerned about the world whiling away its hours on the information highway. At worst, I expect, it will be like playing video games or gambling. Support groups will convene to help abusers who want to modify their behavior.

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More concerned about cryptographic vulnerabilities and sloppy security leading to digital disasters than dumbing down society through habitual Internet use. (264) A more serious concern than individual overindulgence is the vulnerability that could result from societyピ heavy reliance on the highway.
(265) A complete failure of the information highway is worth worrying about. Because the system will be thoroughly decentralized, any single outage is unlikely to have a widespread effect. . . . One area of vulnerability is the systemピ reliance on cryptography the mathematical locks that keep information safe.
(265) Sloppiness is the main reason computer security gets breached.

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A potential weapon of math destruction is a breakthrough in factoring large prime numbers; no backup technique ready to deploy. (265-266) The obvious mathematical breakthrough would be development of an easy way to factor large prime numbers. . . . We have to ensure that if any particular encryption technique proves fallible, there is a way to make an immediate transition to an alternative technique.

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Concern for loss of privacy by correlating disparate data repositories. (266) Loss of privacy is another major concern about the highway. . . . The scattered nature of information protects your privacy in an informal way, but when the repositories are all connected together on the highway, it will be possible to use computers to correlate it. Credit data could be linked with employment records and sales transaction records to construct an intrusively accurate picture of your personal activities.
(266) The potential problem is abuse, not the mere existence of information.

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Gates find complete life documentation chilling, but does provide digital alibi; black box data recorders and cameras everywhere. (268) I find the prospect of documented lives a little chilling, but some people will warm to the idea. One reason for documenting a life will be defensive. We can think of the wallet PC as an alibi machine, because encrypted digital signatures will guarantee an unforgeable alibi against false accusations.
(268) This sort of record wonフ affect just the police. . . . I can imagine proposals that every automobile, including yours and mine, be outfitted not only with a recorder but also with a transmitter that identifies the car and its location a future license plate.

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Pervasive surveillance unremarkable: to other critics this is a major concern, but Gates is a proponent of accepting the tradeoff of lost anonymity and privacy in exchange for increased security, foreseeing 9/11 aftermath. (269) In a world that is increasingly instrumented, we could reach the point where cameras record most of what goes on in public.
(269) The prospect of so many cameras, always watching, might have distressed us fifty years ago, as it did George Orwell. But today they are unremarkable. . . . Within a decade, computers will be able to scan video records very inexpensively looking for a particular person or activity.
(269-270) Almost everyone is willing to accept some restrictions in exchange for a sense of security. . . . It might take only a few more incidents like the bombing in Oklahoma City within the borders of the United States for attitudes toward strong privacy protection to shift. What today seems like digital Big Brother might one day become the norm if the alternative is being left to the mercy of terrorists and criminals. I am not advocating either position technology will enable society to make a political decision.

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Believes governments will be unable to tap or decrypt everyday personal computer data; ironic statement following NSA revelations by Snowden. (270) Encryption-technology software, which anyone can download from the Internet, can transform a PC into a virtually unbreakable code machine.
(270) No policy decision will be able to restore the tapping capabilities governments had in the past.

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Defense of representative government model for middleman value add, whose performance can be better monitored via the information highway. (272) There is a place in governance for representatives middlemen to add value.
(272) Instead of being given photos and sound bites, voters will be able to get a much more direct sense of what their representatives are doing and how theyビe voting.

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Greatest benefits will be technological applications to education. (275) As I suggested in chapter 9, the greatest benefits will come from the application of technology to education formal and informal. To help facilitate this in a small way, my portion of the proceeds from this book will go to support teachers who are incorporating computers into their classrooms.

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Gates wants everyone to discuss technology in order to guide it, not just technologists. (276)
(276) Itピ important that both the good and bad points of the technological advances be discussed broadly so that society as a whole, rather than just technologists, can guide its direction.

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Changing attitude to value of direct access and time-sharing through spending time programming; Licklider prescient in potential for amplifying range of human intelligence through symbiosis with computers. (26) The appreciation of time-sharing was directly proportional to the amount of direct access one had to the computer. And usually that meant that the more you programmed, the better you understood the value of direct access.
(27) Licklider was far more than just a computer enthusiast, however. For several years, he had been touting a radical and visionary notion: that computers werenフ just adding machines. Computers had the potential to act as extensions of the whole human being, as tools that could amplify the range of human intelligence and expand the reach our our analytical powers.

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Book gives evidence that origins of Internet in interoperability and communication of Tayler and Herzfeld, not so much as to sustain nuclear attack. (42) If the network idea worked, Taylor told Herzfeld, it would be possible for computers from different manufacturers to connect, and the problem of choosing computers would be greatly diminished. Herzfeld was so taken with that possibility that those arguments alone might have been enough to convince him. But there was another advantage, centering on the question of reliability. It might be possible to connect computers in a network redundantly, so that if one line went down a message could take another path.

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Peer collaboration among networked resources; ATT not interested. (44) But the networking idea marked a significant departure from time-sharing. . . . The idea of one computer reaching out to tap resources inside another, as peers in a collaborative organization, represented the most advanced conception yet to emerge from Lickliderピ vision.
(48) Even before his first day at ARPA, Roberts had a rudimentary outline of the computer network figured out. Then, and for years afterward as the project grew, Roberts drew meticulous network diagrams, sketching out where the data lines should go, and the number of hops between nodes.
(51) AT&T, of course, had absolute hegemony when it came to the telephone network. But the systematic conveyance of information predated Ma Bell by at least a few thousand years.
(51) The telegraph was a classic early example of what is called a
store-and-forward network.
(52) There was almost no way to bring radical new technology into the Bell System to coexist with the old. . . . Not surprisingly, then, in the early 1960s, when ARPA began exploring an entirely new way of transmitting information, AT&T wanted no part of it.

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Baran, who did think about nuclear survivability of networks, proposed distributed network diagram, message blocks, and adaptive routing. (59-60) Baranピ second big idea was still more revolutionary. Fracture the messages too. By dividing each message into parts, you could flood the network with what he called
message blocks, all racing over different paths to their destination. Upon their arrival, a receiving computer would reassemble the message bits into readable form.
(61) What Baran envisioned was a network of unmanned switches, or nodes stand-alone computers, essentially that routed messages by employing what he called a self-learning policy at each node, without need for a central, and possibly vulnerable, control point.

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Davies motivated by matching network to characteristics of new computer-generated data traffic patterns. (66) The motivation that led Davies to conceive of a packet-switching network had nothing to do with the military concerns that had driven Baran. . . . The irregular, bursty characteristics of computer-generated data traffic did not fit well with the uniform channel capacity of the telephone system. Matching the network design to the new types of data traffic became his main motivation.
(67) Davies choice of the word packet was very deliberate. . . .

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Origin of protocol by Marill as message sending procedures. (69) [Tom]
Marill referred to the set of procedures for sending information back and forth as a message protocol, prompting a colleague to inquire, Why do you use that term? I thought it referred to diplomacy.
(73) Just before the meeting ended, Wes Clark passed a note up to Roberts.

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Subnetworks with identical nodes leaving internetworking to what became the router and gateway devices. (73) The way Clark explained it, the solution was obvious: a subnetwork with small, identical nodes, all interconnected.
(74) Clarkピ idea was to spare the hosts that extra burden and build a network of identical, nonshared computers dedicated to routing.

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Importance of unauthorized software tools by Kahn. (131-132) Heart scotched Kahnピ suggestion that they use a simulation. Heart hated to see his programming team spend time on simulations or on writing anything but operational code. They were already becoming distracted by something else he disliked building software tools. . . . So no one ever asked; they just did it, building tools when they thought it was the right thing to do, regardless of what Heart thought. This was software they would eventually need when the time came to test the system. All were customized pieces of programming, specifically designed for the ARPA project.

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Thrill of understanding power of loop to control execution of lengthy sequence with a few instructions underscores special feature of code empowering autonomous machines. (139) I remember being thrilled when I finally understood the concept of a loop, [Steve]
Crocker recalled, which enabled the computer to proceed with a very lengthy sequence of operations with only a relatively few instructions.
(139) He majored in math but soon got hooked on serious computing.
(143) The host-to-IMP interface had to be built from scratch each time a new site was established around a different computer model. Later, sites using the same model could purchase copies of the custom interface.

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RFC initiated by Crocker set precedent for open cooperative means of evolving technical standards of protocological society (Galloway). (144-145) The language of the RFC was warm and welcoming. The idea was to promote cooperation, not ego. The fact that Crocker kept his ego out of the first RFC set the style and inspired others to follow suit in the hundreds of friendly and cooperative RFCs that followed. . . . For years afterward (and to this day) RFCs have been the principal means of open expression in the computer networking community, the accepted way of recommending, reviewing, and adopting new technical standards.
(145) The RFC, a simple mechanism for distributing documentation open to anybody, had what Crocker described as a first-order effect on the speed at which ideas were disseminated, and on spreading the networking culture.

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Comparison between manuscript flyleaf (original Greek protocol) and packet header. (145-146) They very word protocol found its way into the language of computer networking based on the need for collective agreement among network users. For a long time the word has been used for the etiquette of diplomacy and for certain diplomatic agreements. But in ancient Greek,
protokollon meant the first leaf of a volume, a flyleaf attached to the top of a papyrus scroll that contained a synopsis of the manuscript, its authentification, and the date.

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Platform orientation shifting from mainframe master-slave hegemony to peers called for development of protocols; protocols like two-by-four of standardized, distributed construction the goal of Network Working Group. (146-147) The computers themselves were extremely egocentric devices. The typical mainframe of the period behaved as if it were the only computer in the universe. . . . Everything connected to the main computer performed a specific task, and each peripheral device was presumed to be ready at all times for a fetch-my-slippers type of command. (In computer parlance, this relationship is known as master-slave communication.) . . . The goal in devising the host-to-host protocol was to get the mainframe machines talking as peers, so that either side could initiate a simple dialogue and the other would be ready to respond with at least an acknowledgment of the other machineピ existence.
(147) The computer equivalent of a two-by-four was what the
Network Working Group was trying to invent.
(147) The protocol design philosophy adopted by the NWG broke ground for what came to be widely accepted as the layered approach to protocols.
(147) The job of the lower layer was simply to move generic unidentified bits, regardless of what the bits might define.
(148) As the talks grew more focused, it was decided that the first two applications should be for remote log-ins and file transfers.

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Irony that first network program as a dumb terminal explained by observation that new technologies are typically promoted for their ability to do things we already understand, their content being other technologies. (154) There is no small irony in the fact that the first program used over the network was one that made the distant computer masquerade as a terminal. All that work to get two computers talking to each other and they ended up in the very same master-slave situation the network was supposed to eliminate. Then again, technological advances often begin with attempts to do something familiar. Researchers build trust in new technology by demonstrating that we can use it to do things we understand.
(156-157) After another year of meetings and several dozen RFCs, in the summer of 1970 the group reemerged with a preliminary version of a protocol for basic, unadorned host-to-host communications.

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Improved telephone line trouble detection utilizing network monitoring tools. (163) The engineers at BBN relished opportunities to spook the telephone company repair people with their ability to detect, and eventually predict, line trouble from afar.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (164) 20130223q 0 -4+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Watchdog timer example of cybernetic self-corrective behavior. (164) Heartピ team had designed the IMPs to run unattended as much as possible, bestowing on the IMPs the ability to restart by themselves after a power failure or crash. The
watchdog timer was the crucial component that triggered self-corrective measures in the IMPs.
(168-169) One of the NCCピ primary tasks was to issue software upgrades and reload IMP operating programs when necessary. The operators used a cleverly cooperative scheme by which every IMP downloaded the software from a neighbor.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (183) 20130223r 0 -7+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Remote computer chat between PARRY and Doctor. (183) Just a few weeks before the ICCC demonstration, PARRY indeed met the Doctor for an unusual conversation over the ARPANET, in an experiment orchestrated at UCLA. It perhaps marked the origin, in the truest sense, of all computer chat. There was no human intervention in the dialogue. PARRY was running at Stanfordピ artificial-intelligence lab, the Doctor was running on a machine at BBN, and at UCLA their input and output were cross-connected through the ARPANET, while the operators sat back and watched.
(185-186) The ICCC demonstration did more to establish the viability of packet-switching than anything else before it. As a result, the ARPANET community gained a much larger sense of itself, its technology, and the resources at its disposal. For computer makers, there was the realization that a market might emerge.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (194) 20130223s 0 -4+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
E-mail as favorite hack of new network and element in evolution of management style. (194) Typically, Roberts would leave experts on the topic at hand, who in turn bounced the questions off their graduate students. Twenty-four hours and a flurry of e-mail later, the problem had usually been solved several times over. The way Larry worked was the quintessential argument in favor of a computer network, Lukasik said.
(197) But because the struggle over e-mail standards was one of the first sources of real tension in the community, it stood out.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (205) 20130223t 0 -4+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Brain change through use of Vittal e-mail programs (Hayles synaptogenesis). (205) [John] Vittalピ MSG and his ANSWER command made him a legendary figure in e-mail circles. It was because of Vittal that we all assimilated network mail into our spinal cords, recalled Brian Reid.
(205) More than just a great hack, MSG was the best proof to date that on the ARPANET rules might get made, but they certainly didnフ prevail. Proclamations of officialness didnフ further the Net nearly so much as throwing technology out onto the Net to see what worked.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (213) 20130223u 0 -3+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Misguided proposal for hybrid electronic message system by Carter administration. (213) By 1979, President Carter was supporting a post office proposal to offer a limited kind of electronic message service to the nation. The hybrid scheme worked more like a telegram service than a start-of-the-art electronic communication system.
(213) The USPS, like AT&T earlier, never really broke free of the mindset guarding its traditional business, probably because both were monopolistic entities.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (215) 20130223v 0 -3+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
New cultural reference points developing in e-mail communities. (215) In many ways the ARPANET communityピ basic values were traditional free speech, equal access, personal privacy. However, e-mail also was uninhibiting, creating reference points entirely its own, a virtual society, with manners, values, and acceptable behaviors the practice of flaming for example strange to the rest of the world.
(215) The acidic attacks and level of haranguing unique to on-line communication, unacceptably asocial in any other context, was oddly normative on the ARPANET.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (247-248) 20130303 0 -1+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
TCP/IP developed in collaborative community of emerging protocological society where standards are discovered versus mandated (including open documentation, UNIX operating system, and Ethernet); OSI in bureaucratic committees of disciplinary society (proprietary, closed models). (247-248) Cerf and others argued that TCP/IP couldnフ have been invented anywhere but in the collaborative research world, which was precisely what made it so successful, while a camel like OSI couldnフ have been invented anywhere but in a thousand committees.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (253) 20130224a 0 -3+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Hierarchical tree-branching structure of domain name system becomes critical topic for Galloway. (253) Tree-branching was the guiding metaphor. Each address would have a hierarchical structure. From the trunk to the branches, and outward to the leaves, every address would include levels of information representing a progression, a smaller, more specific part of the network address.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (254) 20130224b 0 -4+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Discovery of standards rather than decree as model for technological change. (254) By virtue of its quiet momentum, TCP/IP had prevailed over the official OSI standard. Its success provided an object lesson in technology and how it advances. Standards should be discovered, not decreed, said one computer scientist in the TCP/IP faction.
(256) By the end of 1989, the ARPANET was gone.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (258) 20130224 0 -8+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Aspects of control society internet dividual influenced and reflected in personal styles of male participants featured in the book; noting attitude of releasing early and often while designing self correcting error tolerance represents risk taking profile that may be different from other styles, such as making fewer releases or that method of testing boundaries mentioned with respect to Tetris game playing studies. (258) The Net of the 1970s had long since been supplanted by something at once more sophisticated and more unwieldy. Yet in dozens of ways, the Net of 1994 still reflected the personalities and proclivities of those who built it. Larry Roberts kept laying pieces of the foundation to the great big rambling house that became the Internet. Frank Heartピ pragmatic attitude toward technical invention build it, throw it out on the Net, and fix it if it breaks permeated Net sensibility for years afterward. Openness in the protocol process started with Steve Crockerピ first RFC for the Network Working Group, and continued into the Internet. While at DARPA, Bob Kahn made a conspicuous choice to maintain openness. Vint Cert gave the Net its civility. And the creators of the Net still ran the Internet Society and attended meetings of the Internet Engineering Task Force.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late (263) 20130303a 0 -8+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_hafner_lyon-where_wizards_stay_up_late.html
Easy to engage in critical analysis of male concentration and harder to keep in mind that Imps are the logical predecessor to routers, not bothering to wonder whether students ought to stay them closely, and that money can be made both servicing the innards and using it for marketing other wares, which opens the space beyond this small set of initiators who were lucky to participate so directly. (263) The multiple paternity claims to the Internet (not only had each man been there at the start but each had made a contribution that he considered immeasurable) came out most noticeably that afternoon during a group interview with the Associated Press. . . . How about women? asked the reported, perhaps to break the silence. Are there any female pioneers? More silence.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (3) 20130930 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Definition of symbiosis as two different organisms living in intimate, beneficial union; surprising to think he was not familiar with Licklider using this term as well, instead quoting Wells and Huxley. (3) H. G. Wells and Julian Huxley in their book
The Science of Life define symbiosis as two organisms of different kinds living in intimate union and to the benefit of both.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (6) 20131103c 0 -4+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Review of Von Neumann proposals: fully electronic, binary number system, internal memory, stored program, universal computer. (6) Von Neumann proposed that once should be able to store a set of instructions within the internal memory of the machine so that the computer could go from step to step by consulting its own memory without waiting for human interference. Such a set of instructions is now known as a program, and the ability to program computers has been the single major breakthrough that differentiates a modern computer from an old-fashioned business machine.
(6) Of course all the electronic components that von Neumann proposed some twenty-five years ago are now hopelessly out of date, but even the most complex modern machine is based on the principles that he outlined at that time. He was a prophet in predicting the impact of modern computers, but even he underestimated the rapid growth of electronic technology and therefore failed to anticipate the incredible increase in computing power and the impact that the computer would have within a generation.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (15) 20130307a 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Important differentiating features of computers are speed of operations and size of addressable memory; reliability assumed although earlier forms were so unreliable as to preclude increasing speed or memory extent; speed, addressability and ultimate capacity are contours of computer species alien phenomenology. (15) Reliability of electronic components has improved even more rapidly than the size and speed of machines, so that the probability of a single error in an entire day of operations is much smaller today than it was fifteen years ago.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (17) 20130307b 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Would relieve criticism if a future version of an otherwise exemplary work dealt with putative but hopefully harmless male bias. (17) One canフ help reaching the conclusion that it is more efficient to use a human being as the computerピ partner than to spend many years trying to teach the computer a talent for which it is not well suited.
(17) We seem to be able to do it through mysterious processes of association that no one has duplicated on a computer.
(18) Men also have mysterious talents which are vaguely described as intuition and creativity.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (18) 20130307c 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Familiar differentiation of human tasks and machine tasks misses opportunity of computers to monitor themselves noted by Hafner and Lyon. (18) Man should decide the best use of computers. Man should set the goals and tell the computer how to work toward them. It is best for man to monitor the work of the computer so that he may use his powers of intuition and evaluation to guide it in its work.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (21) 20130307d 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Although not referencing Licklider worth checking whether Licklider believed or was cognizant of the potential of time sharing to radically transform the human computer symbiosis as he conceived it, by greatly impacting communication between humans and machines. (21) During the 1960s a fundamental change occurred in the relationship of man to computer. This new relationship is known technically as time sharing. . . . It is only through this new development that a true symbiotic relationship between man and computers is possible.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (22) 20130307e 0 -9+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Curious that inefficiency of batch processing from human point of view mirrored in relationship between teachers and students, relationships between the same species. (22) The shortcoming of batch processing is the simple fact that most computer runs do not result in the solution to a problem, but in the detection of errors or in the printing of completely wrong answers. . . . However, if each such trial run delayed the user by twenty-four hours, it typically took two or three weeks for him to produce a correct program. . . . While batch processing is completely efficient from the point of view of keeping the machine busy at all times, it is most inefficient from the human point of view.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (23) 20131103 0 -5+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Perceived affordance of having individual access to a computer recapitulates benefits of private reading. (23) What he would like is to have a computer of his own, which he can use privately at his own convenience, correcting his ten to twenty errors in one session and not quitting until he has obtained his results.
(23) In a time-sharing system a hundred individuals all use the same computer at the same time, in complete privacy, and enjoy the illusion that the computerピ sole purpose is to help them. The goal is accomplished by using the tremendous differential in speed between the computer and man to allow the computer to process simultaneously a hundred different requests. The result is great efficiency in computer use, with a vastly different effect on human beings. An accidental but all important by-product of time sharing is man-machine communication.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (24) 20130307f 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Compare this discussion of the workings of an actual computer to instrument of Burks, Goldstine and von Neumann or ARPANET by Hafner and Lyon: both are more concrete then Turing beyond the interlocutor obfuscating interface; the DTSS diagram shows many user terminals sharing a communications computer, which alone (rather than each individual user, as in the IMP network design) connects to the central processor and high-speed memory, whereas input and output peripherals and bulk memory fill out the Burks, Goldstine and von Neumann model. (24) The terminal is linked to the computation center through an ordinary telephone line and therefore its location is irrelevant.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (27) 20130307g 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Round robin scheduler at heart of time sharing. (27) A given central processor can work only one problem at a time. However, it is programmed to work in a simple round robin, assigning to each active user a fraction of a second of computing time.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (28) 20130307h 0 -9+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Affordance now taken for granted of having third party applications ready at hand so they do not have to be programmed by the user may have covered over entry to direct participation in formation of problem solving space to participation in selection of arranged options where the control programs are not directly modified by any of the library users. (28) Most of the bulk memory, however, is available for the storage of user programs. . . . In addition, the bulk memory has available a large collection of library programs which any user may call upon to solve a variety of standard problems. . . . This brings a variety of mathematical techniques within the grasp of a user who would not have been able to write these programs himself.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (29) 20130307i 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Kemeny ranks learnability of BASIC over FORTRAN over machine language; natural machine language is the overly predetermined but more importantly unthinkable for which Ong resists, and would likely dismiss FORTRAN as well, but higher level languages like C++ may be on par with other second languages. (29) Built into computers is a language known as
machine language. It is a natural language for an electronic computer since each instruction corresponds to simple electronic circuitry, but it is most unnatural for a human being to learn.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (30) 20130307k 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Machine language for few, FORTRAN for many, BASIC for everyone college educated now via user interfaces removes requirement to learn how to program in order to usefully use (the reason Turkle shifted from studying learning programming by the small population that did so to general use by orders of magnitude larger populations), rendering programming competence no longer a required component of intelligent human being. (30) While the availability of FORTRAN extended computer usage from a handful of experts to thousands of scientific users, we at Dartmouth envisaged the possibility of millions of people writing their own computer programs. Therefore, we decided to design a new computer language that would be accessible to typical college students. This is how the language called BASIC was created.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (30) 20130307l 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Boast that Dartmouth freshmen can begin programming after listening to a few lectures and reading a short manual. (30) Dartmouth freshmen listen to two one-hour lectures and then read a short manual. Before the end of the first week of the course, the typical student is able to write at least one usable program.
(30-31) Each student, during a ten-week term, must write four text programs entirely on his own and work on them until they are errorless. . . .

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (32) 20130307m 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Privacy to make mistakes key to learning, which is why so many learned at home as my prior interview data suggests: imagine contests like achieving results of ten week university term or initial week training session applied to language of your choice. (32) This psychological factor is of overwhelming importance. While many students could have mastered computers even without this guaranteed privacy, most faculty members would have refused to expose themselves to the embarrassment of publicly committing hundreds of mistakes before they became experts.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (33) 20130307n 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Amusing to think where this measure would be expressed now that the capitalist market pervades everyday computer use. (33) It is not surprising that the departments of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering are all heavy users of the computation center. More unexpectedly, however, the heaviest users are actually the students in business administration and some of the social sciences.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (33) 20130307o 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Freedom zero to run software for any reason in the program library environment considered like human library with further freedoms due to nondestructive nature, up to the point that too many resources are being used. (33) Just as any student may go in and browse the library, or check out any book he wishes without asking for permission or explaining why he wants that particular book, he may use the computation center without asking permission or explaining why he is running a particular program.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (34) 20130307p 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Opportunities for big humanities as faculty quickly adapted to using computers by outsourcing implementation to underlings. (34) A large number of undergraduate and graduate students have lucrative computer-programming assistantships in which they help faculty members on research projects.
(34) The computer library contains a wide variety of games, most of them written by students.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (35) 20130307q 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Fear of embarrassment of not knowing how to use absent digital natives, who play lots of locally modified games available in the library, a sort of local culture surrounding DTSS rather than discrete physical human communication spaces and places. (35) But, more importantly, for many inexperienced users the opportunity of playing games against a computer is a major factor in removing psychological blocks that frighten the average human being away from free use of machines.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (37) 20130307r 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Networked human team with single computer only a dream; today realized with networks of humans and computers in LANs and global Internet. (37) A number of educational uses of this multiteletype hookup, such as business games and small group experiments, have been considered, but so far we have only the vaguest impressions as to the full power of a team consisting of several human beings and a computer.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (41) 20130307s 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Scale of resources available for general use on DTSS dwarfs anything proposed by von Neumann, although even its multiteletype hookup today exceeded many orders of magnitude by Internet capabilities, yet still abysally short of UTM: the materiality of code is expansive. (41) Nearly 20 million words are reserved for copies of all systems programs, for the library programs, for the user catalogs, and for large data bases. That leaves more than 40 million words for user programs.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (42) 20130307t 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Ambiguous ordering of executive system as it seems from a real time, time sharing perspective editing, listing and saving as user commands beyond ordinary execution would be more important: perhaps the other direction makes sense only in terms of gross CPU time spent doing everything; then again, it matters how many programs were typically executing, for users spent most of their time editing them; they were not constantly running along with them they way things do now in the distributed application world with which we communicate. (42) The executive system carried out about one command per second, most of which fell into the following categories, given in order of importance:
1. Execute the program
2. Create a new program or retrieve an old one
3. Save a program
4. Give me a listing of my program
5. Perform an editorial function.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (42) 20130307v 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
The ubiquitous mobile device fulfills prediction, although what is not stated is that nontrivial cost ranges will exist nonetheless, in part because his prediction that government would spend more on programming education turned out to be wrong. (42) But anyone can acquire a private terminal in his home, and an hour of terminal time a day, at the cost of maintaining a luxury car.
Within the next two decades
the price will undoubtedly come down to a level which will make computer terminals in the home quite common.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (46-47) 20130307x 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Human struggle to grasp machine perspective, which Bogost calls alien phenomenology. (46-47) If the reader will now substitute computers for human beings, human beings for the more intelligent creatures and reduce the time scale by a million, he will understand the computers point of view about time sharing.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (57) 20130310 0 -4+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Makes explicit philosophical pronouncement that we can question or put on the back burner to move forward with working code rather than social critique, is socialism required to achieve utopia where most people program, also being subsumed by floss (this will toward more government spending to maximize extent of everyone working code). (57) I would like to see a fundamental change in philosophy on the part of both government and business. Both should be willing to spend more to make life better and easier for everyone. Indeed, this will be a major theme throughout the remainder of this book. Only when such a philosophy is adopted generally can we look forward to a time when the average human being will look at the computer as a friend rather than a foe.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (64) 20130310b 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Interesting design constraint differentiating phenomena that can occur in the heart of the CPU versus at a distance, based on the real time requirements of the nanosecond process cycle. (64) Light travels one foot in a nanosecond. Therefore a computer that is to have a basic cycle time of one nanosecond must be able to send the signal from any point in the machine to any other point without traveling more than a foot.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (66) 20130310c 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Today this is the basic home computer whose price is at an all time low, setting up multiplied dissemination for beyond college students envisioned by Kemeny half a century ago. (66) I see absolutely no reason why a very reliable computer terminal could not be manufactured to see for the price of a black-and-white television set. This will be necessary if computers are to be brought into the home.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (68) 20130310d 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Prescient of present Internet although envisaged as low cost terminals fed by distant networks; wait, that is what happened. (68) It would be desirable to design the network in such a way that most users could reach it through a local telephone call.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (74) 20130310f 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Shifted expectation that instructors would develop their own programs for teaching, perhaps echoing past assumption they would publish their own textbooks. (74) Given such a large time-sharing system CAI [Computer-Aided Instruction] will be as good as the instructorピ program can make it.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (74) 20130310g 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
That we have swallowed this dual assumption today points to the subsumption of human intellect into collective consciousness entangled with the machines: recall prior arguments about material specific advantages of spiral bound manuals and other forms of programming instruction noted by critical code studies theorists (Montfort et al). (74) These are, first, that the computer is a
very expensive substitute for a book, and, second, that it is a very poor substitute for a teacher.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (87) 20130313a 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Instead of this library, which includes a fee, we got the commercial Internet: is this an aspect of how we have unintentionally subverted better intentions for the human computer symbiosis, as here they problems of storage, search, transmission; also consider Janz on problems using search for philosophical questions. (87) Once information is stored in machine-readable form, and a substantial time-sharing system is made part of the automated library, the entire problem of searching for relevant information takes on a new dimension. For the first time there would be hope that the scholar who is interested in the available knowledge on a specialized topic could systematically search all the available literature and find the items that are useful for his work.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (90) 20130313b 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Continuous film photographic storage like Bush Memex that will likely be digitized foreshadowing media convergence; at least store abstracts (metadata) in machine-readable forms in high speed memory. (90) If the miniaturized images were stored on a medium that is physically similar to the magnetic tape used with modern computers, the 1000 volumes could then be stored on approximately 150 feet of tape, which can be positioned by existing devices to any one of the thousand volumes in just a few seconds.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (92) 20130313c 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Instead of a conversational partner we got big business advertisement driven search. (92) Considerable research will have to be devoted to the question of how such a conversational mode program can be written and how one can impart enough intelligence to the computer to enable it to be a truly efficient partner in search.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (94-95) 20130313d 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
On demand printing exactly what has happened though many more storage locations of copies due to abundance of secondary storage and bandwidth: recall importance of designing network to accommodate new transmission patterns unpredictably arising with digital technologies but originally noticed to be bursty, high download small upload quantities. (94-95) Instead of publishing books and articles in large editions, most copies of which are never read, one copy of an article could be filed in the national library (or one in each branch library) and additional copies printed when somebody actually expressed an interest in reading the article.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (97) 20130314a 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Better measure of readership feedback for authors. (97) Since there would be a user fee imposed for each transmission, part of the fee could be turned back to the author in the form of royalties. (This system would be similar to that of paying royalties for phonograph records used in broadcasting.) A not insignificant benefit from this procedure would be the fact that authors would get an accurate picture of how much their work is read.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (98) 20130314b 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Fear of dangers inherent in single federal national library today more likely actualized by corporate codes (Lessig). (98) Without proper safeguards, a national reference library operated by the federal government could become a dangerous weapon for the suppression of undesirable knowledge.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (103) 20130316 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Disadvantage of costly reprogramming batch processing systems because they were not designed and originally programmed under new programming styles emerging with time-sharing systems, anticipating uses of computers performed by popular applications with diminished programming requirements nearing conversational or button pressing ease of user interfaces, focusing on symbiosis rather than default system perspective or programmer convenience (Norman DOET). (103) But they were not designed for research purposes, and one of the greatest
disadvantages of a batch-processing system is the fact that reprogramming it is so time-consuming and costly.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (104) 20130413 0 -12+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
The discovery of this fact of new affordances advantaging time-sharing over batch, and the free open source option over proprietary, changes digital humanities research along with rest of built environment and humans multiple times. (104) Once the data are in convenient form, even if none of the existing programs will do the job,
in a time-sharing system it is not difficult to write a new program to carry out a particular research project. . . . This conversion process will change student records from a bookkeeping system into a management information system.
(105) [Herbert]
Simonピ thesis is that a good information system should provide us, not with as much information as possible, but with the least information that servers our need.
(105) The purpose of a well-designed management information system is not to provide a great volume of information. The job of the computer is to store this great amount of information and to provide summaries to management as they are requested or when the computer spots certain danger signals that the management has asked to have monitored. . . . The computer should also be able to provide summary information in any form requested, not simply in the form that some computer programmer thought would be convenient.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (107) 20130413a 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Collaboration between manager and programmer and desire for flexible design avoiding obsolescence and inviting future extension. (107) This requires that the management explain to the system designer the kind of information desired and the form in which it needs to be supplied. It also requires that the designer have sufficient imagination not to be bound entirely by the needs of the present day but to devise a system that is flexible enough for future needs.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (108) 20130413b 0 -4+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Modeling by programming. (108) What top management needs for long-range planning and effective decision-making is a model of the operation of the company. By a model I mean a theoretical description of how the company functions. This may consist of a set of formulas, or it could be in the form of a computer program.
(110) The difficulty in constructing such a model is not a shortcoming of computers, or the problem of writing a sufficiently sophisticated program, but our lack of understanding of how an institution operates.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (110-111) 20130413c 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Origins of data-driven organizational modeling replacing intuitive misconceptions (Forrester); symbiote optimal when computers provide summary information for humans to make value judgments. (110-111) [Jay] Forrester has demonstrated conclusively that intuition is a very poor substitute for a thorough understanding of the operation of a complex social system.
(111) Therefore the value judgments must be left up to human beings, but in the future these can be made after knowing all the relevant facts and all the consequences, both short range and long range, or a proposed course of action.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (114-115) 20130413d 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Anticipates the symbiote will mostly constitute communication, which requires less processing capacity than raw computation, although network protocols replace assumptions of slow character rate transmissions of readable text like personalized newspapers. (114-115) The vast majority of users on DTSS will use 4 seconds or less of computing time in a 15-to-20-minute session. Even that is too high an average figure, since once there are millions of customers, the applications are likely to be heavily oriented toward communication rather than computation.
(115) But can the cost be brought down to a level at which the average home can afford to have a terminal?
(116) I therefore visualize nine regional centers initially, each with twenty processors, serving a total of three million customers.
(116) There is certainly an advantage in having more than one, since competition can improve the quality of service. On the other hand, having as many as ten national networks would confuse the average user and make each network less useful to him.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (119) 20130413e 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Combination cultural and technical convention dividing television screen newspaper into frames becomes new basis for writing as example of intertwined technogenesis and synaptogenesis induced from habitual use (Hayles). (119) Many terminals now have a display screen similar to a television screen. These can show roughly five paragraphs, or about one-third of a column of newsprint. Let us call such a unit a frame. Reporters would write their stories in
(119) I estimate that all the news in the daily New York Times could be contained in five hundred frames.
(120) I would estimate that they typical reader would be interested in some twenty news stories a day and would want to look at one, two, or three frames for each one.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (121) 20130413f 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Predicted roles of advertisements and network providers half correct; instead of separate networks like television networks, global Internet more like highway and telephone systems. (121) The computer network would charge the user for various services and could pay a royalty to the
Times for each access by a user. . . . If that did not suffice, the newspaper retrieval program could be so written that between frames it presented ads. However, I would then hope that by paying an extra fee I would have the option of eliminating all advertisements.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (124-125) 20130413g 0 -5+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Stereotypical middle class family roles maintained and reinforeced while transformed by home terminals; suggests male and female roles may reverse but does not elaborate on how or why. (124-125) Mother can do most of her shopping through a computer terminal. . . . If by 1990 the roles of man and woman have been completely reversed, the computer terminal will be equally happy to work out business problems for mother and to help father with his shopping and housework.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (125) 20130413h 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Predicts Turkle alone together and passive recreation; enforces orderly, lawful social activities of docile bodies. (125) Children will find the home terminal an immeasurable asset in doing homework. . . . After he or she completes all homework assignments, the computer terminal can serve as a major resource for recreation. Not only will the computer play a wide variety of games with the user but it can monitor multiperson games with each player sitting in his own home.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (126) 20131103i 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Acknowledges inability to predict future uses. (126) My list is likely to be deficient precisely because all these suggestions are already within the realm of possibility. I have made no provision for a multiplicity of new applications that will become reality within the next generation.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (127) 20130930a 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Concludes with ways symbiote might improve quality of life. (127) I should like to conclude with a consideration of some ways in which the
symbiote might be used to improve the quality of human life.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (131) 20130413i 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Nascent realization of usefulness of simulation, itself a new research method, for social problems. (131) Social problems, however, do not lend themselves either to laboratory models or to treatment by analog computers.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (132) 20130413j 0 -10+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Controllable randomness becomes rational concept for simulation, transitioning from purely negative connotations in 10 PRINT. (132) A great advantage of a computer simulation model is the fact that chance events can be built into it. . . . The computer model will then produce such accidents with the right frequency but at totally unpredictable random moments, just the way they actually occur.
(133-134) Some excellent examples of the use of computer models for social planning are found in the work of Jay Forrester. . . . Such problems are ideal illustrations for the main theme of the book that man working in partnership with a computer can achieve vastly more than either can achieve on his own.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (134) 20130413k 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Social analyst bridges specific disciplines and technical knowledge for research design, echoed in digital humanities; compare to McGann poiesis as theory and Applen McDaniel theorist practitioner. (134) I see the need for the development of a new type of professional, one who might perhaps be called a social analyst.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (136) 20130413l 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Examples of computerized simulation and control tasks impossible for humans to accomplish alone is strongest argument for fostering symbiosis. (136) Due to certain unpredictable forces in such a chain reaction, the control must be done with split-second accuracy in order to sustain the chain reaction but prevent a nuclear explosion. No human being could possibly carry out this task, but a human-designed computer system handles it with great efficiency. Similarly, the control of traffic is beyond the capabilities of even a large number of police since they could never evaluate the total pattern fast enough to take effective action.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (138) 20130413m 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Proposed national development agency aiming for portable, reusable solutions: what happened is the story of modern technological society; compare to development of FLOSS. (138) The federal agency could insist that all systems developed under its auspices would be usable on the hardware of any computer manufacturer that is willing to meet a few federally set standards. The program could be written in one of several generally accepted computer languages and use simple conventions to tie in with computer memories and control devices.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (140) 20130413n 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Compare this theoretical vision of an information society to Castells. (140) It is my thesis that the traditional role of cities as centers of manufacture and trade has changed to a role in which the primary purpose of cities is as a center for the collection and exchange of information and the carrying out of paper transactions. Perhaps the most dramatic example is the stock market.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (141) 20130413o 0 -6+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Failed prediction that ubiquitous use of videophones and transformation of employment patterns. (141) I predict that a dramatic effect on the pattern of employment and location of offices will come about by the widespread use of video telephones. . . . We could still see each otherピ facial expressions, establish rapport, and share written documents or pictures, without having to leave our homes or offices.
(141) A second major reason for going to the office is the fact that that is where the files are.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (141-142) 20130413p 0 -8+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Failed prediction that human assistants would continue to serve knowledge workers due to ease of use of technological systems and migration of duties. (141-142) That leaves only the last consideration, that of being where oneピ secretary and assistants are. . . . But I will still find it more pleasant and more efficient to give my request to a human secretary who knows the peculiarities of the system rather than to battle with it myself.
(142) As long as that office is equipped with several video-phones and terminals giving access to one or more national computer networks, its exact location is irrelevant.
(143) It is my conviction that if the need for millions of people to rush in and out of the city every working day is removed, we would be well on our way to a solution of urban problems. What exactly would be the role of the central city?

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (144) 20130413q 0 -9+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Compare symbiotic evolution to Hayles. (144) Given the rate of human reproduction, a century is much too short a period for the usual forces of evolution and natural selection to bring about a significant change. Our best hope therefore lies in a new kind of evolutionary process which I have called symbiotic evolution.
(144) The existence of computer-communication networks will enable human beings at widely separated locations to function as a team. The vast capabilities of computer memories will enable use to make effective use of the explosion of human information and knowledge.
(144-145) However, this evolutionary development is only possible if man is willing to make drastic changes in his life style and in his conception of his own goals. . . . Since it is unlikely that any educational system can provide a training that will see us through a lifetime, we may have to devise a system in which learning continues throughout oneピ productive life.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK levy-insanely_great (39) 20140113 0 -9+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_levy-insanely_great.html
Engelbart felt it was logical windows based systems would take over the computing world, despite failure of Augment. (39) Windows are really quite profound. Using them implicitly reshapes our relationship to information itself.
(46) By the time I wound up in
Engelbartピ pathetic cubicle in 1983, his creation, now dubbed Augment, was one of several office-automation systems Tymshare offered. . . . He talked as if his system, not the evolutions of it like the Lisa and the upcoming Macintosh, was going to take over the world. It was logical to him that is should. Here, he seemed to say, just watch.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK manovich-software_takes_command (94) 20130824d 0 -6+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_manovich-software_takes_command.html
Kay like Kemeny does philosophy of programming. (94) This democratization of software development was at the core of Kayピ vision. Kay was particularly concerned with how to structure programming tools in such a way that would make development of media software possible for ordinary users.
(94) This means that the idea that a new medium gradually finds its own language cannot apply to computer media. If this were true it would go against the very definition of a modern digital computer. This theoretical argument is supported by practice. The history of computer media so far has not been about arriving at some standardized language as, for instance, happened with cinema but rather about the gradual expansion of uses, techniques, and possibilities.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK papert-mindstorms (viii) 20101212 0 -4+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_papert-mindstorms.html
Go back to Plato relating different types of rhetoric to different types of souls, with computer as Proteus machine satisfying a wider range. (viii) My thesis could be summarized as: What the gears cannot do the computer might. The computer is the Proteus of machines. Its essence is its universality, its power to simulate. Because it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand tastes.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK papert-mindstorms (3) 20131007 0 -1+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_papert-mindstorms.html
How computers may affect the way people think and learn borders texts and technology studies territories, such as examining reciprocal relationship with tutor texts, manuals, and other documentation. (3) I shall be talking about how computers may affect the way people think and learn.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK papert-mindstorms (5) 20130909 0 -3+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_papert-mindstorms.html
His theory is to reverse trend of computer programming the child and let children learn mastery and intimate contact with intellectual tradition by programming. (5) In many schools today, the phrase computer-aided instruction means making the computer teach the child. One might say the
computer is being used to program the child. In my vision, the child programs the computer and, in doing so, both acquires a sense of mastery over a piece of the most modern and powerful technology and establishes an intimate contact with some of the deepest ideas from science, from mathematics, and from the art of intellectual model building.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (34) 20131012 0 0+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
According to GNU Manifesto, all computer users will benefit by avoiding duplication of effort for system programming, not being tied to sole supplier for changes, encouraging study and improvement in schools, avoiding management overhead. (34)

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (41) 20131012d 0 0+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Statement of Free Software Definition. (41)

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (56) 20131012e 0 -3+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Open is weaker criterion than free because licensing agreements vary in what can be done with it. (56) The official definition of open source software, as published by the Open Source Initiative, is very close to our definition of free software; however, it is a little looser in some respects, and they have accepted a few licenses that we consider unacceptably restrictive of the users. However, the obvious meaning for the expression open source software is You can look at the source code. This is a much weaker criterion than free software; it includes free software, but also includes semi-free programs such as Xv, and even some proprietary programs, including Qt under its original license (before the QPL).

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (57) 20131012f 0 -5+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Must learn to appreciate value of freedom above practical advantage, treating freedom as key criterion in selecting which software to use and how to use it. (57) Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage. Countless companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline? Only if they have learned to value the freedom free software gives them, for its own sake. It is up to us to spread this idea and in order to do that, we have to talk about freedom. A certain amount of the keep quiet approach to business can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom talk too.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (68) 20131012g 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Free documentation for free software to facilitate work and avoid rewriting. (68) A manual that forbids programmers to be conscientious and finish the job, or more precisely requires them to write a new manual from scratch if they change the program, does not fill our communityピ needs.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (89) 20131012i 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Copyleft provides incentive to add to domain of free software and helps programmers contribute improvements while getting paid by trumping work product contracts; see studies on participation by paid workers in Feller et al. (89) the employer usually decides to release it as free software rather than throw it away.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (102) 20131012j 0 -4+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Danger of software patents because large corporations cross-license to avoid patent disputes, making it harder for small companies to compete or even take a claim to court for fear of countersuit. (102) The mega-corporations avoid, for the most part, the harm of the patent system; they see mainly the good side. That is why they want to have software patents: they are the ones who will benefit from it. But if you are a small inventor or work for a small company, the small company will not be able to do this. They try.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (111) 20131012k 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Danger of software patents because ties up every software developer and computer user in a new form of bureaucracy in addition to point by Lessig that code becomes law. (111) Software patents tie up every software developer and every computer user in a new form of bureaucracy.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (122) 20131012l 0 -2+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Software should be free because material harm has concomitant psychosocial harm: from obstruction by restrictions on distribution and modification include fewer people using, inability to adapt or fix, unable to learn or base new work upon it. (122) Each level of material harm has a concomitant form of psychosocial harm. This refers to the effect that peopleピ decisions have on their subsequent feelings, attitudes, and predispositions.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (122) 20131012m 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Software should be free because forgoing use of program harms would-be user without benefiting anyone, nor reduce amount of development work, so efficiency is reduced also. (122) Each level of material harm has a concomitant form of psychosocial harm.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (123) 20131012n 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Software should be free because social cohesion damaged by licenses prohibiting sharing something useful and good with neighbors; equivocating sharing with attacking ships leads to cynicism or denial in programmers knowing most users will not be allowed to use their work. (123) Signing a typical software license agreement means betraying your neighbor: I promise to deprive my neighbor of this program so that I can have a copy for myself.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (125) 20131012o 0 -7+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Software should be free because of psychosocial harm to spirit of self-reliance because knowledgeable users cannot fix problems themselves due to lack of access to source code: recipe example for reducing salt content. (125) The system programmers at the AI Lab were capable of fixing such problems, probably as capable as the original authors of the program. Xerox was uninterested in fixing them, and chose to prevent us, so we were forced to accept the problems. They were never fixed.
(125) Most good programmers have experienced this frustration. The bank could afford to solve the problem by writing a new program from scratch, but a typical user, no matter how skilled, can only give up.
(125) Giving up causes psychosocial harm to the spirit of self-reliance. It is demoralizing to live in a house that you cannot rearrange to suit your needs.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (126) 20131012p 0 -10+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Software should be free because otherwise education and innovation restricted to corporate boundaries, similar to harm to spirit of scientific cooperation when too few papers are published to repeat experiments. (126) In any intellectual field, one can reach greater heights by standing on the shoulders of others. But that is no longer generally allowed in the software field you can only stand on the shoulders of the other people in your own company.
(126) The associated psychosocial harm affects the spirit of scientific cooperation, which used to be so strong that scientists would cooperate when their countries were at war. In this spirit, Japanese oceanographers abandoning their lab on an island in the Pacific carefully preserved their work for the invading U.S. Marines, and left a note asking them to take good care of it.
(126) Conflict for profit has destroyed what international conflict spared. Nowadays scientists in many fields donフ publish enough in their papers to enable others to replicate the experiment. They public only enough to let readers marvel at how much they were able to do. This is certainly true in computer science, where the source code for the programs reported on is usually secret.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (126) 20131108a 3 -4+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Irony in comparing deliberate preservation of Japanese oceanographic lab by invading US Marines to capitalist businesses by Nazis noted by Black. (126) In this spirit, Japanese oceanographers abandoning their lab on an island in the Pacific carefully preserved their work for the invading U.S. Marines, and left a note asking them to take good care of it.
(126) Conflict for profit has destroyed what international conflict spared.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (136) 20131012q 0 -4+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Copyright considered a trade off between natural right to make copies and benefit of more material being published; compare to Lessig. (136) This changing context changes the way copyright law works. You see, copyright law no longer acts as an industrial regulation; it is now a draconian restriction on a general public. It used to be a restriction on publishers for the sake of authors. Now, for practical purposes, itピ a restriction on a public for the sake of publishers.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (137) 20131012r 0 -2+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Losing freedoms from age of printing press including lending to friends, borrowing from library, selling to a used bookstore, and anonymity related to transactions. (137) The reason is that e-books are the opportunity to take away some of the residual freedoms that readers of printed books have always had and still have the freedom, for instance, to lend a book to your friend, to borrow it from the public library, or sell a copy to a used bookstore, or buy a copy anonymously without putting a record in the database of who bought that particular book. And maybe even the right to read it twice.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (138) 20131012s 0 -20+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
US using same methods as Soviets: watching copying equipment, harsh punishments, informers, collective responsibility, propaganda, using robot guards; Lessig code is law. (138) However, the U.S. is not the first country to make a priority of this [preventing forbidden copying like the DeCSS algorithm]. The Soviet Union treated it as very important. There, unauthorized copying and redistribution was known as Samizdat, and to stamp it out, they developed a series of methods: First, guards watching every piece of copying equipment to check what people were copying to prevent forbidden copying. Second, harsh punishments for anyone caught doing forbidden copying you could be sent to Siberia. Third, soliciting informers, asking everyone to rat on their neighbors and coworkers to the information police. Fourth, collective responsibility. . . . And, fifth, propaganda, starting in childhood, to convince everyone that only a horrible enemy of the people would ever do this forbidden copying.
(138) The U.S. is using all these measures now. First, guards watching copying equipment. Well, in copy stores, they have human guards to check what you copy. But human guards to watch what you copy in your computer would be too expensive; human labor is too expensive. So they have robot guards. Thatピ the purpose of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (148) 20131012t 0 -5+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
When arguing for free licenses, distinguish between functional works such as computer software and non-functional works such as personal thoughts and entertainment. (148) But for non-functional works, one thing doesnフ substitute for another. Letピ look at a functional kind of work say, a word processor. Well, if somebody makes a free word processor, you can use that; you donフ need the non-free word processor. But I wouldnフ say that one free song substitutes for all the non-free songs or that one free novel substitutes for all the non-free novels. For those kinds of works, itピ different.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (177) 20131012v 0 0+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Free software has tremendous advantages for business because it puts the user in control to exert influence by developing in house or utilizing free market for development and support, security and privacy (many eyes argument), promote compatibility and standardization. (177)

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (177-178) 20131012w 0 -3+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Freedom issue does not arise for 90 percent of software development, which is used solely in house. (177-178) If thereピ only one user, and that user owns the rights, thereピ no problem. That user is free to do all these things. So, in effect, any custom program that was developed by one company for use in-house is free software, as long as they have the sense to insist on getting the source code and all the rights.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (214) 20070614 0 0+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Stallman differentiates freedom as a criterion (moral value, ethic) from mere practicality, and makes the point that there is a gap in documentation because of restrictive licenses of publishers like Oreilly: obviously manuals are open, although perhaps from a source perspective the printed manual is like object code; surely a profitable printing enterprise can exist where efficiency and economy of scale allows for FOS licenses to govern documentation as well. (214)

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (214) 20130614 0 0+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Noted in previous readings or from experience of meeting him that Stallman seems ambivalent on the need to make all texts free like all software, not just texts containing software program language source code; interpreting this phenomenon in terms of philosophical concepts that the former are destined to be ultimately consumed by humans, the latter by machines, about whose thoughts humans cannot fully grasp and should therefore not prejudice, suggested a deep ethic of respect for otherness of machine intelligence in not restricting usage through four freedoms. (214)

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK torvalds-just_for_fun (ix) 20131025 0 -5+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_torvalds-just_for_fun.html
Acknowledgment that revolutionaries get stuck with telling their story when what they caused is significant. (ix) Not only was it the most common operating system running server computers dishing out all the content on the World Wide Web, but its very development model an intricate web of its own, encompassing hundreds of thousands of volunteer computer programmers had grown to become the largest collaborative project in the history of the world.
(x) Revolutionaries arenフ born. Revolutions canフ be planned. Revolutions canフ be managed. Revolutions happen.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK torvalds-just_for_fun (xviii) 20131025a 1 -5+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_torvalds-just_for_fun.html
Linus version of Maslow hierarchy of needs reduced to survival, social order, entertainment; recalling the desire of a tenured professor at the pinnacle of his career only seeking laughter and applause. (xviii) It wonフ give your life any meaning, but it tells you whatピ going to happen. There are three things that have meaning for life. They are the motivational factors for everything in your life for anything that
you do or any living thing does: The first is survival, the second is social order, and the third is entertainment. Everything in life progresses in that order. And there is nothing after entertainment.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK torvalds-just_for_fun (6) 20131024 0 -1+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_torvalds-just_for_fun.html
Compare early play with electronic calculator to Papert fascination with gears. (6) It probably wonフ surprise anyone that some of my earliest and happiest memories involve playing with my grandfatherピ old electronic calculator.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK torvalds-just_for_fun (7) 20131024b 2 -4+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_torvalds-just_for_fun.html
Commodore VIC-20 ready-made personal computer that was immediately ready to program, and without other applications, affording learning programming. (7) You just plugged it into the TV and turned it on, and there it sat, with a big all-caps READY at the top of the screen and a big blinking cursor just waiting for you to do something.
(7) The big problem was that there really wasnフ that much to do no the thing. Especially early on, when the infrastructure for commercial programs hadnフ yet started to materialize. The only thing you could really do was to program it in BASIC.

4 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK torvalds-just_for_fun (7-8) 20131025b 0 -4+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_torvalds-just_for_fun.html
Quintessential early PC experience typing in programs from manuals without really knowing what they did, experiencing ability to make changes to the behavior of the program. (7-8) And I started reading the manuals for the computer, typing in the example programs. There were examples of simple games that you could program yourself. If you did it right you would up with a guy that walked across the screen, in bad graphics, and then you could change it and make the guy walk across the screen in different colors. You could just
do that.

4 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (242-244) 20131108d 0 -1+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
Allusion to goal of automatic programming, ease of use, and trustworthiness in unnamed university planning paper. (242-244) [quoting unnamed planning paper by director of major university computer laboratory] The importance of the role stems, as has been noted, from the fact that the computer has been incorporating itself, and will surely continue to incorporate itself, into most of the functions that are fundamental to the support, protection, and development of our society.

--4.1.3+++ {11}

4 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20140625 20140625b 6 -29+ journal_2014.html
Watch lost Steve Jobs interview by Cringley and think it belongs in scope of dissertation analysis; the whole thing could be injected into chapter four. Note quasi scientific confirmation that fantasy tone generator was real. Jobs describes once in an epoch blue boxing pranks inspiring computer design philosophy. Built terminal and Apple one as two projects with Wozniak. Good description of printed circuit board whose affordances permitted daring experiments, funded by their microbus and other object back. Ambitions for Apple two color graphics by Woz and supplying software hobbyists ready to program units by Jobs. Fantastic booth at West Coast Computer Fair where it debuted after retired Markele joined could also be place to play a game that can be thought in a special way at the point all copyrights expire for the content supplying its run time engine. Recall the tapoc software can regulate appearance or concealment of programmed quotation by adjusting its relevance. Jobs suggests everyone in the country learns to program because like going to law school it teaches you to think; views computer science as a liberal art, taking a course learning to program. Blinded by graphical user interface over networked desktops made obvious all computers would use such interfaces. Discusses mistakes companies use trying to replicate past successes at larger scale by emphasizing process over content; group of employees largely from HP missed content understanding produced Lisa, which was mismatch for image of company selling affordable units. Macintosh team on mission from God to save Apple reinventing everything from manufacturing with automated facility. Spent four years building one targeted at 2500 instead of desired 1000 dollars, better than failure Gates notes of IBM OS/2 project. Claims Scully has disease of mistakenly thinking ninety percent of great projects are inspiring idea, failing to consider thousands of concepts that must be kept together to get what you want, the low cost, high performance, artistically designed humanist machine. Passionate teamwork like polishing rocks getting beautiful stones from ordinary materials. Difference between average and best software is fifty to one where ten to twenty to one for most other things, making self policing pockets of A players rejecting all lower talents. Do not have to baby egos of people who know they are really good, so saying their work is shit a corrective gesture because the work is not good enough for the goals of the team. Interviewer wants to know how and why desktop publishing chosen, which became killer app, a term used by Gates. Claims Macintosh team also envisioned networked office ahead of its time when desktop publishing should have been adequate focus, leading to departure in 1985 for which Jobs blames Scully and second guesses his wisdom in hiring him, unable to run a two billion dollar company handle contraction of PC marketplace though good business survival sense from working at Pepsi. Apple on glideslope to die that is not reversible at time of interview because Apple stood still watching Microsoft catch up, its differentiation eroding, its research and development efforts failing to understand how to move things forward and create new products. Claims Microsoft orbit benefited from Saturn five booster IBM working together to create new opportunities for themselves, now dominating PC space by transferring programs initially developed for Macintosh. The problem with Microsoft is they have no taste in a big way, not thinking of original ideas or bringing much culture into their product like proportionally spaced fonts from corporate fine arts appreciation; they make third rate products with no spirit, they are very pedestrian, making spiritless customers, perhaps implying making the species dumber concluding Microsoft is just McDonalds, though a nod to Misa is deserved for deeper analysis of this stereotypical metaphor base. Declares software infiltrating everything we do, giving example of MCI billing software beating AT&T initiatives as perspective of big person of projective city. Mentions perfecting use of object oriented technology allowing Apple to build software ten times faster. Computer metamorphizing into communication device prediction matching Gates; asserts the web will be seen as the defining technology, social moment for computing. Remembers example of human on bicycle beating condor in bodily efficiency transporting itself as inspiration, feeling himself at exactly the right place to nudge vector of human progress in the right direction. Shameless about stealing great ideas; liberal arts air attitude brought in by Macintosh team members who were the best in their fields besides being computer scientists: musicians, artists, hippies. Remembering the sixties happened in the early seventies, we can decide not to have left the happening of the eighties. Believes people who want spirit of artists rather than kings can be put into products, products people will admit they love, which they would not say about ordinary consumer objects.

4 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK fuller-software_studies (209) 20130923h 0 -8+ progress/2011/10/notes_for_fuller-software_studies.html
Perl: intentional engagement with modernism and postmodernism by Wall in programming language design, intended to allow more degrees of freedom; relevant to critical code studies and critical programming. (209) Programming with Perl emphasizes material conditions, which evokes how N. Katherine Hayles, in
Writing Machines, stresses materiality in relation to writing.
(210) In the lecture, Perl, the first postmodern computer language, Larry Wall is keen to point out that modernist culture was based on or rather than and, something he says that postmodern culture reverses.
(210-211) In claiming AND has higher precedence than OR does, Wall is focusing on the eclecticism of Perl and how algorithms can be expressed in multiple ways that express the style of the programmer. . . . The suggestion is that Perl is not only useful on a practical level but that it also holds the potential to reveal some of the contradictions and antagonisms associated with the production of software.

4 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation (86-87) 20131031c 0 -15+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation.html
Weaver Machine Translation of Languages ignore prior linguistics and begins with his own private memorandum on translation; compare to Burks, Goldstine, von Neumann claim that it would take us too far afield to start from first principles. (86-87) In a pathbreaking 1955 volume,
Machine Translation of Languages (Locke and Booth 1955), Weaver and the editors completely avoid all discussion of prior analysis of language and formal systems, as if these fields had simply appeared ex nihilo with the development of computers. . . . Like some computationalists today, Weaver locates himself in a specifically Christian eschatological tradition, and posits computers as a redemptive technology that can put human beings back into the prelapsarian harmony from which we have fallen.
(87) In an historical introduction provided by the editors, the history of MT begins abruptly in 1946, as if questions of the formal nature of language had never been addressed before. . . . The book itself begins with Weaverピ famous, (until-them) privately circulated memorandum of 1949, here published as Translation, and was circulated among many computer scientists of the time who dissented from its conclusions even then.
(88-89) The most famous part of Weaverピ memorandum suggests that MT is a project similar to cryptanalysis, one of the other primary uses for wartime computing. . . . Neither Enigma nor the Bombe could translate; instead, they performed properly algorithmic operations on strings of codes, so that human interpreters could have access to the underlying natural language.

4 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK kernighan_ritchie-c_programming_language (ix) 20131001 0 -5+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_kernighan_ritchie-c_programming_language.html
Economy of expression, modern flow control and data structures, rich set of operators key features of C. (ix) C is a general-purpose programming language which features economy of expression, modern flow control and data structures, and a rich set of operators. . . . its absence of restrictions and its generality make it more convenient and effective for many tasks than supposedly more powerful languages.

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