CRITICAL PROGRAMMING: Toward A Philosophy Of Computing

Chapter 1 Introduction{11}

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation{11}

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing{11}

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation{11}


Chapter 2 Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg{11}

2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman{11}

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage{11}

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and methodology{11}

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology{11}

3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers{11}

3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies{11}

3.4 platform studies, diachrony in synchrony, technogenesis and synaptogenesis, cyborg revisited{11}

Chapter 4 Philosophical programmers{11}

4.1 system engineers pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists{11}

4.2 application developers beyond hard mastery and bricolage, auto-ethnographers of coding places{11}

Chapter 5 Critical programming studies{11}

5.1 working code places{11}

5.2 programming philosophers{11}

5.3 symposia, ensoniment{11}

5.4 tapoc, flossification{11}

5.5 pmrek, machine embodiment{11}

Chapter 6 Conclusion{11}

6.1 recommendations{11}

6.2 future directions{11}

Works Cited

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

TOC 1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation+

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing

TOC 1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing+

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation


2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman

TOC 2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman+

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology

-3.1.0+++ {11}

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [0+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (IX) 20150219 0 0+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
Levy hints at potential for virtual aura through feedback recovering art and observer from withered condition brought on by commodification. (IX)

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (XIII) 20130910h 0 -5+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
Extreme closeup and other techniques are ways perceptions change through technology moreso than society, although Dumit discusses the social aspects; recall comparison to magician and surgeon, link to NMR. (XIII) With the close-up, space expands; with slow motion, movement is extended. . . . The camera introduces us to unconscious optics as does psychoanalysis to unconscious impulses.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [0+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (xliv) 20140303k 0 0+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Apply their methodology by opening black box of computer technology, which includes examining social groups, emerging digital humanities scholarship including Edwards, Ensmenger, Golumbia, Mackenzie, and so on layering on critical programming. (xliv)

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20061209 TAPOC_20061209 0 -8+ journal_2006.html
Copeland seems oblivious to what I have called default metaphysics of computing. When by abiding with the assumption that "The Turing machine is an idealization of a human computer" (2004), he implicitly commits himself to an anthropomorphized conception that inevitably emphasizes performing arithmetic operations within deadlines, the traditional work of human computers, ignoring what I have called shortlines and the study of true parallel processing. These are phenomena not always reducible to Turing machine constraints. Maner, for instance, acknowledges; Aloisio, too, notes that in the history of the word compte was French for very short periods of time. Such alternate systems are commonplace; cyberspace is constituted by the coordinated effort a distributed network of Turing machines, perhaps what some guy at CAP meant by the term supercomputing. Do we want to spend much time with a philosophy of computing that could not come up with a means to operate a switch matrix since it has no sense of time, no appreciation for many things at once? What other all too human qualities lurk in our actual technological apparatus as a result of default metaphysics holding sway over production? Perhaps if nobody is working on metaphysics in the philosophy of computing, it could proceed using methodologies borrowed from the philosophy of technology.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20121222 20121222 0 -3+ journal_2012.html
Notes made last night in Burks, Goldstine, von Neumann as one of the essential texts of electronic computer technology, laying out in detail what Turing describes abstractly, pseudo design. Then a chapter of the latest book by Hayles, as if to confirm the course set by these early theorists of human computer symbiosis. She criticizes Manovich for claiming that database paradigms compete with narrative, as if to supplant the form so characteristics of humanity; consider them instead as symbiants, components.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20130428 TAPOC_20130428 0 -2+ journal_2013.html
The framework needs to be named; I currently call it a synchronic processes in many orders of magnitude layer model, articulated in pinball platform studies. The idea to be captured is of multiple layer, multiple temporal order of magnitude concurrent amalgamated synchronic processes.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20141209 20141209 0 -5+ journal_2014.html
Despite their unique computing capabilities, post-postmodern network dividual cyborgs are also themselves or descendants of the dumbest generation, emerging at the turn of the century in the western world with personal computers and flourishing in the present second decade Internet milieu, which includes machinery and other technology systems along with humans, for there are dumb devices along with dumb people, with banality of Microsoft Bob hiding family resemblance with concentration camp equipment. Treat gigantic underwater book as limit of natural automata and mechanical media along with table size pages or lights on a moutainside shimmering text and images. Should replace engineers with architects for first half of chapter four along with calling chapter six advertisement short for animadvertPHI. Hallucinate, noting both imagine and fantasize have visual bias, habitual use of ensoniment to rethink experience of ancient philosophy through software development work. Chapter three takes theories from as is situation, and adds tech-savvy layer to SCOT through software studies, critical software, and platform studies approaches.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20150218 20150218 0 -2+ journal_2015.html
An example of synaptogenesis is multidimensional close reading including visual focus on small text at close distance, plus other activities like using pointing devices. Time to think about table of contents level reading of chapter two, for it is currently not even a good Latour list as ecample of Bogost Latour litany software artifact examples change to domain range of operator operation third order logic unit phenomenon run time instance PHI.

3 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment (18-19) 20130929e 0 -11+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment.html
Mathematics reified thought as a machine process; compare analysis to Hayles. (18-19) In the preemptive indentification of the thoroughly mathematized world with truth, enlightenment believes itself safe from the return of the mythical. It equates thought with mathematics. The latter is thereby cut loose, as it were, turned into absolute authority. . . . Thought is reified as an autonomous, automatic process, aping the machine it has itself produced, so that it can finally be replaced by the machine. . . . Despite its axiomatic self-limitation, it installed itself as necessary and objective: mathematics made thought into a thing a tool, to use its own term.

-3.1.1+++ {11}

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-listening (246-247) 20110905 0 -6+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_barthes-listening.html
The three types of listening; relate to Suchman situated actions and difficulty of AI theorists with natural language. (246-247) This first listening might be called an alert. The second is a deciphering; what the ear tries to intercept are certain signs. Here, no doubt, begins the human: I listen the way I read, i.e., according to certain codes. Finally, the third listening, whose approach is entirely modern (which does not mean it supplants the other two), does not aim at or await certain determined, classified signs: not what is said or emitted, but who speaks, who emits: such listening is supposed to develop in an inter-subjective space where I am listening also means listen to me ; what it seizes upon in order to transform and restore to the endless interplay of transference is a general signifying no longer conceivable without the determination of the unconscious.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (108-109) 20131024o 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Clear Foucault connection; later he refers to the insignificant ideology of the right: does bourgeois culture include classification systems as studied by Bowker and Star? (108-109) This anonymity of the bourgeoisie becomes even more marked when one passes from bourgeois culture proper to its derived, vulgarized, and applied forms, to what one could call public philosophy, that which sustains everyday life, civil ceremonials, secular rites, in short, the unwritten norms of interrelationships in a bourgeois society.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (110) 20131024p 0 -5+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Bourgeois ex-nomination. (110) The bourgeoisie is constantly absorbing into its ideology a whole section of humanity which does not have its basic status and cannot live up to it except in imagination, that is, at the cost of an immobilization and an impoverishment of consciousness. . . . it is as from the moment when a typist earning twenty pounds a month
recognizes herself in the big wedding of the bourgeoisie that bourgeois ex-nomination achieves its full effect.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (112-113) 20131024r 0 -5+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Language-object speaks things; clear Influence of Barthes method on Latour science studies. (112-113) One could answer with Marx that the most natural object contains a political trace, however faint and diluted, the more or less memorable presence of the human act which has produced, fitted up, used, subjected, or rejected it. The
language-object, which speaks things, can easily exhibit this trace; the metalanguage, which speaks of things, much less easily. . . .

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (113) 20131024s 0 -5+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Zizek humor. (113) But it is enough to replace the initial term of the chain for an instant into its nature as language-object, to gauge the emptying of reality operated by myth: can one imagine the feelings of a
real society of animals on finding itself transformed into a grammar example, into a predicative nature! . . . There is no doubt that if we consulted a real lion, he would maintain that the grammar example is a strongly depoliticized state, he would qualify as fully political the jurisprudence which leads him to claim a prey because he is the strongest, unless we deal with a bourgeois lion who would not fail to mythify his strength by giving it the form of a duty.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (115-116) 20131024t 0 -6+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Left-wing myth inessential. (115-116)
Left-wing myth is inessential. . . . Left-wing myth never reaches the immense field of human relationships, the vary vast surface of insignificant ideology. Everyday life is inaccessible to it: in a bourgeois society, there are no left-wing myths concerning marriage, cooking, the home, the theater, the law, morality, etc.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (117) 20131024u 0 -6+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Micro-climates in myths: does Barthes single out the petit-bourgeoisie if not to situate the scholar mythologist on myth of the right? (117) Does this completeness of the myths of Order (this is the name the bourgeoisie gives to itself) include inner differences? Are there, for instance, bourgeois myths and petit-bourgeois myths? . . . some myths ripen better in some social strata: for myth also, there are micro-climates.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (118) 20131024v 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Rhetorical forms of bourgeoisie myth that help constitute modernist, liberal subject: innoculation, privation of history, identification, tautology, neither-norism, quantification of quality, statement of fact. (118) Since we cannot yet draw up the list of the dialectical forms of bourgeois myth, we can always sketch its
rhetorical forms. One must understand here by rhetoric a set of fixed, regulated, insistent figures, according to which the varied forms of the mythical signifier arrange themselves.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (149) 20131025a 0 -3+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Definition of structuralism as an activity sounds like a programmed procedure. (149) Hence the first thing to be said is that in relation to
all its users, structuralism is essentially an activity, i.e., the controlled succession of a certain number of mental operations.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (VI) 20130910b 0 -6+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
From free-floating contemplation to involvement in hidden political significance and specific approaches to appreciation. (VI) With Atget, photographs become standard evidence for historical occurrences, and acquire a hidden political significance. They demand a specific kind of approach; free-floating contemplation is not appropriate for them. . . . For the first time, captions have become obligatory.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK bogost-unit_operations (77) 20130910p 0 -3+ progress/2012/01/notes_for_bogost-unit_operations.html
Benjamin figure that fascinates goes by other names by famous theorists: think of the exotic object on We Have Never Been Modern. (77) The poem expresses a unit operation for contending with the chance encounter. On the one hand, it is the crowd that thrusts the narrator into th enew confusion his situations exposes. On the other hand, that very exposure reveals a useful tool, what Benjamin calls a
figure that fascinates.

3 1 1 (+) [-3+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (xxvi) 20140118p 2 -11+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Formulating autocritique from flaw noted in their exposition: capitalism and critique simultaneously and interactively take charge of definition and categorization of the world through their capacities for displacement and inventiveness. (xxvi) Where tests are concerned, we equipped our actors with capacities for both displacement and categorization. Categorization consists in comparing singular events in a particular respect in order to connect them in a series. It is one of the basic operations people perform when they seek to give meaning to the world they live in, by deriving from it major invariants and a certain simplified image of the way it operates. Capacities for categorization are essential for ƒtightening up testsƒ. Contrawise, displacements refer to peopleƒs actions inasmuch as they are not categorical and, more especially, in so far as they do not form part of established, identified and highly categorized tests a feature which gives them a local, largely invisible character.
(xxvi) What is involved is a flaw in our exposition: capacities for categorization and displacement, as anthropological capacities, are obviously uniformly distributed. . . . Hence capitalism and its critiques simultaneously, and interactively, take charge of the definition / categorization of thew world.
(xxvii) Symmetrically, critique has significant capacities for displacement and inventiveness.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (14) 20140119b 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Cadres and engineers are primary recipients of management discourse. (14) We shall see how management discourse, which aims to be formal and historical, general and local, which mixes general precepts with paradigmatic examples, today constitutes the form par excellence in which the spirit of capitalism is incorporated and received.
(14) This discourse is first and foremost addressed to
cadres, whose support for capitalism is particularly indispensable for running firms and creating profits.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (15) 20140119c 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Constraint of maintaining tolerable distance between cadres and workers. (15) One of the constraints on their justification is the preservation of a culturally tolerable distance between their own condition and that of the workers whom they have to manage.
(15) The justifications of capitalism that interest us here are thus not so much those referred to above, which capitalists or academic economists might elaborate for external consumption, particularly in the political world, but first and foremost those addressed to
cadres and engineers.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (22) 20140304i 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Cities as general convention of justification appropriate to exploration in computer games like Sim City and Civilization. (22) Inasmuch as they are subject to an imperative of justification, social arrangements tend to incorporate reference to a kind of very general convention directed towards a common good, and claiming universal validity, which has been modeled on the concept of the
city. Capitalism is no exception to this rule. What we have called the spirit of capitalism necessarily contains reference to such conventions, at least in those of its dimensions that are directed towards justice.

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Take justification of capitalism to common good seriously to distance from polarizing critical approaches. (26) In taking the effects of the justification of capitalism by reference to a common good seriously, we distance ourselves both from critical approaches for which only capitalismƒs tendency to unlimited accumulation at any price is real, and the sole function of ideologies is to conceal the reality of all-powerful economic relations of force; and from apologetic approaches which, confusing normative supports and reality, ignore the imperatives of profit and accumulation, and place the demands for justice faced by capitalism at its heart.

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Critique can delegitimate previous spirits. (28) First of all, it can
delegitimate previous spirits and strip them of their effectiveness.

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Critique can justify capitalist processes in terms of common good. (28) A second effect of critique is that, in opposing the capitalist process, it compels its spokesmen to justify that process in terms of the common good.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (29) 20140119n 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Critique can also cloud the issue. (29) We may suppose that, in certain conditions, it can
elude the requirement of strengthening the mechanisms of justice by making itself more difficult to decipher, by ƒclouding the issueƒ.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (29) 20140119o 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Model of change through interplay of three terms of critique, organizing work, maintaining space between means and justice. (29) The model of change we shall employ rests upon the interplay between three terms. The first represents critique, and can be parameterized according to what it denounces (the objects of denunciation being, as we shall see, pretty various in the case of capitalism) and its vigor. The second corresponds to capitalism inasmuch as it is characterized by the mechanisms for organizing work, and ways of making a profit associated with it, at a given period. The third likewise denotes capitalism, but this time in so far as it integrates mechanisms intended to maintain a tolerable space between the means employed to generate profits (second term) and demands for justice relying on conventions whose legitimacy is acknowledged.

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The test. (30) There is one notion that helps us to articulate the three terms of capitalism, spirit of capitalism and critique: that of the
test, which, in addition, represents an excellent vehicle for integrating exigencies of justice and relations of force into the same framework without reductionism.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (31) 20140119r 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Power conveyed by determination by tests of degree of amoral strength or just character status. (31) We shall say in the first instance (the test of strength) that at its conclusion the disclosure of power is conveyed by the determination of a certain degree of strength, and in the second (the legitimate test), by a judgment as to the respective is status of people. Whereas the attribution of strength defines a state of affairs without any more implications, the attribution of a status assumes a judgment that bears not only on the respective strength of the opposing parties, but also on the just character of the order disclosed by the test.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (32) 20140119s 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Critique and tests intimately related in affecting capitalism. (32)
Critique and tests are intimately related.
(32) The impact of critique on capitalism operates by means of the effects it has on the central tests of capitalism.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (33) 20140119t 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Reformist and revolutionary critique depending on how it affects tests. (33) From this second critical position, the critique that aims to rectify the test will itself often be criticized as
reformist, in contrast to a radical critique that has historically proclaimed itself revolutionary.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (35) 20140119u 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Two stage birth of new spirit of capitalism. (35) The birth of a new spirit of capitalism thus comes about in two stages, although this is a merely analytical distinction, since they broadly overlap. In the first, we witness the sketching of a general interpretative schema of the new mechanisms and the establishment of a new cosmology, allowing people to get their bearings and deduce some elementary rules of behavior. In the second, this schema is going to be refined in the direction of greater justice, with its organizing principles established, the reformist critique will strive to make the new tests that have been identified stricter.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (36) 20140119v 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Domain of emotions and reflexive levels of expression of critique. (36) This is why there are actually two levels in the expression of any critique: a primary level the domain of the emotions which can never be silenced, which is always ready to become inflamed whenever new situations provoking indignation emerge; and a secondary level reflexive, theoretical and argumentative that makes it possible to sustain ideological struggle, but assumes a supply of concepts and schemas making it possible to connect the historical situation people intend to criticize with values that can be universalized.

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Four sources of indignation: disenchantment and inauthenticity, oppression, poverty and inequalities, opportunism and egoism. (37) While capitalism has changed since its formation, its ƒnatureƒ has not been radically transformed. As a result, the sources of indignation that have continually fueled criticism of it have remained pretty much the same over the last two centuries.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (38) 20140119x 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Artistic and social critique. (38) Consequently, the bearers of these various grounds for indignation and normative fulcra have been different groups of actors, although they can often be found associated in a particular historical conjuncture. Thus, we may distinguish between an
artistic critique and a social critique.

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Artistic critique foregrounds loss of meaning, sense of beautiful; Baudelaire bourgeoisie and the dandy exemplifying attachment and detachment. (38) This [artistic] critique foregrounds the loss of meaning and, in particular, the loss of the sense of what is beautiful and valuable, which derives from standardization and generalized commodification, affecting not only everyday objects but also artworks (the cultural mercantilism of the bourgeoisie) and human beings.
(38) The artistic critique is based upon a contrast between attachment and detachment, stability and mobility, whose paradigmatic formulation is found in Baudelaire. On the one hand, we have the bourgeoisie, owning land, factories and women, rooted in possessions. . . . On the other hand, we have intellectuals and artists free of all attachments, whose model the
dandy, a product of the mid-nineteenth century made the absence of production (unless it was self-production) and a culture of uncertainty into untranscendable ideals.

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Modernist and antimodernist aspects. (39) While it shares its individualism with modernity, the artistic critique presents itself as a radical challenge to the basic values and options of capitalism. . . . The social critique, for its part, seeks above all to solve the problem of inequalities and poverty by breaking up the operation of individual interests.
(40) However, notwithstanding the dominant tendency of each of these critiques towards reform of, or abandonment of, the capitalist regime it will be observed that each of them presents a modernist and an anti-modernist aspect. For this reason, the tension between a radical critique of modernity, which leads to ƒprotesting against the age without participating in itƒ, and a modernist critique that risks leading to ƒparticipating in the age without challenging itƒ, is a constant feature of critical movements.

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Capitalism readily submits to the exit critique. (42) The ƒexitƒ critique, which is a refusal to buy on the part of the consumer or customer in the broad sense, a refusal of employment by the potential wage laborer, or a refusal to serve by the independent service provider, is one to which capitalism more readily submits.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (60-61) 20140306b 0 -8+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Textual study with two phases of analysis based on two corpora of sixty texts per period: close reading by humans to define hypothetical characteristics of each period, and machine reading via Prospero analytical software to corroborate them. (60-61) We have therefore constituted two corpora comprising sixty texts each. The first corpus appeared in the 1960s (1959-1969), the second in the 1990s (1989-94); and both deal, in whole or part, with the question of
cadres, even if the latter are sometimes referred to by different terms (manager, directeur, chef, dirigeant, etc.). For each of the periods under consideration, these two corpora make it possible to bring out a typical image of what was recommended to firms as regards the types of cadres to employ, the way they should ideally be treated, and the kind of work that might appropriately be asked of them. Appendix 1 sets out the characteristics of the texts analyzed, while Appendix 2 presents a bibliography of each corpus. The corpora thus constructed (more than a thousand pages) have been processed in two phases. In the first instance, we submitted them to a traditional analysis based on an extensive reading that aimed at an initial location of their authorsƒ concerns, the solutions they proposed to the problems of their period, the image they offered of the inherited forms they declared to be outdated, and the various arguments advanced to effect the conversion of their readers. In a second phase, we used the analytical software Prospero@ (see Appendix B) to corroborate our hypotheses and confirm, by means of specific indicators running through the body of texts, that our analysis did indeed reflect the general state of the corpus (not a personal bias with respect to certain themes that risked exaggerating their importance), and hence the general state of management literature in the relevant years.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (61) 20140306c 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Comparative method placing emphasis on differences between the two corpora. (61) The option adopted is basically comparative. Emphasis has been placed on the differences between the two corpora, whereas constants have been paid less attention.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (86) 20140309j 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Statistical software confirmation of their interpretation of content of two sets of management literature; now test them. (86) we used a textual analysis software program to compare the two corpora systematically. In Appendix 3, readers will find a presentation of this work, offering statistical confirmation of the interpretation of their content we have just presented.
(86) Let us reiterate that, in order to meet the constraints of the test to which we are subjecting them, these texts must present engagement in reformation as a personally exciting venture, demonstrate that the measures proposed are justifiable in terms of the common good, and, finally, explain how they will deliver to those who invest in them a certain form of security for themselves and their children.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (125) 20140121u 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Model tests at end of a project. (125) <Model tests> are just as necessary for fulfilling the requirements of justice, and for their inscription in the fabric of everyday relations. These are situations when the status of persons and things is revealed with especial clarity.
(125) It is when a project is finished that the keyholders are revealed and an appraisal is conducted.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (135-136) 20140125e 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Based on these analyses and software analysis of 1990s management literature, projective city constitutes original mode of justification. (135-136) The analyses above lead us to believe that what we have called the projective city does indeed constitute an original mode of justification, whose architecture is based on a world of objects and mechanisms whose formation is relatively recent. We can also confirm it by demonstrating, with the aid of the textual analysis program Prospero, that the projective city definitely specifies the 1990s corpus.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (136) 20140125f 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Mapping grammars of seven worlds via word categories shows dominance of industrial logic in both eras, and network logic overtaking domestic logic for second place in 1990s. (136) The grammars are represented in their computerized form by groups or categories of words associated with one or other world. It is then possible to compare the two corpora with respect to the presence or absence of the different categories. . . .

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (137) 20140125g 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Textual analysis brings network logic to top position. (137) The program of textual analysis that we have employed thus makes it possible to bring out a major transformation in the space of thirty years in the registers of justification on which management literature bases itself, and an increase in the popularity of the network logic to top position. . . . Hence this tends to confirm the hypothesis that the construction we have extracted from texts does indeed represent, in stylized and concentrated form, what characterizes the new spirit of capitalism in a highly original fashion.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (139) 20140125i 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Few management texts reference authors from human sciences and philosophy, mostly each other; communication, complexity, chaos are predominant terms. (139) However, although a large number of the terms or notions drawn from management texts where network logic predominates have their equivalent in writings from the human sciences, direct references to these works are rather rare in our corpus, and pretty much concentrated under the signatures of a few authors. These authors associate management in network form with three terms: first, communication (represented by references to Habermas, Bateson, and Watzlawick); secondly, complexity (J.-P. Dupuy, Edgar Morin); and, finally, disorder, chaos and self-organization (represented by references to Prigogine, Stengers, Atlan, Heisenberg, Hofstadter and Varela). As a general rule, the authors of our corpus predominantly cite other management authors, and frequently one another; this accords with the existence of management as a specific discipline.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (139) 20140125j 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Traces of 1970s Illich although rarely cited by management authors. (139) In other respects, we find in the writings of the main authors from whom we have extracted the outline of the projective city traces of a reading of Ivan
Illichƒs works in the 1970s. Their anti-authoritarian emphasis, critique of centralization, stress on autonomy and on what might, with a certain anachronism, be called self-organization, and also their technological humanism placing tools in the service of humanity, not vice versa were to be taken up in the thematic of the projective city.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (148-149) 20140125p 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Traditional political philosophy has not yet attempted to justify the network, connexionist order; consider recent Lanier as example arising from technologists. (148-149) Because, as far as we know, there is no key text that attempts to establish the possibility of a harmonious, just world based on the network. The connexionist type of order whose formalization we have sketched has not in the same way as the domestic, civic or commercial orders, for example been the object of a systematic construction in the tradition of political philosophy.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (150) 20140125q 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Historicist and naturalist efforts to construct scientific sociology based on networks, reducible to reticular organization of knowledge. (150) The wish to construct an authentically scientific sociology on the basis of network analysis has been expressed in two different fashions. Schematically, the first might be characterized as historicist, the second as naturalistic.
(151) However, the tension between a historicist position (the network is the form that suits our age) and a naturalistic position (the network is the texture constitutive of any social world, even of nature in its entirety) can be reduced if one accepts that in the order of knowledge, reticular organization constitutes the form that is best adjusted to the global vision of the world from the viewpoint of a city founded upon a connexionist logic.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (156) 20140125x 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Critique seemed to miss advance of new network mechanisms of capitalism besides condemnation of exclusion, until recently, though its 1970s vanguard emerge as promoters of the transformation. (156) Apart from the denunciation of exclusion, however, which is precisely a condemnation of the new connexionist world in terms of disaffiliation that is to say, disconnection which appeared at the beginning of the 1990s but remained largely unconnected with the new mechanisms of capitalism, at least until recently, it must be said that the new world became firmly established without a fuss. It was as if it had been covered up by the clamor surrounding the slowdown in growth and rising unemployment, which no public policies succeeded in curbing. Similarly powerless, critique was unable to analyze the transformation beyond exposing the new forms of social suffering. Quite the reverse, those in the vanguard of critique in the 1970s often emerged as promoters of the transformation.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (309) 20131026n 0 -6+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Benjamin dialectics of seeing. (309) These fragments an enormous compendium of research notes and commentary suggest a critical theory of modernity based on a materialist philosophy which, because it is concentrated in the experience of vision, can perhaps best be described as a
dialectics of seeing.
(309) Benjamin saw in
Paris arcades the original temple of commodity capitalism, all of the characteristics of commodity culture in embryonic form. . . . The passages are the precursors of the department stores.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (311-312) 20131026 0 -6+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Mass publication emblem books influence montage panoramic representation of dialectical images intuited as Urphenomena. (311-312) The
Passagen-Werkƒs pictorial representations of ideas are undeniably modeled after those emblem books of the seventeenth century that had widespread appeal as perhaps the first genre of mass-publication. . . . The images were to provide a critical understanding of modernity by juxtaposing, stereoscopically, images of two time dimensions, his own world and its nineteenth-century origins, according to the cognitive principles of montage. Nineteenth-century objects were to be made visible as the originary, Urphenomena of the present.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (314-316) 20131026o 0 -20+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Conceptual extremes illustrated by quadrant diagram: petrified/transitory nature, dream/waking, fossil/fetish, wish-image/ruin. (314-316) His unfolding of concepts in their extremes can be visualized as antithetical polarities of axes which cross each other, revealing the dialectical moments of an image at the null-point. . . . If the termini are to be antithetical extremes, we might name those on the axis of reality,
petrified nature/transitory nature, while in the case of consciousness, the termini would be dream/waking. At the null-point where the coordinates intersect, we can place that dialectical image which by 1935 stood at the midpoint of the project: the commodity. . . . The diagram represents this invisible inner structure of the Passagen-Werk.
(quadrant diagram)
fossil names the commodity in the discourse of Ur-history, as the visible remains of the Urphenomena. . . . The fetish is the key word of the commodity as mythic phantasmagoria, the arrested form of history. . . . The wish-image is the transitory dream-form of that potential. In it, archaic meanings return in anticipation of the dialectic of awakening.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (317) 20131026b 0 -6+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Under conditions of capitalist industrialization, reenchantment of social world through reactivation of mythic powers at dream level; Arcades project intended to practice dialectics of seeing to enable waking from that dream. (317) In contrast, and in keeping with the Surrealist vision, Benjaminƒs central argument in the
Passagen-Werk was that under conditions of capitalism, industrialization had brought about a reenchantment of the social world, and through it, a reactivation of mythic powers. . . . Underneath the surface of increasing systematic rationalization, on an unconscious dream -level, the new urban-industrial world had become fully reenchanted. Hence, Benjaminƒs Arcades project was to practice a dialectics of seeing that would enable people to wake up from that dream.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (321) 20131026c 0 -13+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Theory of cognition based on childhood tactile, active, experimental experience of world wonder; compare to Lyotard. (321)
Childrenƒs cognition has revolutionary power because it is tactile, hence tied to action, and because, rather than accepting the given meaning of things, children get to know objects by laying hold of them and using them creatively, releasing from them new possibilities of meaning.
(321) Adults who observe childrenƒs behavior can learn to rediscover a mode of cognition that has deteriorated phylogenetically, and in the adult has sunk into the unconscious.
(322) These technologies [camera and cinema] provide human beings with
unprecedented perceptual acuity, out of which, Benjamin believed, a less magical, more scientific form of the mimetic faculty was developing in his own era.
(322-323) Now for the first time an analysis of this unconsciously interwoven space is possible. . . . It is in this way that technological
reproduction can give back to humanity that very capacity for experience which technological production threatens to take away. . . . Film provides the audience with a new capacity to study modern existence from the position of an expert. The printed word shows itself more vulnerable in contrast.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (325-326) 20131026f 0 -7+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Trick in fairy tale is to interpret unconscious past of collective out of mass culture discards; compare to Lyotard parology. (325-326) The trick in Benjaminƒs fairy tale is to interpret out of mass cultureƒs discards a politically empowering knowledge of the collectiveƒs own unconscious past. He believed he could do this because it is through such objects that the collective unconscious communicates across generations. New inventions conceived out of the fantasy of one generation, they are received within the childhood experience of another. . . . At this intersection between collective history and personal history, between societyƒs dream and the dreams of childhood, the contents of the collective unconscious are transmitted: Every epoch has this side turned toward dreams the childlike side.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (326) 20131026g 0 -5+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Turkle may be the first to attach to digital objects the transgeneration communication of socially formed collective unconscious fantasies. (326) Slumbering within objects, the utopian wish is awakened by a new generation, which rescues it by bringing the old world of symbols back to life. . . . When the childƒs fantasy is cathected onto the products of modern production, it reactivates the original promise of industrialism, slumbering in the lap of capitalism, to deliver a humane society out of material abundance.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (327) 20131026i 0 -2+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Utopian wish slumbering within objects reactivated through child fantasy play. (327) At the moment of the collectiveƒs historical awakening, it was to provide a politically explosive answer to the socio-historical form of the childƒs question: Where did I come from? Where did modern existence, or more accurately, the images of the modern dream-world come from?

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture (328) 20131026j 0 -2+ progress/2012/11/notes_for_buck_morss-dream_world_of_mass_culture.html
Preference formation in concrete, historical archetypes. (328) The world of the modern city appears in these writings as a mythic and magical one in which the child Benjamin discovers the new anew, and the adult Benjamin recognizes it as a rediscovery of the old. The impulses of the unconscious are thus formed as a result of concrete, historical experiences, and are not (as with Jungƒs archetypes) biologically inherited.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK bull_and_back-auditory_culture_reader (306) 20131026 0 -3+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_bull_and_back-auditory_culture_reader.html
Tonkiss: for Benjamin, hearing as sense of memory, recording. (306) Walter Benjamin had that knack for making cities speak and sing. He souvenired sounds from different places, composed urban vignettes as if they were aural postcards.
(306) In these ways, sound threads itself through the memory of place.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (206) 20130913 0 -1+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Telephony has been ignored by philosophy despite its potential effect on sense of self. (206) The telephone offers a quasi-controlled collapse of boundaries, in which the listening self can be pervaded by the vocal body of another while yet remaining at a distance from it.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (214) 20130913c 0 -1+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Psychoanalysis gives some explanations for role of auditory despite its lack of ontology. (214) All these conditions are summed up, says Lecourt, in its quality of ƒ
omnipresent simultaneityƒ.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (1-2) 20130914 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Action of self reproducing narratives bound to terms of patriarchy traps feminist thinking, as capitalism traps utopian thinking. (1-2) To continue to pose the question of gender in either of these terms, once the critique of patriarchy has been fully outlined, keeps feminist thinking bound to the terms of Western patriarchy itself, contained within the frame of a conceptual opposition that is always already inscribed in what Fredric Jameson would call the political unconscious of dominant cultural discourses and their underlying master narratives --be they biological, medical, legal, philosophical, or literary and so will tend to reproduce itself, to retextualize itself, as we shall see, even in feminist rewritings of cultural narratives.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (2) 20130914a 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Need to deconstruct bind of subject constituted in gender and sexual differences. (2) This bind, this mutual containment of gender and sexual differences(s), needs to be unraveled and deconstructed.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (3) 20130914c 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Good definition of the real and how gender is shaped by its representations: seems like a very specific, culturally nuanced method of argumentation, as if De Lauretis is imitating the putative universal, gender indifferent manner that OGorman and others refers to as the Republic of Scholars. (3) (4) Paradoxically, therefore, the construction of gender is also effected by its deconstruction; that is to say, by any discourse, feminist or otherwise, that would discard it as ideological misrepresentation. For gender, like the real, is not only the effect of representation but also its excess, what remains outside discourse as a potential trauma which can rupture or destabilize, if not contained, any representation.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (9) 20130914h 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Proposition 2 two that self-representation also affects construction of gender. (9) The construction of gender is the product and the process of both representation and self-representation.
(9) Nevertheless, there is an outside, a place from where ideology can be seen for what it is mystification, imaginary relation, wool over oneƒs eyes; and that place is, for Althusser, science, or scientific knowledge.
(11) To what extent this newer or emerging consciousness of complicity acts with or against the consciousness of oppression, is a question central to the understanding of ideology in these postmodern and postcolonial times.

3 1 1 (+) [-6+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (12) 20130914f 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Interpellation nicely illustrated and defined by checking Male or Female boxes. (12) This [checking M or F boxes] is, of course, the process described by Althusser with the word
interpellation, the process whereby a social representation is accepted and absorbed by an individual as her (or his) own representation, and so becomes, for the individual, real, even though it is in fact imaginary.
(12) Hence the notion of a technology of sex, which he [Foucault] defines as a set of techniques for maximizing life that have been developed and deployed by the bourgeoisie since the end of the eighteenth century in order to ensure its class survival and continued hegemony.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (18) 20130914i 0 -7+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Proposition three that construction of gender mediated by technologies of gender and institutional discourses, opening spaces at margins in micropolitical practices for alternate constructions of gender. (18)
The construction of gender goes on today through the various technologies of gender (e.g., cinema) and institutional discourses (e.g., theory) with power to control the field of social meaning and thus produce, promote, and implant representations of gender. But the terms of a different construction of gender must also exist, in the margins of hegemonic discourses. Posed from outside the heterosexual social contract, and inscribed in micropolitical practices, these terms can also have a part in the construction of gender, and their effects are rather at the local level of resistances, in subjectivity and self-representation.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (89) 20130914m 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
The sisters surrounding Gramsci embody the three choices for women in Western cultures: service, mystique, madness. (89) In a sense, the personalities and social roles assumed by the three Schucht sisters sketch almost to a T the only choices allowed women in most Western cultures: service functions within male structures, adherence to the feminine mystique of charity, sacrifice, and self-denial, and madness.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation (20) 20130807c 0 -6+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation.html
Poststructuralism hinges on denial of substantive human nature. (20) We need, then, to distinguish between the concept
human prior to poststructuralism and after it to keep in mind the object of criticism Derrida and Foucault meant to target, while not jettisoning a robust enough conception of human life to sustain political and cultural reflection.
(20-21) It would be inaccurate to say that we have passed beyond the notion of a substantive human nature in our own society; such a concept functions powerfully in popular discourse around gender, race, and sexuality, among other places. . . . Whatever our particular characteristics, we are all human, and we accept the fact that his term has little substantive content.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (113) 20141123k 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Totalitarianism in organic foundation and unified source of society and state, homogenizing community in mythical originary notion of the people. (113) What is totalitarian is the organic foundation and the unified source of society and the state. The community is not a dynamic collective creation but a primordial founding myth. An originary notion of the people poses an identity that homogenizes and purifies the image of the population while blocking the constructive interactions of differences within the multitude.
(113) The concept of nation and the practices of nationalism are from the beginning set down on the road not to the republic but to the re-total, the total thing, that is, the totalitarian overcoding of social life.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (116) 20140928a 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Example of Las Casas Eurocentric view of Americas. (116) [Bartolome de] Las Casas cannot see beyond the Eurocentric view of the Americas, in which the highest generosity and charity would be bringing the Amerindians under the control and tutelage of the true religion and its culture.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (124-125) 20140928e 0 -11+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Alterity as colonical compartmentalization, exclusion in thoughts and values produced, not given. (124-125) The colonized are excluded from European spaces not only in physical and territorial terms, and not only in terms of rights and privileges, but even in terms of thought and values. . . . Apartheid is simply one form, perhaps the emblematic form, of the compartmentalization of the colonial world.
Alterity is not given but produced. . . . The Orient, then, at least as we know it through Orientalism, is a creation of discourse, made in Europe and exported back to the Orient. The representation is at once a form of creation and a form of exclusion.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (125-126) 20140928f 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Role of anthropology in creating alterity; synchronic presence of diachronic evolutionary stages. (125-126) Among the academic disciplines involved in this cultural production of alterity, anthropology was perhaps the most important rubric under which the native other was imported to and exported from Europe. . . . The diachronic stages of humanityƒs evolution toward civilization were thus conceived as present synchronically in the various primitive peoples and cultures spread across the globe.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (127-128) 20140928g 0 -14+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Absolute difference of the Other produces European Self in dialectical movement. (127-128) Precisely because the difference of the Other is absolute, it can be inverted in a second moment as the foundation of the Self. In other words, the evil, barbarity, and licentiousness of the colonized Other are what make possible the goodness, civility, and propriety of the European Self. . . .
The identity of the European Self is produced in this dialectical movement. . . . Only through opposition to the colonized does the metropolitan subject really become itself. . . . Modern European thought and the modern Self are both necessarily bound to what Paul Gilroy calls the relationship of racial terror and subordination.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (128) 20140928h 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Colonialism imposes binary divisions; colonialism, not reality, is dialectical. (128) Our argument here, however, is not that reality presents this facile binary structure but that colonialism, as an abstract machine that produces identitites and alterities, imposes binary divisions on the colonial world. . . .
Reality is not dialectical, colonialism is.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (191) 20141125c 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Under imperial racism biological differences replaced by social and cultural signifiers; Bailbar differentialist, pluralist racism still essentialist. (191) With the passage to Empire, however, biological differences have been replaced by sociological and cultural signifiers as the key representation of racial hatred and fear.
(192) We should look more closely, however, at how imperial racist theory operates. Etienne Balibar calls the new racism a differentialist racism, a racism without race, or more precisely, a racism that does not rest on a biological concept of race. Although biology is abandoned as the foundation and support, he says, culture is made to fill the role that biology had played.
(192) This pluralism accepts all the differences of who we are so long as we agree to act on the basis of these differences of identity, so long as we act our race.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (194) 20141125d 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Hierarchies still created under differential racism of Empire. (194) Empire does not think differences in absolute terms; it poses racial differences never as a difference of nature but always as a difference of degree, never as necessary but always as accidental. Subordination is enacted in regimes of everyday practices that are more mobile and flexible but that create racial hierarchies that are nonetheless stable and brutal.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment (107-108) 20130929l 0 -9+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment.html
A criticism of culture industry that is often also applied to movies and video games. (107-108) The culture industry can boast of having energetically accomplished and elevated to a principle the often inept transposition of art to the consumption sphere, of having stripped amusement of its obtrusive naiveties and imposed the quality of its commodities. . . . What is new, however, is that the irreconcilable elements of culture, art, and amusement have been subjected equally to the concept of purpose and thus brought under a single false denominator: the totality of the culture industry. . . . With good reason the interest of countless consumers is focused on the technology, not on the rigidly repeated, threadbare and half-abandoned content.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (5-6) 20130929 0 -7+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Hard-core theory predicts, developing laws; soft theory maps, developing metaphors. (5-6) Soft theories, especially when focusing on art, aspire to closure through the introduction of metaphors or what has been called open concepts, i.e., those marked by equivocalness owing to conflicting references.
(6) Metaphor versus law, as the respective keystone idea of soft and hard-core theory, highlights a vital difference between the sciences and the humanities. A law has to be applied, whereas a metaphor triggers associations. The former establishes realities, and the latter outlines patterns.
(6) Consequently, humanistic theories cannot be discarded if their intended function is not fulfilled; at best they compete with one another.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (9) 20130929a 0 -4+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Embodiment and context always relevant to the work of art. (9) The work of art is never independent of these faculties, which it activates and mobilizes into a possible reformulation of our knowledge, and reorganization of our stored experience. The work also impinges on the context within which it was produced. It encapsulates cultural norms, prevailing attitudes, and other texts, and in doing so recodes their structures and semantics.
(9) In contradistinction to aesthetics, then, theories of art derive their components from sources outside themselves, thus obtaining a more reliable basis than the contrived speculations of aesthetics could ever provide.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (11) 20130929b 0 -6+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Methods provide tools for interpretive processes; theories must be transformed into methods. (11) Theories generally lay the foundation for the framework of categories, whereas methods provide the tools for processes of interpretation. . . . Hence these theories must undergo a transformation if they are to function as interpretive techniques.
(11) Hence there are two types of theory in the humanities: those that have to be transformed into a method in order to function, and those that are applied directly, retroactively undergoing a diffraction of their categories.

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Phenomenology focuses on intentional acts to gain insight on ways we related to the world. (14) In so doing, they also fashion the mode of
apperception of things given, and so phenomenology focuses basically on intentional acts for the purpose of gaining insight into the way in which we relate to the world.

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Concretization is realization of the work as point of convergence of artistic and aesthetic (Ingarden). (14-15) Just as the author perceives given (even imaginary) things and fashions them into the work, the work in turn is given to the reader, who has to fashion the authorƒs communication of the world perceived. This is the basis for a phenomenological theory of art. Roman
Ingarden (1893-1970) fleshed out this pattern in his two books, The Literary Work of Art and The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art. He delineates the basic components of the literary text and confronts them with the ways in which it can be concretized (realized). The text is given as a layered structure through which the subject matter of the work can come to light, but the actual bringing to light occurs in an act of concretization. Thus the literary work has two poles, which we might call the artistic and the aesthetic: the artistic refers to the text created by the author, and the aesthetic to the realization accomplished by the reader. . . . The work is the point of convergence, since it is located neither in the authorƒs psyche nor in the readerƒs experience.
(15) Hence, according to Ingarden, it is an intentional object, whose component parts function as instructions, the execution of which will bring the work to fruition.

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Example of stratified model for method derive from phenomenological theory. (23) Adding flesh to the bone, we shall briefly and rather selectively outline how to focus on a work of art in terms of the
stratified model. John Keatsƒs Ode on a Grecian Urn, to which reference has already been made, will serve our purpose.
(27) What used to be the capstone of Ingardenƒs theory proves to be a severe limitation when it comes to interpretation. Transforming the stratified model into a method thus has repercussions on the theory insofar as polyphonic harmony which Ingarden considered an ultimate value now turns out to be a residue of classicism in a theory that claims to assess the work of art as it is given to consciousness.

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Hermeneutical theory as process for understanding art in Heidegger and Gadamer. (29) As a general theory of understanding, hermeneutics does not confine itself to understanding a work of art. However, the latter is taken as a paradigm for illuminating the process through which understanding emerges, thus assuming crucial significance for both Heidegger and Gadamer.

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Collingwood question-and-answer logic a kind of reverse engineering method, an example of method derived from theory that will be repeated with Gombrich. (38) R. G.
Collingwood (1889-1943), in his attempt to outline how history can be reenacted in the present, proposed a question-and-answer logic.
(39) Each work of art is to be conceived as an answer to a question or problem prevalent in the respective historical situation within which it was produced. The work as an answer is bound to contain the question in the form of an issue that had to be addressed. Through the logic of question and answer we are able to reconstruct the context of the work to which it has reacted, thereby making us present to a historical situation that has never been our own. Thus a truly historical interpretation of the work of art emerges, which allows us both to reenact the work on its own terms, and to begin to understand its otherness. Furthermore, the question-and-answer logic does not subject tradition to preconceived principles, as all the philosophies of history do; instead of downgrading tradition to a foil for umbrella concepts, it allows tradition to speak to the present in its own language.

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Question and answer logic allows perception of self knowledge through experience versus preconceived notions of selfhood. (41) Now we are able to spotlight the question-and-answer relationship. The eighteenth-century norms regarding human nature pose a problem, as they identify human nature with a reified principle. Fielding provides a solution, as he shows that human nature is a process of learning from experience through self-control. . . .
Obtaining knowledge of oneself through experience versus preconceived principles of selfhood is the insight the question-and-answer logic allows us to perceive. We are now able to reenact a past to which we become present, and such a presence may turn into a viewpoint from which we may look at ourselves.

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Gestalts are generated as projective, active, grouping acts of perception. (43) Gestalt theory argues that whatever is encompassed in an act of perception is constituted as a field, which basically consists of center and margin. A field requires structuring, which is achieved by balancing out the tension between the data, thus grouping them into a shape. It is the creative eye of the perceiver that does the grouping, and this marks a decisive switch between Lockeƒs the active/passive poles, and provides a more plausible account of how perception works. A field arises out of the relationships between data relationships that are neither given not brought about by a stimulus but are the result of a grouping activity guided by the perceiverƒs underlying assumptions. This makes all perception into a
projective act of seeing, which in turn produces a gestalt.
(44) As the tension between data has to be resolved by grouping them, gestalt-formation is guided by three principles: those of economy, similarity, and figure and ground.

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Easy to see connection between gestalt theory and Clark, as if Clark assumes this metaphysical background for virtualizing perception, but also virtualizers the perceivers into extended mind to which Hayles hooks and holds on developing posthuman cyborg selves. (45) Perception is governed by these three principles, through which a gestalt balances out the tensions between data and between data and observer by screening off those that are not relevant to the perceiverƒs expectations.

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Making and matching are postmodern unit operations for gestalt theory; beholders share is the nonmetaphorical blank from which creativity emerges, and schema correction is the critical operation. (49) Correction is basically a criticism of the forerunner, and it operates by a dovetailing of
making and matching. Making comes before matching in Gombrichƒs classic formula.
(49) There is a great variety of operations, by means of which the pairing of making and matching inscribes itself as correction into the schema inherited by the painter. The most radical one is to dispose with the schema altogether because, as Gombrich maintains, the tendency of our minds to classify and register our experience in terms of the known must present a real problem to the artist in his encounter with the particular. (144) . . . This happened in Impressionism, when the evocation of light became the object to be made.
(50) The
beholderƒs share turns out to be a vital component of Gombrichƒs theory, because representation is no longer conceived as depicting a given object but stands for performance, and this process becomes tangible only through the beholderƒs realization.

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Aesthetics of reception explores reactions to text by readers in different historical situations. (57) An aesthetics of reception explores reactions to the literary text by readers in different historical situations.
(57) While the aesthetics of reception deals with real readers, whose reactions testify to certain historically conditioned experiences of literature, my own theory of aesthetic response focuses on how a piece of literature impacts on its implied readers and elicits a response.

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Literary work is virtual reality, instantiated fiction, consequence of beholders share. (58) A literary work is not a documentary record of something that exists or has existed, but it brings into the world something that hitherto did not exist, and at best can be qualified as a virtual reality. Consequently, a theory of aesthetic response finds itself confronted with the problem of how such emerging virtual realities, which have no equivalent in our empirical world, can be processed and indeed understood.
(59) The old semantic search for the message led to an analysis of those operations through which the imaginary object of the text is assembled. The resolution of opposites, bound up with the aesthetic value of the work, has led to the question of how human faculties are stimulated and acted upon by the literary text during the reading process.
(60) Basically the focus switched from what the text means to what it does, and thus at a stroke relieved literary criticism of a perennial bugbear: namely, the attempt to identify the authorƒs actual intention.

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Now literature does not merely have to react to problems implicit in its media forms, but can enact deliberate programmed actions to transform reality. (63) Literature endeavors to counter the problems produced by systems through focusing on their deficiencies, thus enabling us to construct whatever was concealed or ignored by the dominant systems of the day. At the same time, the text must implicitly contain the basic framework of the systems concerned, as this is what causes the problems that literature reacts to.
(64) There is no common code between transmitter and receiver governing the way in which the text is to be processed; at best such a code is to be established in the reading process itself.

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Blanks relate to Derrida featureless units; using Tristram Shandy example to see how meaning can arise from the interaction of the reader with blanks and other objects. (65) As the readerƒs wandering viewpoint in the act of reading travels between all these segments, its constant switching during the time flow of reading intertwines them, thus bringing forth a network within which each perspective opens a view not only on other perspectives but also of the intended imaginary object. The latter itself is a product of interconnection, the structuring of which is to a great extent controlled by blanks.
(65) Sterneƒs Tristram Shandy is a good example. Here the readerƒs traveling viewpoint has to switch between an increasing number of textual perspectives, and hence begins to oscillate between those of the characters, the narrator, and the fictitious reader, as well as the fragmented segments of the story, and the meanderings of the plot line, subjecting all of them to a reciprocal transformation.
(66) Even if an idea has to be discarded in order to accommodate new information, it will nevertheless condition its successor, and thereby affect the latterƒs composition. The chain of ideas which thus emerges in the readerƒs mind is the means by which the text is translated into the imagination. This process, which is mapped out by the structured blanks of the text, can be designated the
syntagmatic axis of reading.

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Chain of ideas, syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes of reading, constitutive importance of negation for reception theory. (66) The
paradigmatic axis of reading is prestructured by the negations in the text. Blanks indicate connections to be established; negations indicate a motivation for what has been nullified.

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Productive matrix, later deviational matrix of reception theory enables text to be meaningful through changing historical contexts. (68) Negation and blanks as basic constituents of communication are thus enabling structures that demand a process of determining which only the reader can implement. This gives rise to the subjective hue of the textƒs meaning. However, as the text does not have one specific meaning, what appears to be a deficiency is, in fact, the
productive matrix, which enables the text to be meaningful in a variety of historically changing contexts.

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For Eco semiotic theory, triangular diagram of sign/signifier, object/signified, interpretant/disposition in discussion of Peirce trichotomie iconic, indexical, symbolic conception of signs, though no mention of Saussure, or more expected no mention of Lacan in this chapter, although the next chapter includes a ten page afterthought on Lacan. (70)

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Connect Peirce semiotics to development by Tanaka-Ishii. (70) Semiotics as a theory of signs dates back to the philosophy of John Locke (1634-1702) and has been given a systematic exposition by Charles S. Sanders
Peirce (1839-1914).
(70-71) The process of signification requires a distinction between types of signs, whose different properties allow them to operate in a specific manner. Thus Peirce came up with another of his
trichotomies, as he called them, by defining signs as iconic, indexical, and symbolic. An iconic sign is similar to what it represents: it is an image of its object and, more strictly speaking, can only be an idea. An indexical sign represents an object not immediately present, such as smoke being an index of fire. Anything which focusses attention is an index. The symbolic sign designates an object: it must denote an individual, and must signify a character.

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Eco focus away from iconicity to ambiguous and self-focusing characteristics of signs; overcoding reveals upspeakable within language system. (75) Umberto Eco (b. 1930) caused a turnabout in the semiotic approach to art by breaking away from the discussion of iconicity altogether, maintaining: if the iconic sign is similar to the thing denoted
in some respects, then we arrive at a definition which satisfies common sense, but not semiotics. . . . Unspeakability arises from the specific sign-function in the aesthetic text, because the sign is both ambiguous and self-focusing (262).
Self-focusing is an overcoding in two respects, which means that the sign is to be read according to two different codes: (1) the message to be conveyed is overcoded by simultaneously presenting the pattern according to which it has been formed; (2) the sign-sequence is overcoded, as the prevalent norms of the language system have been outstripped, thus revealing the unspeakable within the language system.

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Ambiguous and self-focusing character of signs an aspect of Clark perception, in which the specific situated interplay of phenomena, Bogost objects, that is, as idiolect, plays a significant role in manufacturing the experience. (77) The term [aesthetic idiolect] is self-explanatory up to a point: in reading all the deviations caused by the ambiguous and self-focusing signs, one has to trace the underlying motivations. But as the guideline for such an activity has been produced by the work itself, the rule governing the reading has to be discovered, since it makes all the deviations function. Thus each reading of the aesthetic idiolect is an actualization of something that by its very nature is a potential, which can never be totally actualized.

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Semiotic theory rich in computational metaphors, foregrounding working code, easy to shift between human and machine artists and readers, and also apply to posthuman cyborg of Hayles: producing by violating codes may be the bricolage trace of breakdowns, but without doubt valid to include machine operations in labor of connecting signs with states of the world, for that is what computer control and modeling fundamentally attempts. (77) Generated by the deviational matrix, the idiolect calls for new coding possibilities, which makes the work of art into a paradigm of code changing and
code production. And as the relationship between the signifier and the signified is always governed by a code, which is not simply behavioristic by nature, as semioticians like Morris claimed, the work of art provides a fundamental insight into how codes are produced by violating codes. This means no less than to change the way in which ƒcultureƒ sees the world. . . . concerned with the labor of connecting signs with the states of the world.

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Example for semiotic theory of medieval conjuncture by Foucault of world picture as idiolect, perhaps similar to furrows of technological unconscious that can be intuited by analysis of histories of objects, including software codes as ultimate idiolect reflectors, pointing to Bogost unit operations and platform studies. (78) To illustrate the sign-function as outlined by Eco we may select a Renaissance text for the following reason: throughout the Middle Ages the sign relationship was ternary by nature; it emerged in late antiquity and persisted until it became problematized in the Renaissance. Ever since the Stoics,
Foucault writes, the system of signs in the Western world had been a ternary one, for it was recognized as containing the significant, the signified and the ƒconjunctureƒ. The latter functioned as an unquestioned code and was identical with the medieval world picture, so that the conjuncture represented the all-encompassing world order, which functioned as the regulating code for the sign relationship.
(80) Self-focusing and ambiguous signs give salience to the idiolect, which is self-produced by the work of art and has a code of its own arising out of the code changes it has wrought. The idiolect comes to life through multiple readings depending on interconnected pathways that are mapped by the ambiguous and self-focusing signs.

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Wellspring of artistic creativity in Ehrenzweig psychoanalytic theory in oceanic dedifferentiation and structured focusing, like Socrates draft. (88) Thus the interface bewteen
oceanic dedifferentiation and structured focusing through which the self is decomposed and reintegrated marks the wellspring of artistic creativity.

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To Williams generative reality rule of Marxist theory based on dominant, residual, emergent ontology, mechanics of emergence, revealing hidden motifs or intentions in conventions. (108) It is the formative process that Williams takes to be the hallmark of Marxism, based on Marxƒs idea that human beings create both the world and themselves.
(111) While base and superstructure pale into abstractions, their concrete replacement is a triadic relationship between the Dominant, Residual, and Emergent (122-7), which sets the productive process in motion. Out of this dynamic interrelationship arises the complexity of material reality in all its social, cultural, and artistic diversity.
(112) If structures of feeling admittedly a difficult term, intended to replace static concepts like ideology or worldview are defined as going beyond formally held and systematic beliefs (132), then art becomes a showcase revealing how these changes occur and what is thus brought into presence. . . . Williams singles out various levels to demonstrate how the emergent presence comes about namely, Signs and Notations, Conventions, Genres, Forms, and Authorship.
(113) Dichotomies such as fact/fiction, discursive/imaginative, referential/emotive solidify categorical divisions, thus failing to grasp the
mechanics of emergence.
(113) Conventions can spotlight both what has been eclipsed and what is to be asserted, thus revealing hidden motifs or intentions.
(113) This productive interaction is certainly a break away from what Williams might call a bourgeois theory of genres, which neatly categorizes generic forms, thus conceiving them as basically static. By contrast, Williams lays stress on the operations of the genres by foregrounding their internal mobility that energizes what is to be produced.
(114) Just as with form, the individual and the social are the material constituents of authorship, and it is out of the combination of the two that the production of authors emerges.

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No closure with deconstruction, so asymptotic theory, mode of reading. (119) The monstrosity is thus twofold. On the one hand the mutual amalgamation of theories reveals them as patchwork, though they claim nevertheless to provide totalizing explanations. On the other, this cobbling together of foreign imports is meant to bear out an assumption that has been posited. This state of theory marks the point of departure for deconstruction.
(119) Deconstruction cannot regard itself as theory, particularly as the latter has one fundamental requirement: that of closure.
(120) Deconstruction is a mode of reading, not confined to texts in the restricted sense of the term but applied in terms of textuality to almost everything there is. . . . Reading, then, is throwing a
jetty into the text, whose hierarchical order is destabilized by stating what the hierarchy has suppressed.
(121) This mode of reading is focused, but has no closure, no claim to comprehensive explanation, no panoramic view of the human condition; instead, it explores the open-ended dependence of every phenomenon on its otherness.

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That Austin uses performatively infelicitous examples demonstrates jetty unit operation. (123) Its character as a supplement becomes all the more obvious when Austin illustrates the conditions which make the performative infelicitous. These examples are ludicrous and sometimes even grotesque.

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Gans generative anthropology helps where ethnography does not explain function of literature in cultural formation; steps through literary/cultural ages from Romantics to postmodernism. (133-134) What art bodies forth is a state of being ahead of what there is, and this aspiration in turn prefigures the human condition. Doing art seems to be deeply ingrained in human makeup as a representation of our relationship to a challenging environment. Hence there is no need to devise a special theory of art from the observable development of human culture, because functional aesthetics (Leroi-Gourhan) appears integral to humankindƒs externalization of its capabilities, for which
symbolization provides essential guidance. What ethnography thus us is: without art no Homo sapiens. What, however, ethnography remains silent about is the particular function of literature in the process of cultural formation. . . . Therefore we have to turn to generative anthropology as developed by Eric Gans, who has demonstrated the extent to which literature articulates the rhythm of culture, epitomizes its vicissitudes, and provides relief from what humans are subjected to.

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From deferral of satisfaction to desire for centrality and sublimation of resentment liquidating all situated functions. (142) Human history, elucidated by the mirror of literature, serves in the final analysis as a visualization of what is nonconstructible : namely, the originary event. . . . As the originary event has generated the history of culture, the latter, in turn, lends plausibility to the positing of such an event. In other words, event and history are tied together by
recursive loops. . . . The price to be paid, however, for this explanatory function of literature is the exclusion of all features of the human makeup other than the desire for centrality and the sublimation of resentment.

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Aesthetic experience for Dewey in recreation of work by perceiver constituted by dynamic relationship of pattern and structure, akin to Geertz thick description. (145-146) Thus doing and undergoing still apply to the acquisition of experience, and the very recreation of the work through the recipient results in the participation that gives rise to the aesthetic experience.
(147) Hence Dewey resorts to a methodological procedure that is somewhat akin to Clifford Geertzƒs
thick description. This means that only features of what is under investigation can be detailed, as there are no umbrella concepts to theorize what is to be ascertained, and positing one would lead to thin description, i.e., subjecting the phenomena under observation to preconceived ideas.

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Womens imagination fettered by exposure to male imagination that pervades culture. (159) It is the womanƒs burden of daily routine that conditions not only her writing habits but also the topics she writes about.
(160) Quite apart from the question whether there are biologically rooted differences between a womanƒs imagination and a manƒs, the former is inevitably exposed to what is foreign to it, and hence is fettered in its unfolding.

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Do these feminist propositions enumerated by Kolodny suggest alternative ways to read technology, camped out with pluralists and pluralisms? (160) The state of feminist poetics has been succinctly outlined by Annette Kolodny, who suggests that the current hostilities might be transformed into a true dialogue with our critics if we at last made explicit what appear, to this observer, three crucial propositions to which our special interest inevitably gives rise. . . . (1) literary history (and with that, the historicity of literature) is a fiction; (2) insofar as we are taught how to read, what we engage are not texts but paradigms; and finally, (3) since the grounds upon which we assign aesthetic value to texts are never infallible, unchangeable, or universal, we must examine not only our aesthetics but, as well, the inherent biases and assumptions informing the critical methods which (in part) shape our aesthetic responses ([from footnote 7: Annette Kolodny, Dancing Through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Practice, and Politics of a Feminist Literary Criticism, in Showalter, ed., New Feminist Criticism, p.] 151).
(161) In spite of a still prevailing diversity, Kolodny contends that this would finally place us securely where, all along, we should have been: camped out, on the far side of the minefield, with the other pluralists and pluralisms (159).

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Quick run through the theories of art presented. (163) The phenomenological theory conceives the work of art as an intentional object to be distinguished from real and ideal objects.
(164) The hermeneutical theory sees the work of art as a means of enhancing self-understanding.
(164) Gestalt theory is based on the idea that ordinary perception is already a creative act through which we group data into percepts.
(164-165) Reception theory is concerned with the impact exercised by the work of art, which is dual by nature: it impacts both upon reality and upon the reader. . . . Such a reaction to realities brings something into the world that did not exist before, and this has the character of a
virtual reality, which the reader is given to process, thereby allowing reception theory to spotlight what the work of art makes the reader do.
(165) Semiotic theory points to the fact that the world cannot be determined or defined, but only read.
(165) [To psychoanalytical theory] The work of art produced through the creative process illuminates the phases of its emergence in a sequence ranging from ego decomposition to reintrojection, thus revealing the ego rhythm as the minimum content of art.
(165) Marxist theory in all its variants has been concerned with the self-production of human life. . . . What makes the work of art paradigmatic is the triadic relationship between its components, i.e., the dominant, the residual, and the emergent, which sets the productive process in motion.
(165-166) In deconstruction difference looms large. Whatever there is, is is marked by difference both internally and externally, because phenomena have a differential structure, and each one is different from others. . . . Deconstruction is basically a reading that tries to open up what has been eclipsed.
(166) Generative anthropology conceives of culture as the deferral of violence by means of representation. . . . Literature assumes a dual function in this ongoing alternation: it operates as a procedure of discovery by acting out what the prevailing structure of center and periphery has made inaccessible, and by representing this cultural frame it monitors the course of events, thus providing distance.
(166) [For pragmatism] aesthetic experience as purveyed by the work of art was considered to be of a special kind, and it was elevated into a measuring rod of which all other experiences could be distinguished from one another and qualified accordingly.
(166) Feminism tries to develop a gender-specific poetics by undermining the prevalent male hegemony.

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Again relates his reception theory to virtual realities, perhaps inviting Zizek study of the reality of the virtual as well as texts and technology media studies approach. (163)
(164-165) Reception theory is concerned with the impact exercised by the work of art, which is dual by nature: it impacts both upon reality and upon the reader. . . . Such a reaction to realities brings something into the world that did not exist before, and this has the character of a
virtual reality, which the reader is given to process, thereby allowing reception theory to spotlight what the work of art makes the reader do.

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Art reflects on intentionality by mapping, affecting self-understanding by the subject, highlighting performance, producing codes by violating them: easy to replace art with software for the top level of Montfort and Bogost hierarchy. (166-167) By elucidating the formation of the intentional object, art is made to reflect on intentionality as an operation of mapping. Through its encounter with the subject, it figures the process of self-understanding. In freeing representation from imitating a given object, it highlights performance as an activity that brings into presence something hitherto nonexisting. By intervening in reality, it is made to rearrange that which does exist, and which the recipient is given to process. Through code violation, it turns into a code-producing matrix, the reading of which allows us to monitor communication. By revealing the workings and the function of the ego rhythm, it is made to depict the subject as continually restructuring itself. Through tis creative practice, it projects modes of human self-production. By uncovering what has been excluded, it exhibits the way in which every phenomenon is inhabited by something other. By enacting the basic cultural fabric of center and periphery, it stages what is otherwise inaccessible. When it provides an aesthetic experience, it opens up an horizon that makes it possible to assess all kinds of experience.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (167) 20130930k 0 -5+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Architectural and operational types of theory. (167) If the framework of a theory is architectural, it is basically a grid superimposed on the work for the purpose of cognition; if it is operational, it is basically a networking structure for the purpose of elucidating how something emerges.
(168) Reception theory structures indeterminacies insofar as blanks and negations specify authorial strategies, and mark what the reader is given to resolve.
(168-169) Translating the work of art into cognitive terms is bound to produce indeterminacies that arise out of what a conceptual language is unable to grasp. Tackling indeterminacies, however, leads to art being inscribed into the cognitive terminology by giving it a negative slant.
(169) Such a development resembles the process which Thomas
Kuhn has described.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (172) 20130930m 0 -2+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Discourse maps territory projecting a lived domain; compare to Janz. (172) Theory explores a given subject matter, which it translates into cognitive terms, thus systematically opening up access to whatever is under scrutiny. Discourse maps a territory and determines the features of what it charts, thus projecting a domain to be lived in.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (173) 20130930n 0 -7+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Discourse constrained by drive to assert what is taken for truth. (173) For Edward Said, Foucaultƒs contention that the fact of writing itself is a systematic conversion of the power relationship between controller and controlled into mere ƒwrittenƒ words becomes the overriding guideline for the postcolonial discourse that he unfolds in his
Culture and Imperialism.
LƒOrdre du discours carries a double meaning: it is both order and command.
(174) Hence discourse is governed by rules, of which the all-pervasive one, operative in all forms, is that of exclusion; it marks what is prohibited. . . . Discourse is not free to say just anything but is basically confined to the division between true and false, and is simultaneously driven to assert what is taken for truth.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (175) 20130930o 0 -10+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Said postcolonial discourse guided by contrapuntal reading. (175) Edward Saidƒs postcolonial discourse, as developed in his book
Culture and Imperialism, works as an imposition in the Foucauldian sense of both colonial and anticolonial discourses.
(176) This complicity between literature and imperialism brings to light the intimate connection between culture and politics, which is hardly admitted by the self-understanding of culture.
(177) The very observation that metropolitan culture energizes Western imperialism constitutes the operational drive of postcolonial discourse, which functions primarily as discourse analysis, i.e., laying bare how knowledge and fantasy are superimposed on distant lands that are ruled by the metropolitan center. . . . Since Kant we have believed in the isolation of cultural and aesthetic realms from the worldly domain, but now it is time to link them again in order to discover what culture-inspired imperialism has shut out. This focus on what hegemonic discourses have suppressed is the hallmark of postcolonial discourse guided by the strategy of
contrapuntal reading.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (181) 20121108 0 -3+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Consider complicity between technology and imperialism, for instance dominance of English and [decimal] number system in programming languages and protocols, and subjugation of cyberspace by powerful corporations, then compare democratic rationalizations of free software to strategy (or tactic) of postcolonial discourse: imagine a past in which free software rapidly evolved global Internet and programming was a home economics skill taught as part of public education. (181) Colonialism, as a cloak for protecting the enchantment to be derived from the Other, reveals the complicity between culture and imperialism.
(181) Yeats and Camus, however, were not concerned with distant lands dominated by colonial powers but with what was nearest to them: Ireland and Algeria, the one subjugated by the British, the other a French province. These writers and their ilk were voices inside imperialist nations that tried to turn the colonizing impact of culture against this culture itself, thus anticipating the strategy of postcolonial discourse.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK iser-how_to_do_theory (182) 20130930p 0 -5+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_iser-how_to_do_theory.html
Models of resistance from postcolonial discourse could be applied to software cultures, the most obvious cathedral versus bazaar. (182) Their main objective is to imagine a culture and a past independent of colonialism, and to conceive an anti-imperialistic type of nationalism. In view of its different pursuits, anticolonial discourse is also marked by rarefaction, and it becomes the task of postcolonial discourse to highlight the conditionality responsible for the retrenchments.
(183) On the one hand, familiar patterns of Western literature are deliberately taken up in order to communicate the agenda of decolonization, but this in itself is a confirmation of Western forms of articulation. On the other hand, however, the hybrid discourse constitutes a massive infusion of non-European cultures into the metropolitan heartland, signaled by what has since been called
The Empire Writes Back.
(184) What in the classical imperial hegemony was an intertwining of power and legitimacy has now changed into a growing awareness of the intertwining of cultures.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (5) 20130929g 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Totalizing dynamic of system: Bogost. (5) And it is certain that there is a strange quasi-Sartrean irony a winner loses logic which tends to surround any effort to describe a system, a totalizing dynamic, as these are detected in the movement of contemporary society.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (18) 20130929k 0 -4+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Simulacra via programming further ties computer technology to postmodernism. (18) It is for such objects that we may reserve Platoƒs conception of the simulacrum, the identical copy for which no original has ever existed.
(18) In faithful conformity to poststructuralist linguistic theory, the past as referent finds itself gradually bracketed, and then effaced altogether,
leaving us with nothing but texts.
(19) Nostalgia films restructure the whole issue of pastiche and project it onto a collective and social level, where the desperate attempt to appropriate a missing past is now refracted through the iron law of fashion change and the emergent ideology of the generation.
(20) The work
remake is, however, anachronistic to the degree to which our awareness of the preexistence of other versions (previous films of the novel as well as the novel itself) is now a constitutive and essential part of the filmƒs structure: we are now, in other words, in intertextuality as a deliberate, built-in feature of the aesthetic effect and as the operator of a new connotation of pastness and pseudohistorical depth, in which the history of aesthetic styles displaces real history.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (50) 20130929r 0 -4+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Aesthetic of cognitive mapping. (50) The cultural model I will propose similarly foregrounds the cognitive and pedagogical dimensions of political art and culture, dimensions stressed in very different ways by both Lukacs and Brecht (for the distinct moments of realism and modernism, respectivley).
(51) I will therefore provisionally define the aesthetic of this new (and hypothetical) cultural form as an
aesthetic of cognitive mapping.
(51) Surely this is exactly what the cognitive map is called upon to do in the narrower framework of daily life in the physical city: to enable a situational representation on the part of the individual subject to that vaster and properly unrepresentable totality which is the ensemble of societyƒs structures as a whole.
(54) The political form of postmodernism, if there ever is any, will have as its vocation the invention and projection of a global cognitive mapping, on a social as well as a spatial scale.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (61-62) 20130929t 0 -4+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Quandrants of anti-modernist, pro-modernist against pro-postmodernist and anti-postmodernist, represented by Wolfe, Jencks, Lyotard, Tafuri, and Kramer, Habermas, respectively. (61-62) The combination scheme outlined above can now be schematically represented as follows, the plus and minus signs designating the politically progressive or reactionary functions of the positions in question.
(62) In place of the temptation either to denounce the complacencies of postmodernism as some final symptom of decadence or to salute the new forms as the harbingers of a new technological and technocratic Utopia, it seems more appropriate to assess the new cultural production within the working hypothesis of a general modification of culture itself with the social restructuring of
late capitalism as a system.
(63) Indeed, it can be argued that the emergence of high modernism is itself contemporaneous with the first great expansion of a recognizably mass culture.
(64) Postmodernism theory seems indeed to be a ceaseless process of internal rollover in which the position of the observer is turned inside out and the tabulation recontinued on some larger scale.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (301) 20130930g 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Catachresis four-term metaphor; cultural unconscious analysis pattern suggested that later is applied to technology systems analysis. (301) All the enumeration of sheerly cultural traits comes down to this
catachresis, or four-term metaphor. . . . they extend far beyond the aesthetic or the cultural as such, becoming meaningful or intelligible only when they reach the terrain of the production of material life and the limits and potentialities it (dialectically) imposes on human praxis, including cultural praxis.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (393-394) 20130930z 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Codes and transcoding from worldviews. (393-394) a linguistic solution nonetheless remains, and it turns on what has hitherto been called
transcoding. For alongside the perspective in which my language comments on that of another, there is a somewhat longer vista in which both languages derive from larger families that used to be called weltanschauungen, or worldviews, but which have today become recognized as codes.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (395) 20131001 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Invokes Baudrillard, Lacan, Latour, Rorty, Stuart Hall discussing hegemony of secular postmodern idiolects. (395) Hegemony here means the possibility of recoding vast quantities of preexisting discourse (in other languages) into the new code.
(395) Instead, they are the most visible and dramatic, owing to the naked deployment of the semiotic code itself, last and most visible of the secular postmodern idiolects.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (413) 20131001d 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Saturation of visual and auditory space. (413) the disorientation of the saturated space will be the most useful guiding thread in the present context.
(414) such strategy is bound and shackled to the city form itself.
(414) But what would happen if you conquered a whole series of large key urban centers in succession?

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (415) 20131001e 0 -6+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Can we transfer this image to technological urban centers such as software APIs, Internet search results, and so on: what then of alienation and unmappability with respect to technological systems, as he extends it to political experience below? (415) And the Detroit experience may now specify more concretely what is meant by the slogan of cognitive mapping,m which can now be characterized as something of a synthesis between Althusser and Kevin Lynch. . . . Drawing on the downtowns of Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles, and by means of interviews and questionnaires in which subjects were asked to draw their city context from memory, Lynch suggests that urban alienation is directly proportional to the mental unmappability of local cityscapes.
(415-416) something like a spatial analogue of Althusserƒs great formulation of ideology itself, as the Imaginary representation of the subjectƒs relationship to his or her Real conditions of existence.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (417) 20131001f 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Triangulation method also employed by Hayles. (417) What now seems clear is that this kind of
triangulation is historically specific and has its deeper relationship with the structural dilemmas posed by postmodernism as such.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (417-418) 20131001h 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Cognitive mapping as code word for class consciousness. (417-418) Cognitive mapping was in reality nothing but a code word for class consciousness.
(418) We have to name the system : this high point of the sixties finds an unexpected revival in the postmodernism debate.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (54) 20130930n 0 -1+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Recall de Lauretis feminist reterritorialization of Gramsci that focuses on equivalent of light entertainment texts. (54) In
Gramsciƒs writing the study of culture from the viewpoint of production becomes a more general interest with the cultural dimensions of struggles and strategies as a whole.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (57) 20130930q 0 -19+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Creator emphasis in Benjamin ignored by Adorno; relate to theories of texts and technology Dumit text and produced different than text as read. (57)
Benjamin certainly took a more open view of the potentialities of mass cultural forms than Adorno. He was excited by their technical and educational possibilities. . . . Yet we can see that all of these insights are primarily the comments of a critic upon the theories of producers, or take the standpoint of production. It is here, still with the creator, that the really revolutionary moves are to be made. . . . It was not rooted in any extended analysis of the larger experience of particular groups of readers.
(57-58) Of course, we must look at cultural forms from the viewpoint of their production. This must include the conditions and the means of production, especially in their cultural or subjective aspects. In my opinion it must include accounts and understandings too of the actual moment of production itself the labor, in tis subjective and objective aspects. . . .
The text-as-produced is a different object from the text-as-read. The problem with Adornoƒs analysis and perhaps with productivist approaches in general is not only that they infer the text-as-read from the text-as-produced, but that also, in doing this, they ignore the elements of production in other moments, concentrating creativity in producer or critic.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (58) 20131103a 0 -2+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Means of formal description used in linguistic and literary studies indispensable for cultural analysis. (58) The
major humanities disciplines, but especially linguistic and literary studies, have developed means of formal description which are indispensable for cultural analysis. I am thinking, for example, of the literary analysis forms of narrative, the identification of different genre, but also of whole families of genre categories, the analysis of syntactical forms, possibilities and transformations in linguistics, the formal analysis of acts and exchanges in speech, the analysis of some elementary forms of cultural theory by philosophers, and the common borrowings, by criticism and cultural studies, from semiology and other structuralisms.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (61) 20130930s 0 -16+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Texts are polymorphous, for example James Bond genre, inviting Hayles MSA, as well as situated context of particular issues and historical periods. (61) Remember the Mini-Metro as an example of the tendency of texts to a polymorphous growth; Tony Bennettƒs example of the James Bond genres is an even better case.
(61-62) If, for example, we are really interested in how conventions and the technical means available within a particular medium structure representations, we need to
work across genre and media, comparatively. . . . We certainly do not have to bound our research by literary criteria; other choices are available. It is possible for instance to take issues or periods as the main criterion. Though restricted by their choice of rather masculine genre and media, Policing the Crisis and Unpopular Education are studies of this kind. . . . The logic of this approach has been extended in recent CCCS media-based studies: a study of a wide range of media representations of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in October 1981 and a study of the media in a post-Falklands holiday period, from Christmas 1982 to New Year 1983. . . . By capturing something of the contemporaneity and combined effects of different systems of representations, we also hope to get nearer to the commoner experience of listening, reading and viewing.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (64-65) 20130930u 0 -9+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Not treating content as significant, neglect of production; invoke discussion of remediation. (64-65) In
Screenƒs theory there was a tendency to look only at the specifically cinematographic means --the codes of cinema. The relations between these means and other cultural resources or conditions were not examined: for example, the relation between codes of realism and the professionalism of film-makers or the relation between media more generally and the state and formal political system. . . . A critique of the very notion of representation (seen as indispensable to the critique of realism) made it hard for these theorists to pull into their accounts of film any very elaborate recognition of what an older, fuller theory might have called content. Cinema (and then television) were treated as though they were, so to speak, only about cinema or television, only reproducing or transforming the cinematographic or television forms, not pulling in and transforming discourses first produced elsewhere.
(65) Crucial insights into language and other systems of signification are therefore foreclosed: namely, that languages are produced (or differentiated), reproduced and modified by socially-organized human practice, that there can be no language (except a dead one) without speakers, and that language is continually fought over in its words, syntax and discursive deployments. In order to recover these insights, students of culture who are interested in language have had to go outside the predominantly French semiological traditions, back to the marxist philosopher of language Voloshinov or across to particular researches influenced by the work of Bernstein or Halliday.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (71) 20131001 0 -8+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Nice description of homogenized cultural identifications as slabs of significance. (71) There is also a systematic pressure towards presenting lived cultures primarily in terms of their
homogeneity and distinctiveness. . . . There is a discomforting convergence between radical but romantic versions of working-class culture and notions of a shared Englishness or white ethnicity. Here too one finds the term way of life used as though cultures were great slabs of significance always humped around by the same set of people.
(71) There is no better instance of the divorce between formal analysis and concrete studies than the rarity of linguistic analysis in historical or ethnographic work. Like much structuralist analysis, then, ethnographies often work with a foreshortened version of our circuit, only here it is the whole arc of public forms which is often missing.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (209) 20130908 0 -3+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
Storage and communication of culture coalesce in visual media, especially with advent of writing (Havelock). (209) In an elegant analysis of the transition from an oral tradition to a literate culture in ancient Greece, occurring between Homer and Plato, Eric Havelock has argued that not only has the eye supplanted the ear as the chief organ but that in the process a host of other changes was induced changes from identification and engagement to individualization and disengagement, from mimesis to analysis, from the concrete to the abstract, from mythos to logos. With the growing emphasis on the visual eye comes the growing development, even birth, Havelock argues, of the personal I.
(210) He [Plato, Timaeus 61d-68e] describes the creation of the sense of sight in the same context as the creation of soul and intelligence in human beings; all of the other senses are described in the context of the creation of manƒs material nature.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (212) 20130930b 0 -6+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
The eye was active with internal light in early theories of vision (emission theory), making it akin to the sun, as well as relation of soul to Forms. (212) The union, or reunion, of the soul with the Forms then constitutes knowing, just as the uniting of the light from the eye with the light from the sun constitutes seeing. Though that which mediates the meeting of the soul and the Forms is not specified, its analogy to light is often implicit. The terms which Plato uses for the Forms are
eidos and idea, i.e., things which are seen.
(212) His epistemological assumption is that we, who were originally part of the lawful divine structure, are thereby in principle able to see into (intuit) it fully again.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (212-213) 20130930c 0 -16+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
Separation of subject and object and dematerialization of knowledge (separation from perception) are uncovered. (212-213) Modern scienceƒs confidence that nature, (properly objectified), is indeed knowable is surely derived from these Platonic concepts. . . . Two features of the scientific conception of objectifiability need to be distinguished. The first is the separation of subject from object . . . the second is the . . . dematerialization of knowledge. . . . We must ask whether there are not characteristics of vision, at least as conceived by Plato, which simultaneously invite the retreat from the body sought in Platoƒs epistemology and the maintenance of the moral-mystical character of his thought, in short, which constitute a paradox which pervades his work.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (215) 20130930d 0 -3+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
Copy theory of Descartes replaces emission theory of vision: what are epistemological consequences, can conceptual inertia be overcome? (215) His work on vision, perhaps even motivated by his commitment to both its literal and metaphoric importance, in fact led to an undermining of the suitability of sight as a metaphor for knowledge. Descartesƒ inquiries into the nature of vision and optics were of paramount importance in the Western acceptance of the
copy theory of perception. He, perhaps more than any other Western thinker, was responsible for laying the emission theory to rest, with the result that the eye was henceforth regarded a a purely passive lens which simply receives the images projected upon it from without.

3 1 1 (+) [-3+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (218-219) 20130930e 0 -11+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
Phenomenological analysis in place media/communication theory reveals same attributes of ultra high frequency systems. (218-219) In an attempt to understand the characteristics of vision which are responsible for its particular appeal to classical philosophy, Jonas has conducted a phenomenological analysis of the senses. He finds three basic aspects of vision which provide grounds for its philosophical centrality. Under what he calls simultaneity of presence he notes the distinctively spatial rather than temporal character of vision a property uniquely responsible for our capacity to grasp the extended now. . . . Under the heading of dynamic neutrality he notes the peculiar lack of engagement entailed by seeing, the absence of intercourse. . . . Finally he notes a third dimension of vision which contributes critically to objectivity and that is its uniquely advantageous dependence on distance.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye (220) 20130930f 0 -6+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_keller_and_grontkowski-minds_eye.html
Jonas phenomenology of vision yields detachment from desire; no account for communion that was lost with emission theory but important to Newton and other scientists is result of sedimentation of the male bias. (220) However, this analysis neglects the ways in which vision as a model for knowledge can promote the sense of communion, of meeting of like with like, so central to Platoƒs understanding, which continues to survive in contemporary scientific belief.
(220) The emphasis on the objectifying function of vision, and the corresponding relegation of its communicative one might even say erotic function, needs to be separated from the reliance on vision as distinct from other sensory modalities. We suggest that if sexual bias has crept into this system, it is more likely to be found in the former than the latter.
(220) Once again, knowledge is safeguarded from desire. That the desire from which knowledge is so safeguarded is so intimately associated with the female (for social as well as psychological reasons) suggests an important impetus which our patriarchal culture provides for such disembodiment. It is in this sense that Cixous is right.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (43-44) 20130930 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Revisit classics of critical theory of Frankfurt school for engagement with postmodernism. (43-44) During the present moment, the critical theorists have been among the most active critics of postmodern theory and the polemics between critical and postmodern theory have inspired much critical discussion and new syntheses drawing on both traditions. In this context, a return to the classics of critical theory should focus on the resources that its tradition continues to offer contemporary social theory, as well as the limitations that require going beyond the classical versions of critical theory.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (44) 20130930a 0 -1+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Positivist sciences reproduced existing social relations. (44) Critical theory distinguished itself through its critique of positivism, noting that the positivist sciences were instrumental in reproducing existing social relations and obstructing social change.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (47) 20130930c 0 -1+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Interdisciplinary social theory of new stage of state and monopoly capitalism by Jay, Dubiel, Kellner. (47) Their [Jay, Dubiel, Kellner] attempts to develop an interdisciplinary social theory brought together the social sciences and philosophy to produce a theory of the present age and of the transition to a new stage of state and monopoly capitalism.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (48) 20130930d 0 -4+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Reason instrumentalalized and incorporated into structure of society, sinking into new barbarism (Horkheimer and Adorno). (48) During the 1940s, Horkheimer and Adorno, abandoned the earlier program of interdisciplinary social theory and immanent critique. Their collaborative text Dialectic of Enlightenment thus enacted a genuine turning-point within critical theory. Horkheimer and Adorno believed that reason previously the organon of philosophical critique had been instrumentalized and incorporated into the very structure of society.
Dialectic of Enlightenment seeks to discover why humanity, instead of entering into a truly human condition, is sinking into a new kind of barbarism (1972: xi).

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (50) 20130930e 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Dialectic of Enlightenment first critical questioning of modernity, Marxism, the Enlightenment, anticipating postmodern critiques. (50) In retrospect,
Dialectic of Enlightenment is an extremely interesting text in that it provides the first critical questioning of modernity, Marxism, and the Enlightenment from within the tradition of critical social theory. It thus anticipates by some decades the postmodern critique of modernity and anticipates some of the features of later postmodern theory.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (52) 20130930f 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Use of philosophical and literary interpretation of texts, for example Odysseus discussion, decentering analytic social theory. (52) The methodological point I wish to stress is that Horkheimer and Adorno here use the techniques of philosophical and literary interpretation to unfold the social truth contained in literary and philosophical texts. This move decenters the sort of analytic social theory that constituted the critical theory of the 1930s and marks a significant departure and growing mistrust of social sciences and theory.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK kellner-critical_theory_today (54) 20130930h 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_kellner-critical_theory_today.html
Examples of recent Frankfurt School scholarship by Wiggershaus and Habermas. (54)
Wiggershausƒ Die Frankfurter Schule (1986) has drawn on this archival material and presented a history of the entire trajectory of critical theory in its classical stages.
Habermasƒs article Notes on the Developmental History of Horkheimerƒs Works, translated in this issue, draws on this scholarship and provides a fresh interpretation of Horkheimerƒs most productive decade, his collaboration with Adorno, and his later theoretical decline.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision (1) 20131003 0 -2+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision.html
Western philosophical thinking has drawn on authority of sight as evidenced by pre-Socratics. (1) We can now see that, even before Plato in fact long before Plato, not only in the extant fragments attributed to Heraclitus, but in fragments attributed to Parmenides (475 B.C.

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Critiques of subject by Gadamer and Habermas offer evidence of shift from seeing to listening. (3) There is certainly some evidence for a shift in our cultural paradigms: a shift, that is, from (the normativity of) seeing to (the normativity of)
listening. Thus Hans-Georg Gadamer appropriated the ocular concept of horizon and reinscribed it within a conversation-based hermeneutics of interpretation. And Jurgen Habermas, like John Dewey, has tried to replace the detached-spectator paradigm with a paradigm that recognizes the importance of democratic participation. Breaking away from a subject-centered rationality, Habermas has conceptualized a rationality that is grounded, instead, in the ethics of communicative processes.

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Nietzsche multiplying perspectives subverted authority of ocular thinking. (4) Already, in the nineteenth century, Friedrich
Nietzsche was formulating a powerful critique of the privileging of vision and of the foundational position of vision-generated, vision-centered concepts and methods in the history of modern philosophy.
(4) For, by
multiplying perspectives, Nietzsche is effectively using an ocular metaphorics derived from the tradition to subvert the authority of ocular thinking: he turns the very logic of ocularcentrism against itself, altering forever the visionary ambitions of philosophy.

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Judovitz argues Descartes transformation of vision to construct based on optical projection of geometric system. (9-10) Concurring with
Merleau-Ponty . . . [Dalia] Judovitz undertakes to demonstrate that, although Descartes acknowledged vision as the dominant sense and was sufficiently fascinated by the new science of optics . . . his much deeper commitment to rationalism disposed him to challenge, and ultimately repudiate, the power and nobility of vision. Ironically, at the same time that he [Descartes] criticized vision for its deceptiveness and attempted to separate mind from body, and reason from perception and imagination, he transferred the properties of the visible to the mental domain, whence they will illuminate metaphorically the powers of reason to attain certitude as clear and distinct ideas. Henceforth an intuitive, inborn light free of sensory experience, reason is finally empowered to rationalize the visible world for the sake of science and technology.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision (14) 20131003d 0 -1+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision.html
Jay argues new ontology of vision by Merleau-Ponty based on dialectical intersubjectivity of gazes constituted by social relations, which decenters percipient subject and challenges definition of vision, seems to fit with subject proposed by Clark and others, implicit in Gee. (14) Perhaps one of the most thought-provoking questions with which Jay leaves us, then, is, what sense can we make out of phenomenological narratives that radically deconstruct the subject-object structure which we moderns have come to identify with, or as, the essentially human: assertions, for example, that there is an anonymous visibility, a reversible vision in general inhabiting us, that I am all that I see, and the through vision we [literally] touch the sun and the stars.

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Deconstructive, nonmetaphysical vision organized around blind spots, traces for Derrida. (17) If the concept of vision has been used by metaphysics to support presence, then he must continue to use this concept, but use it in a way that is disruptive and deconstructive: to designate a certain blindness-- or better: a
blind spot. This disruptive, non-metaphysical vision is accordingly organized around its own blind spots, and its objects are not forms that are totally present, but rather what Derrida calls traces : an unseen that nevertheless affects what we do see, the shape and scope of our visual field, a supplementarity that, in spite of its being unseen, or precisely because it is unseen, opens and limits visibility.
(18) although Derridaƒs critique of logocentrism substitutes something seen ( writing ) for something heard (logos), writing seems to bear some of the very traits to which he so insistently objects in vision. The traits of metaphysics paradoxically reappear, albeit transfigured, in the articulation of
ecriture, despite or rather because of its traces, its supplementarity, its margins.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision (19) 20131003f 0 -4+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision.html
Introject Turkle concerns about the robotic moment into Levinas ethical prominence of face to face encounter and Flynn critique of Foucault postmodern gaze. (19) According to
Levinas, when we encounter others face to face, we are immediately affected by the ethical demands, the ethical claims, that their presence makes on us. We are touched and moved: The visible, he says, caresses the eye. One sees and hears like on touches. The argument he makes for the priority of the ethical is accordingly fleshed out in a hermeneutical phenomenology that articulates our experience of being sensibly affected by what we see when we see the face of another.

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Benjamin dialectics of seeing. (22) Walter
Benjamin would certainly have approved this attention to perception and sensibility. . . . This [Arcades Project, argues Susan Buck-Morss] is perhaps Benjaminƒs most important work, for in it he formulated a critical theory of modernity and a materialist dialectics of seeing, using material from his experiences in the Arcades of Paris, vast shopping theaters in which he loved to stroll, simultaneously marveling like a child at the variety of riches displayed there, before his eyes, but also reflecting very deeply and critically on the intangible, more invisible dimensions of significance in his experiences.
(23) Like Nietzsche, like Foucault, Benjamin was a teacher of vision, of vision as social criticism. . . . He struggled to overcome the habits of social normalization, socially induced blind spots ours and his own. He understood the distinctiveness of modernity to be captured in, and by, its visual productivity and visual obsessions.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (10) 20131004l 0 -3+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Wittgenstein versus Saussure on starting for language analysis, favoring functionalist logical structures of language games and computer programs for method. (10) Wittgenstein, taking up the study of language again from scratch, focuses his attention on the effects of different modes of discourse; he calls the various types of utterances he identifies along the way (a few of which I have listed)
language games. What he means by this term is that each of the various categories of utterance can be defined in terms of rules specifying their properties and the uses to which they can be put in exactly the same way as the game of chess is defined by a set of rules determining the properties of each of the pieces, in other words, the proper way to move them.
(10) to speak is to fight, in the sense of playing and speech acts fall within the domain of general agonistics.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (11) 20131004m 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Agonistics: social bond composed of language game moves. (11) the observable social bond is composed of language moves.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (14) 20131004q 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Tempting to distinguish positivist and critical types of knowledge. (14) It is tempting to avoid the decision altogether by distinguishing two kinds of knowledge. One, the positivist kind, would be directly applicable to technological bearing on men and materials, and would lend itself to operating as an indispensable productive force within the system.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (30-31) 20131004w 0 -4+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Narrative appeal for science targeted at abstract, male subject, implying that scientific knowledge generates a new subjectivity; similar to institutional generation of docile bodies in Foucault. (30-31) We can see too that the real existence of this necessarily abstract subject . . . depends on the institutions within which that subject is supposed to deliberate and decide, and which comprise all or part of the State.

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Many theorists including Kittler discuss place of Humboldt and University of Berlin in Western intellectual history. (32) Wilhelm von
Humboldt had to decide the matter and came down on the side of Schleiermacherƒs more liberal option.
(34) It has been necessary to elucidate the philosophy that legitimated the foundation of the University of Berlin and was meant to be the motor both of its development and the development of contemporary knowledge. As I have said, many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries adopted this university organization as a model for the foundations or reform of their own system of higher education, beginning with the United States. But above all, this philosophy which is far from dead, especially in university circles offers a particularly vivid representation of one solution to the problem of the legitimacy of knowledge.
(35) According to this version, knowledge finds its validity not within itself, not in a subject that develops by actualizing its learning possibilities, but in a practical subject humanity. The principle of the movement animating the people is not the self-legitimation of knowledge, but the self-grounding of freedom or, if preferred, its self-management.

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Marxist position of Frankfurt school that critical knowledge develops by constituting autonomous subject via socialism and justifying sciences by giving proletariat means to emancipate itself. (37) Marxism can, in conformity to the second version, develop into a form of critical knowledge by declaring that socialism is nothing other than the constitution of the autonomous subject and that the only justification for the sciences is if they give the empirical subject (the proletariat) the means to emancipate itself from alienation and repression: this was, briefly, the position of the
Frankfurt School.

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Science cannot legitimate prescriptive language games, or itself. (40) If this delegitimation is pursued in the slightest and if its scope is widened (as Wittgenstein does in his own way, and thinkers such as Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas in theirs) the road is then open for an important current of postmodernity: science plays its own game; it is incapable of legitimating the other language games. The game of prescription, for example, escapes it.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (43) 20131005d 0 -4+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Kuhnian progress of scientific knowledge through games of legitimation. (43) The argumentation required for a scientific statement to be accepted is thus subordinated to a first acceptance (which is in fact constantly renewed by virtue of the principle of recursion) of the rules defining the allowable means of argumentation. Two noteworthy properties of scientific knowledge result from this: the flexibility of its means, that is, the plurality of its languages; and its character as a pragmatic game the acceptability of the moves (new propositions) made in it depends on a contract drawn between the partners. Another result is that there are two different kinds of progress in knowledge: one corresponds to a new move (a new argument) within the established rules; the other, to the invention of new rules, in other words, a change to a new game.
(43) The principle of a universal metalanguage is replaced by the principle of a plurality of formal and axiomatic systems capable of arguing the truth of denotative statements; these systems are described by a metalanguage that is universal but not consistent.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (48) 20131005h 0 -4+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Goal of education is optimizing performativity of practical subject: consider in light of Foucault argument that prisons grew illegalities and institutionalized delinquency its possible unintended consequences. (48) The desired goal becomes the optimal contribution of higher education to the best performativity of the social system. Accordingly, it will have to create the skills that are indispensable to that system.
(50) In any case, even if the performativity principle does not always help pinpoint the policy to follow, its general effect is to subordinate the institutions of higher learning to the existing powers. The moment knowledge ceases to be an end in itself the realization of the Idea or the emancipation of men its transmission is no longer the exclusive responsibility of scholars and students.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (65) 20131005s 0 -5+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Not prudent to follow Habermas seeking universal consensus through dialog of argumentation (Diskurs). (65) For this reason, it seems neither possible, nor even prudent, to follow
Habermas in orienting our treatment of the problem of legitimation in the direction of a search for universal consensus through what he calls Diskurs, in other words, a dialog of argumentation.
(65) This would be to make two assumptions. The first is that it is possible for all speakers to come to agreement on which rules or metaprescriptions are universally valid for language games, when it is clear that language games are heteromorphous, subject to heterogeneous sets of pragmatic rules.
(65-66) The second assumption is that the goal of dialog is consensus. But as I have shown in the analysis of the pragmatics of science, consensus is only a particular state of discussion, nor its end.

3 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (72) 20131005v 0 -4+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Determining unity Habermas intended to bridge gap between cognitive, ethical, and political discourses. (72) What
Habermas requires from the arts and the experiences they provide us, in short, to bridge the gap between cognitive, ethical, and political discourses, thus opening the way to a unity of experience.
(72) My question is to determine what sort of unity Habermas has in mind.
(73) The first hypothesis, of a Hegelian inspiration, does not challenge the notion of a dialectically totalizing
experience; the second is closer to the spirit of Kantƒs Critique of Judgment, but must be submitted, like the Critique, to that severe reexamination which postmodernity imposes on the thought of the Enlightenment, on the idea of a unitary end of history and of a subject. It is this critique which not only Wittgenstein and Adorno have initiated, but also a few other thinkers (French or other) who do not have the honor to be read by Professor Habermas which at least saves them from getting a poor grade for their neoconservatism.

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Modulation of Nietzschean perspectivism in Kantian sublime. (77) But I see a much earlier modulation of Nietzschean perspectivism in the
Kantian theme of the sublime. I think in particular that it is in the aesthetic of the sublime that modern art (including literature) finds its impetus and the logic of avant gardes finds its axioms.

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Presenting the fact of the unpresentable. (78) I shall call modern the art which devotes its little technical expertise (
son petit technique ), as Diderot used to say, to present that fact that the unpresentable exists.
(79) It is not my intention to analyze here in detail the manner in which the various avant-gardes have, so to speak, humbled and disqualified reality by examining the pictorial techniques what are so many devices to make us believe in it.

--3.1.2+++ {11}

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Informative and interpretable aspects of texts. (763) We then have two perspectives: the text as a technical, historical, and social object and the text as it is individually received and understood. These aspects, which we might call the
informative and the interpretable, are governed by different rules, but they are interdependent and influence (and sometimes intrude on) each other in many ways.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (764) 20131024v 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
The original would be the author imagined text guiding the physical production that becomes the text, or abandon idea of real behind text. (764) we prefer the original imagined integrity of a metaphysical object to the stable version that we observe.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (765) 20131024b 0 -13+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Scales of change of metamorphosis; compare to Berry modes of software. (765) There are many scales of change in a textƒs metamorphosis: unintentional . . . usurpatory . . . plagiary . . . and subversive or estranging . . . [s]ome of the results of some of these operations we might accept as authentic new works, others not, according to the cultural legitimacy of their method of construction or their operator; or, in the case of a new aesthetic system, depending on contemporary empathy with the perceived political symbolism of the mode of mutation.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (765) 20131024d 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
These transboundary phenomena trace human machine symbiosis. (765) What remains to be investigated, then, is the possibility that textuality exists beyond metaphysics, through location, anatomy, and temporality.

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Texts are cross products of linguistic, technological, historical matricies. (766) . Texts are cross products between a set of matrices linguistic (the script), technological (the mechanical conditions), and historical (the socio-political context); and because of the temporal instability of all of these variables, texts are processes impossible to terminate and reduce.

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Textonomical version of topology studies ways various sections of text connected in terms of intentional design rather than physical appearance. (766) the
textonomical version of topology may be described as the study of the ways in which the various sections of a text are connected, disregarding the physical properties of the channel (paper, stone, electromagnetic, and so on), by means of which the text is transmitted.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (767) 20131024g 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Basic units of texts are textons, which are arbitrarily long strings of graphemes, plus traversal functions. (767) As a suitable name for such a unit I suggest
texton, which denotes a basic element of textuality.
(767) In addition to its textons, a text consists of one or more
traversal functions, the conventions and mechanisms that combine and project textons as scriptons to the user (or reader) of the text.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (767) 20131024h 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Variates applied to nonlinear texts (see Texts of Change): toplogy, dynamics, determinability, transiency, maneuverability, user-functionality. (767) Below is a list of the variates, slightly adapted from my
Texts of Change, in which they are developed and discussed at length and applied to a set of nonlinear texts.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (768) 20131024i 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Four feedback functions in addition to interpretive function of user: explorative, role-playing, configurative, poetic; note theorists seem to present sets of four or so key concepts (for example, Ryan). (768) Besides the
interpretive function of the user, which of course is present in the use of both linear and nonlinear textuality, the user of nonlinear texts may be described in terms of four active feedback functions: the explorative function, in which the user decides which path to take; the role-playing function, in which the user assumes strategic responsibility for a character in a world described by the text; the configurative function in which textons and/or traversal functions are in part chosen and/or designed by the user; and the poetic function, in which the userƒs actions, dialogue, or design are aesthetically motivated.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (768) 20131024j 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Four degrees of nonlinearity, from static to indeterminate dynamic cybertext. (768) As a simplified synthesis of this model I now propose four pragmatic categories, or degrees, of nonlinearity: (1) the simple nonlinear text, whose textons are totally static, open and explorable by the user; (2) the discontinuous nonlinear text, or hypertext, which may be traversed by jumps (explicit links) between textons; (3) the determinate cybertext, in which the behavior of textons is predictable but conditional and with the element of role-playing; and (4) the indeterminate cybertext in which textons are dynamic and unpredictable.

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I Ching as expert system, readerless text; this answers a question I have been asking myself for years. (769)
The Book of Changes may not be the worldƒs first text, but it is certainly the first expert system based on the principles of binary computing that very much later became automated by electricity and the vacuum tube.
(770) The user of
I Ching relates the scripton directly to his or her individual situation, and the interpretation, following the ritual of producing the hexagram, can only be done by the individual.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (771) 20131024l 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Bush memex user modeled after traditional academic author; hypertext jump equates to switching print texts, the lest topographical mode of nonlinearity. (771) But it should be pointed out that in his fascinating vision his
poetics nonlinearity is as much a problem (the maze ) as a solution (the trail ). . . . This may seem more radical than it actually is, with subversive political consequences for the world of literature and art; but Bushƒs user is clearly modeled on the traditional academic author.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (773) 20131024m 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Difference between hypertext and cybertext is the latters self-changing ability. (773) If literary hypertext is a new form of computer-mediated textuality, cybertext is a fairly old one, going back to the 1960s if not longer. . . . A cybertext is a self-changing text, in which scriptons and traversal functions are controlled by an immanent cybernetic agent, either mechanical or human.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (774) 20131024n 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
The game Adventure as example of determinate, ergographic cybertext. (774)
Adventure and most texts like it are determinate, intransient, and intratextonically dynamic, with completely controlled access to scriptons.

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Absent structure of determinate cybertext is the plot. (774) If the absent structure of narrative is the key problem in literary hypertext, in determinate cybertext the absent structure is the plot.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (775) 20131024p 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Indeterminate cybertext, for example MUDs, beyond genre, not against genre. (775) Indeterminate cybertext should be seen as a movement not against, but
beyond genre. As the simulation of social structure becomes richer, plot control becomes increasingly difficult; and it is easy to predict the decentered cybertext in which stories, plots, and counterplots arise naturally from the autonomous movements of the cybernetic constructs.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (776) 20131024q 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
MUDs are to be experienced, not read. (776) A discussion of MUDs in terms of authors and readers is irrelevant: a MUD cannot be read, only experienced from the very narrow perspective of one or more of the userƒs characters, with a lot of simultaneous scriptons being beyond reach.

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Cybertextuality adds ontological category of simulation. (777) Cybertextuality has an empirical element that is not found in fiction and that necessitates an ontological category of its own, which might as well be called

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory (777) 20131024s 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_aarseth-nonlinearity_and_literary_theory.html
Examples of nonlinear rhetorical unit operations, following Pierre Fontanier: forking, linking/jumping, permutation, computation, polygenesis. (777) If we turn to rhetoric, we see that nonlinearity is clearly not a trope, since it works on the level of words, not meaning; but it could be classified as a type of figure, following Pierre
Fontanierƒs taxonomy of tropes and figures.

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Immersion the difference between hypertexts like Afternoon and cybertexts like Adventure. (778) The key difference between
Afternoon and cybertexts such as Adventure and TinyMUD is what the virtual reality researchers call immersion: the userƒs convinced sense that the artificial environment is not just a main agent with whom they can identify but surrounds the user. In cybertextual terms we could say that the user assumes the strategic and emotional responsibility of the character, or that the distances between the positions of main character, narratee, and user have collapsed.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (79) 20131024 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
At the end he gives seven rhetorical aspects of myth: this cannot be of inconsequence to any academic discipline studying texts and technology, of which new (digital) media studies is either a subset, like PHI is to semiology, or intersects. (79) Myth is not defined by the object of its message, but by the way in which it utters this message: there are formal limits to myth, there are no substantial ones.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (80) 20131024a 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Myth always has a human narrative context, regardless of medium forming its text. (80) Ancient or not, mythology can only have a historical foundation, for myth is a type of speech chosen by history: it cannot possibly evolve from the nature of things.

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As a message, is myth therefore a subset of texts, are all myths textual? (80-81) It can consist of modes of writing or of representations, not only written discourse, but also photography, cinema, reporting, sport, shows, publicity, all these can serve as a support to mythical speech. . . . Mythical speech is made of a material which has
already been worked on so as to make it suitable for communication: it is because all the materials of myth (whether pictorial or written) presuppose a signifying consciousness, that one can reason about them while discounting their substance.

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Just as SGML is not popular, whereas HTML and XML are, no semiology yet; make a footnote in dissertation. (81) For mythology, since it is the study of a type of speech, is but one fragment of this vast science of signs which Saussure postulated some forty years ago under the name of semiology. Semiology has not yet come into being.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (81) 20131024d 2 -5+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Study of myth involves sensitivity to semiology and ideology. (81) (81-82) Semiology is a science of forms, since it studies significations apart from their content. . . . The important thing is to see that the unity of an explanation cannot be based on the amputation of one or other of its approaches, but, as Engels said, on the dialectical coordination of the particular sciences it makes use of.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (83) 20131024e 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Signifier, signified sign are a triad like Lacan imaginary, symbolic, real. (83) We must here be on our guard, for despite common parlance which simply says that the signified
expresses the signified, we are dealing, in any semiological system, not with two, but with three different terms. For what we grasp is not at all one term after the other but the correlation which unites them: there are, therefore, the signifier, the signified, and the sign, which is the associative total of the first two terms.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (84-85) 20110805 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Diagram has Language econmpassing and Myth encompassing indicating the groupings, and second order sign whose signifer is another sign; imagine compared with Saussure and Lacan. (84-85) In myth, we find the tri-dimensional pattern which I have just described: the signifier, the signified, and the sign. But myth is a peculiar system, in that it is constructed from a semiological chain which existed before it: it is a second-order semiological system.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (85-86) 20131024g 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Barthes provides such wonderful examples of mythical speech, like Hayles tutor texts. (85-86) It is now time to give one or two examples of mythical speech.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (86) 20110730 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
If only natural language studies founding early AI work had this depth, the confusion with plans may not have occurred: perhaps that is why I was drawn to Barthes while reading Suchman. (86) I am at the barberƒs, and a copy of
Paris-Match is offered to me. On the cover, a young Negro in a French uniform is saluting, with his eyes uplifted, probably fixed on a fold of the tricolor.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (86-87) 20131024h 0 -4+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Myth operates upon established systems, meanings become forms, concepts through signs in signification: can this second order character of myth also supply methodology to other second-order systems, such as technological artifacts, including program-generated virtual reality phenomena? (86-87) On the plane of language, that is, as the final term of the first system, I shall call the signifier:
meaning (my name is lion, a Negro is giving the French salute); on the plane of myth, I shall call it: form. In the case of the signified, no ambiguity is possible: we shall retain the name concept. The third term is the correlation of the first two: in the linguistic system, it is the sign; but it is not possible to use this word again without ambiguity, since in myth (and this is the chief peculiarity of the latter), the signifier is already formed by the signs of the language, I shall call the third term of myth the signification. This word is here all the better justified since myth has in fact a double function: it points out and it notifies, it makes us understand something and it imposes it on us.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (90) 20131024i 0 -3+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Compare to Bogost unit operations, his invocation of Badiou count-as-one stripped of the human counter: the surplus apparently encoded in signifier via, among other operations, myth touches upon asymptotic approach of human sign system functions (recall parallel discussion of signification in Diogenes Laertius) and symbolic machine control operations; at the shimmering signifier boundary are hyperlinks. (90) This repetition of the concept through different forms is precious to the mythologist, it allows him to decipher the myth: it is the insistence of a kind of behavior which reveals its intention. This confirms that
there is no regular ratio between the volume of the signified and that of the signifier. In language, this ratio is proportionate, it hardly exceeds the word, or at least the concrete unit.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (96-97) 20131024k 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Myth is pure ideographic system. (96-97) Myth is a pure
ideographic system, where the forms are still motivated by the concept which they represent while not yet, by a long way, covering the sum of its possibilities for representation.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (101) 20131024l 0 -6+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Think about use of Einstein cartoon in help systems and Greekish names of electronic devices; relate stolen language to puns and Derridean terms. (101) When the meaning is too full for myth to be able to invade it, myth goes around it, and carries it away bodily. This is what happens to mathematical language. . . . So that the more the language-object resists at first, the greater its final prostitution; whoever here resists completely yields completely: Einstein on one side,
Paris-Match on the other.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (103) 20131024m 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Traditional literature as voluntary acceptance of myth; how about myth of the personal computer? (103) A voluntary acceptance of myth can in fact define the whole of our traditional Literature. According to our norms, this Literature is an undoubted mythical system: there is a meaning, that of the discourse; there is a signifier, which is the same discourse as form or writing; there is a signified, which is the concept of literature; there is a signification, which is the literary discourse.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-myth_today (125-126) 20121127 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_barthes-myth_today.html
Users speak the object; mythologist condemned to metalanguage, simulacra. (125-126) The mechanic, the engineer, even the user,
speak the object ; but the mythologist is condemned to metalanguage.

3 1 2 (+) [-3+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (XII) 20130910f 0 -6+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
This makes sense of gnomic formula by Aarseth contemporary empathy with the perceived political symbolism of the mode of mutation. (XII) The reactionary attitude toward a Picasso painting changes into the progressive reaction toward a Chaplin movie. The progressive reaction is characterized by the direct, intimate fusion of visual and emotional enjoyment with the orientation of the expert. . . . The conventional is uncritically enjoyed, and the truly new is criticized by the public.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bogost-unit_operations (3-4) 20130910 0 -10+ progress/2012/01/notes_for_bogost-unit_operations.html
Multiple small pieces relates to Derrida morsels, the other kind of byte, also mentioned by Landow. (3-4) In literary theory, unit operations interpret networks of discrete readings; system operations interpret singular literary authority. In software technology, object technology exploits unit operations; structured programming exhibits system operations. . . . In effect, the biological sciences offer an especially salient window into the development of unit operations. . . . In general, unit operations privilege function over context, instances over longevity.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bolter-writing_space (10) 20130910 0 -4+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_bolter-writing_space.html
The strict requirement of textual unity and homogeneity is relatively recent. (10) Yet our definition of textual unity comes from the published work we have read, or more generally, from the current divisions of academic, literary, and scientific disciplines, which themselves both depend on and reinforce the economics of publishing. The material in a book must simply be homogeneous by the standard of some book-buying audience.
(11) In the ideal, if not in practice, an electronic text can tailor itself to each readerƒs needs, and the reader can make choices in the very act of reading.
(11) This ideal of cultural unity through a shared literary inheritance, which has received so many assaults in the 20th century, must now suffer further by the introduction of new forms of highly individualized writing and reading.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bolter-writing_space (64) 20130910c 0 -6+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_bolter-writing_space.html
Is this taking speech balloons too far, applying remediation to Greek vase painting? (64) We could also say that the space of the text was trying to remediate the image into discursive meaning, while the image was insisting on the formal significance of the word itself as an image.
(64) In Egyptian writing, for example, there was an intimate relationship between image and text. . . . The Greek and Roman writing space was not as friendly to pictures.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bolter-writing_space (100) 20130910g 0 -2+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_bolter-writing_space.html
Etymology of reading suggests gathering signs and moving over writing surface, recalling Socrates claim in Xenophon that once he learned to gather together all the spoken things (xunienai ta legomena) he never failed to investigate any study. (100) Lego literally means to gather, to collect, and one of its figurative meanings is to make oneƒs way, to traverse. This etymology suggests that reading is the process of gathering up signs while moving over the writing surface.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bukatman-terminal_identity (3) 20130912 0 -2+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_bukatman-terminal_identity.html
Consider analysis of science fiction by Hayles to study subjectivity. (3) MacDougallƒs history of the Space Age emphasizes the establishment of a comprehensive technocracy in the United States. .

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK bukatman-terminal_identity (30) 20131026a 0 -5+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_bukatman-terminal_identity.html
Textuality now an explicit theme; Hayles considers Bukatman. (30) Textuality now becomes an explicit theme in the science fiction work; language will comprise the content of the discourse as well as determine its form. . . . a text that emphasizes the estrangement of the sign.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (17) 20130912 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
MLA CSE guidelines a goldmine of work for a future generation of humanities scholars. (17) First in the volume, we provide a complete revision of the MLAƒs CSE Guidelines for Editors of Scholarly Editions.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (66) 20130912a 0 -9+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Buzzetti and McGann discuss insufficiency of OHCO thesis for missing structural mobility, assuming meaning embedded in syntactic form, assuming coincidence between syntactic and semantic forms. (66) The OHCO thesis about the nature of the text is radically insufficient, because it does not recognize structural mobility as an essential property of the textual condition. . . . A digital text representation need not assume that meaning can be fully represented in a syntactic logical form. . . . A formal representation of textual information does not require an absolute coincidence between syntactic and semantic logical form.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (67) 20130912b 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Buzzetti and McGann see markup as highly reflexive act, oscillating indeterminacy like self-organizing systems; in line with videogame studies, electronic literature. (67) Diacritical ambiguity, then, enables markup to provide a suitable type of formal representation for the phenomena of textual instability. . . . Markup should be conceived, instead, as the expression of a highly reflexive act, a mapping of text back onto itself: as soon as a (marked) text is (re)marked, the metamarkings open themselves to indeterminacy.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (69) 20130912c 0 -7+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Buzzetti and McGann invoke pragmatistic, existential imperative to build devices. (69) Scholarly editions are a special, highly sophisticated type of self-reflexive communication, and the fact is that we now must build such devices in digital space. This necessity is what Charles Sanders Peirce would call a pragmatistic fact: it defines a kind of existential (as opposed to a categorical) imperative that scholars who wish to make these tools must recognize and implement.
(70) In fact one can transform the social and documentary aspects of a book into computable code. . . . We were able to build a machine that organizes for complex study and analysis, for collation and critical comparison, the entire corpus of Rossettiƒs documentary materials, textual as well as pictorial.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (71) 20120901 0 -4+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Interesting suggestion by Buzzetti and McGann for researching autopoietic functions of social textualities via user logs dovetails nicely with software studies and projects for future digital humanities scholars. (71) The autopoietic functions of the social text can also be computationally accessed through user logs. This set of materials the use records, or hits, automatically stored by the computer has received little attention by scholars who develop digital tools in the humanities. Formalizing its dynamic structure in digital terms will allow us to produce an even more complex simulation of social textualities. Our neglect of this body of information reflects, I believe, an ingrained commitment to the idea of the positive text or material document.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (77) 20130912d 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Robinson: propositions reached from Canterbury Tales project digital edition: specificity of research context, inclusion of full-text transcription, restoring exhaustive historical criticism, editing and reading altered, adopt open transcription policy. (77) Until the late 1980s, a few experiments and articles appeared to suggest that a combination of the computer, with its ability to absorb and reorder vast amounts of information, and new methods of analysis begin developed in computer science (in the form of sophisticated relational databases) and in mathematics and in other sciences might be able to make sense of the many millions of pieces of information in a complex collation and provide a historical reconstruction of the development of tradition.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (92) 20130912i 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Rosenberg: recounts development of a major scholarly editing project of Edison Papers that includes its technological evolution. (92) The Edison Papers is working to combine images and text, and I hope that a careful examination of some avenues and lessons learned in that process will be helpful to anyone fortunate enough and bold enough to undertake such a task.
(93) A second unusual aspect of the Edison corpus [after its size] is the central importance of drawings and even physical artifacts to an understanding of its subjectƒs work, which is a direct consequence of Edisonƒs being an inventor and fresh territory for documentary editing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (111) 20131027 0 -9+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Fraistat and Jones: TEI for encoding poetic text at level of structure, describing in ordered hierarchy. (111) If we wish to encode a poetic text at the level of its structure, to describe (not format) its components stanzas, parts of stanzas, lines, and so on, for search, retrieval, analysis, and recombination by a computer we must turn to SGML proper and the guidelines developed by the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). . . . It now seems likely that both the HTML 3.0 and SGML (TEI Lite) versions of The Devilƒs Walk will in the near future need to be made available in XML (or the Web-ready standard it has created, XHTML).
(112) By nesting multiple sets of tags of this sort, it becomes possible logically to mark the portions of a stanza octet, sestet, quatrian, couplet such that software recognizing the document type could parse, search, and manipulate the text in complex ways. To put it in computer terms, we focus on the textƒs content objects as they can be described in an ordered hierarchy.
(113) All this data and metadata will be marked in the text itself, not in a separate file, and will then be carried with the edition in a form that will survive across various platforms and delivery systems.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (116) 20130912h 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Fraistat and Jones: MOOzymandias virtual reality experiment enacts the autopoietic functions of social texts envisioned by Buzzetti and McGann, demonstrating similarities between editing and programming. (116) More recently, we have moved beyond the Web page and HTML as such in
MOOzymandias, an ambitious collaborative experiment in editing that situates Shelleyƒs sonnet Ozymandias in a text-based multiuser virtual-reality environment, making the edition, its text and apparatus, more like a game or theatrical space than a letterpress artifact. MOOzymandias was created to attempt what no existing markup scheme can really do well yet: deal with the multidirectional, spatialized, phenomenological effects of poetic language and the multilayered complexity with which poems mean, in terms of both their presentational and structural features and in terms of the contextual editorial environments constructed by every edition through its acts of annotation and interpretation.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (139) 20130912k 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Flanders: consider this notion of readerly discovery promoted by Flanders for software and critical code studies. (139) This emphasis on readerly discovery is part of a crucial shift that has shaped the digital collection and its editorial assumptions.
(140) If one result of these developments has been a tendency to view a digital collection in the spirit of an archive as a body of source material on which may be built a superstructure of metadata, retrieval and analysis tools, and editorial decisions the corollary has been an almost ironic interest in the materiality of the text.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (155) 20130912l 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Van Hulle: argues transclusive flexibility afforded by not only digital format but nonproprietary format so that it can be machine processed in new ways. (155) The transcription of the documents in Reading is encoded in TEI-compliant XML. The advantage of this nonproprietary format is the resulting
transclusive flexibility of the textual material. Depending on the userƒs focus, the draft material can be rearranged in several ways: (1) in a documentary approach, based on the catalog numbers; (2) in chronological order; (3) by language; (4) with a focus on translation; (5) in retrograde direction, starting from the published texts.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (156) 20130912m 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Van Hulle: proposes Vanhoutte linkable unit linkeme a basic concept of electronic texts (see if Landow covers). (156) Every paragraph in the reading text can be linked to and compared with other versions of it.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (171) 20130912q 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Vanhoutte: argues modern texts often feature non-nesting problems from time and overlapping hierarchies. (171) The transcription of modern manuscript material using TEI proves to be more problematic because of a least two essential characteristics of such complex source material:
time and overlapping hierarchies.
(172) Therefore, the structural unit of a modern manuscript is not the paragraph, page, or chapter but the temporal unit of writing. These units form a complex network that often is not bound to the chronology of the page.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (171) 20131027d 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Vanhoutte: answering what is a text, ontology matters for noncritical operations, such as transcription, especially if it turns out to be non-nesting, non-hierarchical. (171) Only when a project has a clear argument on the ontology of the text can a methodology for text transcription be developed.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (174) 20130912s 0 -6+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Vanhoutte: three categories of genetic criticism are transversal, horizontal, vertical. (174) Therefore,
critique genetique does not aim to reconstitute the optimal text of a work and is interested not in the text but in the dynamic writing process, which can be reconstructed by close study of the extant drafts, notebooks, and so on. . . . Rather than produce editions, the geneticiens put together a dossier genetique by localizing and dating, ordering, deciphering, and transcribing all pre-text witnesses. Only then can they read and interpret the dossier genetique.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (182) 20130912u 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Huitfeldt: argues Wittgenstein manuscripts provide almost every imaginable complicating variation for textual markup and requiring keen awareness of of nuances of diplomatic reproduction. (182) Like many modern manuscripts, Wittgensteinƒs writings contain deletions, overwritings, interlinear insertions, marginal remarks and annotations, substitutions, counterpositions, shorthand abbreviations, as well as orthographic errors and slips of the pen. . . . Moreover, Wittgenstein had his own peculiar editorial conventions, such as an elaborate system of section marks, cross-outs, cross-references, marginal marks and lines, and various distinctive types of underlining.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (351) 20130913 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Case and Green: concern raised that extensive monitoring capabilities will make it harder for scholars to secure permissions from publishers; imagine when reach goes into real time, perspectical virtual worlds. (351) Because copyright owners now use technological means to search the Web to find unauthorized uses of their content, a publisher may be unwilling to expose itself to the cost of responding to potential claims, whether it believes the use is fair use or not.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (354) 20130913a 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Case and Green: lack of authoritative search for ownership and rights from Library of Congress further complicates transmedia events such as sounds in virtual realities that are generated from copyrighted text via text to speech synthesis. (354) Because the Library of Congress catalogs do not include entries for assignment or other recorded documents, they cannot be used authoritatively for searches involving the ownership of rights.
Audio. Should permission be required to use audio material, the editor should be aware of the possible need for several layers of permissions.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (364) 20120905 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Deegan: Fedora project flexible extensible digital object repository architecture proposes new ways of reasoning based on behaviors rather than essential nature; compare to Tanaka-Ishii study of object-oriented programming methodologies. (364) A new approach to the preservation of complex digital data is being explored by the University of Virginia and Cornell University, together with other academic partners: the Fedora project (flexible extensible digital object repository architecture), one of a number of repository architectures that have been proposed for use in digital libraries. . . . Fedora is of particular interest, because it proposes new ways of reasoning about digital data, based on data objects and their behaviors rather than on the essential nature of the data.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (367) 20120909 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Deegan: CCS link of cultural bias in encoding recommends ASCII entity references over direct Unicode; see Case and Gee. (367) For text, the ASCII standard should always be used, with markup added that is also in ASCII. There has been great progress in the presentation of special characters through the Unicode standard, but it is preferable that characters be encoded as entity references that can be displayed in Unicode than encoded as Unicode itself.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (46) 20131028a 0 -6+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
Classicists are ideally positioned to inform texts and technology theories. (46) Classicists have for thousands of years been developing lexica, encyclopedias, commentaries, critical editions, and other elements of scholarly infrastructure that are best suited to an electronic environment. Classicists have placed great emphasis on systematic knowledge management and engineering. . . . While many of us compare the impact of print and of new electronic media, classicists can see the impact of both revolutions upon the 2,500-year history of their field.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (49) 20130913b 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
I call them ideological constants, the stable source texts from antiquity around which ephemeral technologies can emerge and dissolve; contrast to traditional conception of rhizome. (49) He [David Packard] observed that software and systems were ephemeral but that primary sources such as well structured, cleanly entered source texts were objects of enduring value.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (54) 20130913f 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
DSPACE and FEDORA library repositories; update alienation concept with copyleft and global repositories. (54) A variety of library repositories are now coming into use. . . . In the world of publication, alienation is a virtue, because in alienating publications, the author can entrust them to libraries that are designed to provide stable access beyond the lifespan of any one individual.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (63) 20130915a 0 -6+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Suggestion that texts imply ergodic features. (63) A text is not a text unless it hides from the first comer, from the first glance, the law of its composition and the rules of its game. . . . it is simply that they can never be booked, in the
present, into anything that could rigorously be called a perception.
(63) The dissimulation of the woven texture can in any case take centuries to undo its web: a web that envelops a web, undoing the web for centuries; reconstituting it too as an organism, indefinitely regenerating its own tissue behind the cutting trace, the decision of each reading.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (65) 20130915b 0 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
So much for histos, the word to contemplate becomes pharmakon; will it be resumed after the long detour soon to be announced? (65) If we then
write a bit: on Plato, who already said in the Phaedrus that writing can only repeat (itself), that it always signifies (semainei) the same and that it is a game (paidia).

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (65) 20130915c 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Take off from Phaedrus implying continuing with Statesman, although different experience for those unfamiliar with it that Derrida presumes is the default thing evoked by the preceding reading: is taking off in this way like or unlike hyperlink operation, maybe a very advanced form of associative linking, recalling how there are a number of forms according to Bogost or Montfort like for Barthes listening? (65) The example we shall propose of this will not, seeing that we are dealing with Plato, be the Statesman, which will have come to mind first, no doubt because of the paradigm of the weaver, and especially because of the paradigm of the paradigm, the example of the example writing which immediately precedes it. We will come back to that only after a long detour.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (66) 20130915d 0 -9+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
New connotation for interpreting Phaedrus, not longer dismissing it as badly composed following Diogenes Laertius. (66) We will take off here from the Phaedrus. We are speaking of the Phaedrus that was obliged to wait almost twenty-five centuries before anyone gave up the idea that it was a badly composed dialogue.
(67) In 1905, the tradition of
Diogenes Laertius was reversed, not in order to bring about a recognition of the excellent composition of the Phaedrus but in order to attribute its faults this time to the senile impotence of the author.
(67) This is, in particular, the case and this will be our supplementary thread with the whole last section (274
b ff.), devoted, as everyone knows, to the origin, history, and value of writing. . . . In truth, it is rigorously called for from the one end of the Phaedrus to the other.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (71) 20130915h 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Reading and walking also done in Symposium; Derrida is concerned with how many different ways pharmakon has been translated, and why. (71) A spoken speech whether by Lysias or by Phaedrus in person a speech proffered
in the present, at the presence of Socrates, would not have had the same effect. Only the logoi en bibliois, only words that are deferred, reserved, enveloped, rolled up, words that force one to wait for them in the form and under cover of a solid object, letting themselves be desired for the space of a walk, only hidden letters can thus get Socrates moving.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (75-76) 20130915j 0 -7+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Writing as object is artifact that makes other artifacts, a tool or set of materials. (75-76) Let us freeze the scene and the characters and take a look at them. Writing (or, if you will, the
pharmakon) is thus presented to the King. . . . And this work is itself an art, a capacity for work, a power of operation.
(76) The
pharmakon is here presented to the father and is by him rejected, belittled, abandoned, disparaged.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (77) 20130915l 0 -4+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Father is the speech producer (disseminator, reproducer, transmitter) from the writing text. (77)
Logos is a son, then, a son that would be destroyed in his very presence without the present attendance of his father. His father who answers. His father who speaks for him and answers for him. Without his father, he would be nothing but, in fact, writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (78) 20130915m 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Critique of Robin translation leads to overall point about uniqueness of original Greek sustaining an ancient thought by play in ambiguity of words like pharmakon. (78)
Logos-- discourse --has the meaning here of argument, line of reasoning, guiding thread animating the spoken discussion (the Logos). To translate it by subject [sujet], as Robin does, is not merely anachronistic.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (79) 20130118 0 -5+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Logos as spoken (orality) always in context, whereas written words naturally decontextualized; logos also engendered via human breath and silent reading until formant synthesis can create simulacral audible phenomena. (79)
Logos is a zoon. An animal that is born, grows, belongs to the physis. Linguistics, logic, dialectics, and zoology are all in the same camp.
(80) The father is always father to a speaking/living being. In other words, it is precisely
logos that enables us to perceive and investigate something like paternity.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (81-82) 20130915n 0 -11+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Complex meditation on structural relations between the logos, the father, the good, capital and connection of tokos, product, birth, child and potentially token: can it be argued a fortiori that, since this kind of thinking is so unique for humans, that it would be even more unlikely if not impossible to be thought by machines? (81-82) The figure of the father, of course, is also that of the good (
agathon). Logos represents what it is indebted to: the father who is also chief, capital, and good(s). Or rather the chief, the good(s). Pater in Greek means all that at once. Neither translators nor commentators of Plato seem to have accounted for the play of these schemas. It is extremely difficult, we must recognize, to respect this play in a translation, and the fact can at least be explained in that no one has ever raised the question. . . . Tokos, which is here associated with ekgonos, signifies production and the product, birth and the child, etc. This word functions with this meaning in the domains of agriculture, of kinship relations, and of fiduciary operations.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (85) 20130915o 0 -10+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Plato leveraged structural laws, resulting in specific possible combinations of mythemes. (85) Our intention here [citing Borges, Joyce, and Borges again] has only been to sow the idea that the spontaneity, freedom, and fantasy attributed to Plato in his legend of Theuth were actually supervised and limited by rigorous necessities. The organization of the myth conforms to powerful constraints. . . . Plato had to make his tale conform to structural laws. . . . What we wish to do here is simply to point to the internal, structural necessity which alone has made possible such communication and any eventual contagion of mythemes.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (91) 20130915p 0 -9+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Relation between writing and death common in other Greek philosophers; also relation to joker, floating signifier, putting play into play. (91) For it goes without saying that the god of writing must also be the god of death.
(92-93) The system of these traits brings into play an original kind of logic: the figure of Thoth is opposed to its other (father, sun, life, speech, origin or orient, etc.), but as that which at once supplements and supplants it. Thoth extends or opposes by repeating or replacing. By the same token, the figure of Thoth takes shape and takes its shape from the very thing it resists and substitutes for. But it thereby opposes
itself, passes into its other, and this messenger-god is truly a god of the absolute passage between opposites. . . .

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (95) 20130119 0 -6+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Structurally constrained chain of significations meaningfully defining play of play, contrary to play in meaning of technical terms; on a continuum with appeal to arbitrary and changeable meaning of programming variables, even product names, populated with strange cases like thryristor? (95) The word pharmakon is caught in a chain of significations. The play of that chain seems systematic. But the system here is not, simply, that of the intentions of an author who goes by the name of Plato. The system is not primarily that of what someone meant-to-say {un vouloir-dire}. Finely regulated communications are established, through the play of language, among diverse functions of the word and, within it, among diverse strata or regions of culture.
(96) The possibilities and powers of displacement are extremely diverse in nature, and, rather than enumerating there all their titles, let us attempt to produce some of their effects as we go along, as we continue our march through the Platonic problematic of writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (96) 20130915r 0 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Complex reading of pharmakon like supplement in Of Grammatology. (96) (footnote 43) With a few precautions, one could say that
pharmakon plays a role analogous, in this reading of Plato, to that of supplement in the reading of Rousseau.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (97) 20130915s 0 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Translation cancels out productive resources of ambiguity and context, whereas a glossematic system works differently: link this to Tanaka-Ishii differentiating being centric and doing (interface) centric types of OOP; destroying anagrammatic writing, neutralizing differentiation afforded by Greek textuality also seems related to Montfort and Bogost, and others, describing programming tricks to cleverly leverages platform constraints. (97) Its translation by remedy nonetheless erases, in going outside the Greek language, the other pole reserved in the word

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (98) 20130915t 0 -6+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Violent and impotent translation leaves original anagrammatic writing untouched for Derrida to interpret now. (98) If Platoƒs text then goes on to give the Kingƒs pronouncement as the truth of Theuthƒs production and his speech as the truth of writing, then the translation
remedy makes Theuth into a simpleton or a flimflam artist, from the sunƒs point of view. . . . Their discourse plays within it, which is no logner the case in translation. Remedy is the rendition that, more than medicine or drug would have done, obliterates the virtual, dynamic references to the other uses of the same word in Greek.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (99) 20130915u 0 -8+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Compare the never harmless remedy of technologized remembrance to Zizek chocolate laxative: painful pleasure and artificial. (99) There is no such thing as a harmless remedy. The
pharmakon can never be simply beneficial.
(99) For two reasons, and to two different depths. First of all because the beneficial essence or virtue of a
pharmakon does not prevent it from hurting. . . . This type of painful pleasure, linked as much to the malady as to its treatment, is a pharmakon in itself.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (99-100) 20130915v 0 -12+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Doctors of Cos would deplore cyborgs for their unnatural prostheses; necessity built into word choice, evidenced by parallel examination of Timaeus and Phaedrus. (99-100) Then again, more profoundly, even beyond the question of pain, the pharmaceutical remedy is essentially harmful because it is artificial. . . . Plato is following Greek tradition and, more precisely, the doctors of Cos. The
pharmakon goes against natural life: not only life unaffected by any illness, but even sick life, or rather the life of the sickness. . . . Writing does not answer the needs of memory, it aims to the side, does not reinforce the mneme, but only hypomensis. And if, in the two texts we are now going to look at together, the formal structure of the argument is indeed the same; if in both cases what is supposed to produce the positive and eliminate the negative for this is inscribed in the sign pharmakon, which Robin (for example) dismembers, here as remedy, there as drug. We expressly said the sign pharmakon, intending thereby to mark that what is in question is indissociably a signifier and a concept signified.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (103-104) 20130915w 0 -14+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Writing like self-compiling compiler, since it must found the possibility of systematicity; similar to problems of dealing with self reflexivity in programming languages covered by Tanaka-Ishii, and Derrida will milk the ghost in other writings, exceeding all classical models of reading, writing itself, so begin by finding and reading it. (103-104) It is not enough to say that writing is conceived out of this or that series of oppositions. Plato thinks of writing, and tries to comprehend it, to dominate it, on the basis of
opposition as such. In order for these contrary values (good/evil, true/false, essence/appearance, inside/outside, etc.) to be in opposition, each of the terms must be simply external to the other, which means that one of these oppositions (the opposition between inside and outside) must already be accredited as the matrix of all possible opposition. And one of the elements of the system (or of the series) must also stand as the very possibility of systematicity or seriality in general. And if one got to thinking that something like the pharmakon or writing far from being governed by these oppositions, opens up their very possibility without letting itself be comprehended by them; if one got to thinking that it can only be out of something like writing or the pharmakon that the strange difference between inside and outside can spring; if, consequently, one got to thinking that writing as a pharmakon cannot simply be assigned a site within what it situates, cannot be subsumed under concepts whose contours it draws, leaves only its ghost to a logic that can only seek to govern it insofar as logic arises from it one would then have ti bend {plier} into strange contrortions what could no longer even simply be called logic or discourse. All the more so if what we have just imprudently called a ghost can no longer be distinguished, with the same assurance, from truth, reality, living flesh, etc.
(104) Every model of classical reading is exceeded there at some point, precisely at the point where it attaches to the inside of the series. . . . Such a functional displacement, which concerns differences (and, as we shall see, simulacra ) more than any conceptual identities signified, is a real and necessary challenge. It writes itself. One must therefore being by reading it.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (108-109) 20130915y 0 -13+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Texts and technology studies needs to disrupt archive memory model, as Hayles does with presence/absences, inside/outside, living/nonliving, mneme/archive, original/type in direction of Clark extended mind. (108-109) The boundary (between inside and outside, living and nonliving) separates not only speech from writing but also memory as an unveiling (re-)producing a presence from re-memoration as the mere repetition of a monument: truth as distinct from its sign, being as distinct from types. The outside dos not begin at the point where what we now call the psychic and the physical meet, but at the point where the
mneme, instead of being present to itself in its life as a movement of truth, is supplanted by the archive, evicted by a sign of re-memoration or of com-memoration. . . . Memory is finite by nature. Plato recognizes this in attributing life to it. As in the case of all living organisms, he assigns it, as we have seen, certain limits. A limitless memory would in any event be not memory but infinite self-presence. Memory always therefore already needs signs in order to recall the non-present, with which it is necessarily in relation. The movement of dialectics bears witness to this. Memory is thus contaminated by its first substitute: hypomensis. But what Plato dreams of is a memory with no sign.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (112-113) 20130915z 0 -15+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Philosophers are also writers, and writing guards laws. (112-113) How indeed does the dialectician simulate him whom he deonounces as a simulator, as the simulacrum-man? . . . Through this economy of signs, the sophists are indisputably men of writing at the moment they are protesting they are not. But isnƒt Plato one, too, through a symmetrical effect of reversal? . . . As another sort of guardian of the laws, writing guarantees the means of returning at will, as often as necessary, to that ideal object called the law. We can thus scrutinize it, question it, consult it, make it talk, without altering its identity. All this, even in the same words (notably
boetheia), is the other side, exactly opposite, of Socratesƒ speech in the Phaedrus.
(113) The italicized Greek words amply demonstrate it: the
prostagmata of the law can be posited only in writing (en grammasi tethenta). Nomothesia is engrammatical. The legislator is a writer.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (115) 20130916 0 -9+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Speech (logos) is also pharmakon, in fact its quintessence. (115) Despite these similarities, the condemnation of writing is not engaged in the same way by the rhetors as it is in the
Phaedrus. If the written word is scorned, it is not as a pharmakon coming to corrupt memory and truth. It is because logos is a more effective pharmakon. This is what Gorgias calls it. . . . Sorcery (goeteia), psychagogy, such are the facts and acts of speech, the most fearsome of pharmaka.
(116) But before being reined in and tamed by the
kosmos and order of truth, logos is a wild creature, an ambiguous anamality.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (116) 20130916a 0 -5+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Interesting to find equivocation of persuasive speaking and drugs in Gorgias. (116) Such persuasion entering the soul through speech is indeed a
pharmakon, and that is precisely what Gorgias calls it: [quoting] The effect of speech (tou logou dunamis) upon the condition of the soul (pros ten tes psuches taxin) is comparable (ton auton de logon) to the power of drugs (ton pharmakon taxis) over the nature of bodies (ten ton somaton phusin).
(117) The reader will have paused to reflect that the relation (the analogy) between the
logos/soul relation and the pharmakon/body relation is itself designated by the term logos. The name of the relation is the same as that of one of its terms. The pharmakon is comprehended in the structure of logos. This comprehension is an act of both domination and decision.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (117) 20130916b 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Evidence that Socrates is a pharmakeus; claims the the argument from the Lysis is actually a really poor argument. (117) But if this is the case, and if
logos is already a penetrating supplement, then isnƒt Socrates, he who does not write, also a master of the pharmakon?
(117) Socrates in the dialogues of Plato often has the face of a
pharmakeus. That is the name given by Diotima to Eros.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (127-128) 20130916d 0 -11+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Dialectics draws philosophemes from deep background fund of differance of the play of pharmakon in the pharmacy; first appearance of the word. (127-128) The
pharmakon is the movement, the locus, and the play: (the production of) difference. It is the differance of difference. . . . Already inhabited by differance, this reserve, even though it precedes the opposition between different effects, even though it preexists differences as effects, does not have the punctual simplicity of a coincidentia oppositorum. It is from this fund that dialectics draws its philosophemes. . . . It is also this store of deep background that we are calling the pharmacy.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (128) 20130916e 0 -12+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Myth of writing as parasite: can it return to mythical position of mere excess, amusement, through its own operation, writing? (128) It is part of the rules of this game that the game should
seem to stop. . . . The purity of the inside can then only be restored if the charges are brought home against exteriority as a supplement, inessential yet harmful tot he essence, a surplus that ought never to have come to be added to the untouched plenitude of the inside. The restoration of internal purity must thus reconstitute, recite and this is myth as such, the mythology for example of a logos recounting its origin, going back to the eve of the pharmakographic aggression that to which the pharmakon should not have had to be added and attached like a literal parasite: a letter installing itself inside a living organism to rob it of its nourishment and to distort the pure audibility of a voice. . . . Writing must thus return to being what it should never have ceased to be: an accessory, an accident, an excess.
(128) The pharmaceutical operation must therefore
exclude itself from itself.
(129) It is in the back room, in the shadows of the pharmacy, prior to the opposition between conscious and unconscious, freedom and constraint, voluntary and involuntary, speech and language, that these textual operations occur.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (130 footnote 56 20130120 0 -5+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Suggests in footnote that Freud and subsequent psychoanalytic approaches constrained by their focus on evil from above leave rich interpretive potential, like the neutered translation, safe for reterritorialization in the same and less popular texts; likewise critical programming rereads humanities tradition and applies this methodology to default philosophies of computing. (130 footnote 56)

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (134) 20130916h 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
All these coincidences and never a use of the word pharmakos by Plato seems odd. (134) The date of the ceremony is noteworthy: the sixth day of the Thargelia. That was the day of the birth of him whose death and not only because a
pharmakon was its direct cause resembles that of a pharmakos from the inside: Socrates.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (134) 20130916i 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Transforming divination, myth into logos, reasoned argument. (134) It is a
manteia, Socrates suggests (275c). The discourse of Socrates will hence apply itself to the task of translating that manteia into philosophy, cashing it on that capital, turning it to account, taking account of it, giving accounts and reasons, upholding the reasoning of that basileo-patro-helio-theological dictum. Transforming the mythos into logos.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (146) 20130916m 0 -7+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Writing primarily signifies the absence of the writer, in contrast to recorded performance. (146) Writing, the lost son, does not answer this question it writes (itself): (that) the father
is not, that is to say, is not present.
(148) All Platoƒs writing . . . is thus,
when read from the viewpoint of Socratesƒ death, in the situation of writing as it is indicted in the Phaedrus. These scenes enclose and fit into each other endlessly, abyssally. The pharmacy has no foundation.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (154-155) 20130916p 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Speaking and writing both deal with the trace; good and bad senses of play equates to dialectical and nondialectical trace. (154-155) Hence the dialectician will sometimes write, amass monuments, collect
hupomnemata, just for fun. But he will do so while still putting his products at the service of dialectics and in order to leave a trace (ikhnos) for whoever might want to follow in his footsteps on the pathway to truth. The dividing line now runs less between presence and the trace than between the dialectical trace and the nondialectical trace, between play in the good sense and play in the bad sense of the word.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (162) 20130916u 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
See Manovich NMR to analyze whether distinction between cultural and/or software conventions provides structure for play to transpire. (162) Structure is read as a form of writing in an instance where the intuition of sensible or intelligible presence happens to fail.
(162) It occurs in the name not of the invention of graphics but of grammar, of the science of grammar as a science of differences.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (165) 20130916w 0 -8+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Resorts to examples from semiotics (relations among letters) to provide metaphors for ontological questions, the deliberate method Tanaka-Ishii uses to ponder the semiotic/grammatological questions themselves that otherwise cannot differentiate each others extent, grammar and ontology. (165) The discourse [of the Stranger in
Theaeteus], then, is off. Paternal logos is upside down. It is then by chance if, once being has appeared as a triton ti, a third irreducible to the dualisms of classical ontology, it is again necessary to turn to the example of grammatical science and of the relations among letters in order to explain the interlacing that weaves together the system of differences (solidarity-exclusion), of kinds and forms, the sumploke ton eidon to which any discourse we can have owes its existence (ho logos gegonen hemin)(259e)?
(166) The distinction between grammar and dialectics can thus only in all rigor be established at the point where truth is fully present and fills the
logos. . . . And that is the difference that prevents there being in fact any difference between grammar and ontology.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (167) 20130916x 0 -13+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
At stake is a Latour list stretching across Western intellectual history to computed binarism. (167) Just as Socrates supplements and replaces the father, as we have seen, dialectics supplements and replaces the impossible
noesis, the forbidden intuition of the face of the father (good-sun-capital). . . . The disappearance of that face is the movement of differance which violently opens writing or, if one prefers, which opens itself to writing and which writing opens for itself. . . . And which by the same token threatens the domestic, hierarchical interiority of the pharmacy, the proper order and healthy movement of goods, the lawful prescription of its controlled, classed, measured, labeled products, rigorously divided into remedies and poisons, seeds of life and seeds of death, good and bad traces, the unity of metaphysics, of technology, of well computed binarism. . . . In other words, what does Platonism signify as repetition?

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (xlix) 20130915 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Spivak: questions for texts and technology on deconstructive reading exposing grammatological structures of texts: is it the text or the authors ignorance; what of slips of the keyboard, and that which is covered over by error correction tools; can these slips be automatically detected? (xlix) The deconstructive reader exposes the grammatological structure of the text, that is origin and its end are given over to language in general (what Freud would call the unknown world of thought ), by locating the moment in the text which harbors the unbalancing of the equation, the sleight of hand at the limit of a text which cannot be dismissed simply as a contradiction. In the Grammatologyƒs reading of Rousseau, this moment is the double-edged word supplement. In La pharmacie de Platon, it is the double-edged word pharmakon as well as the absence of the word pharmakos. In Derridaƒs brief reading of Aristotleƒs Physics IV, it is the unemphatic word ama, carrying the burden of difference.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (lxxxix) 20130915a 0 -7+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Is there any point in reading Derrida without Rousseau, noting irony that Wikipedia notes in the preface to this would-be volume Rousseau wrote that the Essay was originally meant to be included in the Discourse on Inequality but was omitted because it, was too long and out of place, and a frightening web site is reached using Google to find this text, what appears to be a fee-based aid for writing essays on particular topics. (lxxxix) These critical concepts are put to the test in the second part, Nature, Culture, Writing. This is the moment, as it were, of the example, although strictly speaking, that notion is not acceptable within my argument. . . . It is a question of a reading of what may perhaps be called the age of Rousseau. A reading merely outlined; considering the need for such an analysis, the difficulty of the problems, and the nature of my project, I have felt justified in selecting a short and little-known tract, the Essay on the Origin of Languages.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (3) 20130915b 0 -22+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Grammatology seeks to liberate thinking from ethnocentrism of logocentrism controlling concept of writing, metaphysics, and science. (3) This triple exergue is intended not only to focus attention on the
ethnocentrism which, everywhere and always, had controlled the concept of writing. . . . logocentrism . . . controlling in one and the same order: 1. the concept of writing . . . 2. the history of (the only) metaphysics . . . 3. the concept of science.
(4) By alluding to a science of writing reined in by metaphor, metaphysics, and theology, this exergue must not only announce that the science of writing -
grammatology - shows signs of liberation all over the world, as a result of decisive efforts. . . . The idea of science and the idea of writing - therefore also of the science of writing - is meaningful for us only in terms of an origin and within a world to which a certain concept of the sign (later I shall call it the concept of sign) and a certain concept of the relationships between speech and writing, have already been assigned.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (9) 20130915c 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Gramme/grapheme is the basic element/unit revealed by grammatology, not to be ousted by cybernetics until is historico-metaphysical character is exposed. (9) If the theory of
cybernetics is by itself to oust all metaphysical concepts - including the concepts of soul, of life, of value, of choice, of memory - which until recently served to separate the machine from man, it must conserve the notion of writing, trace, gramme [written mark], or grapheme, until its own historico-metaphysical character is also exposed. Even before being determined as human (with all the distinctive characteristics that have always been attributed to man and the entire system of significations that they imply) or nonhuman, the gramme - or the grapheme - would thus name the element.
(10) But beyond theoretical mathematics, the development of the
practical methods of information retrieval extends the possibilities of the message vastly, to the point where it is no longer the written translation of a language, the transporting of a signified which could remain spoken in its integrity.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (11-12) 20130915d 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Logocentrism also phonocentrism. (11-12) This notion remains therefore within the heritage of that logocentrism which is also a
phonocentrism: absolute proximity of voice and being, of voice and the meaning of being of voice and the ideality of meaning.
(13) The difference between signified and signifier belongs in a profound and implicit way to the totality of the great epoch covered by the history of metaphysics, and in a more explicit and more systematically articulated way to the narrower epoch of Christian creationism and infinitism when these appropriate the resources of Greek conceptuality.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (15) 20130915e 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Paradox that natural writing is named by a metaphor, and all we have is fallen writing, the dead letter (Phaedrus). (15) all that functions as
metaphor in these discourses confirms the privilege of the logos and founds the literal meaning then given to writing: a sign signifying a signifier itself signifying an eternal verity, eternally thought and spoken in the proximity of a present logos. The paradox to which attention must be paid is this: natural and universal writing, intelligible and nontemporal writing, is thus named by metaphor.
(15) As in the
Phaedrus, a certain fallen writing continues to be opposed to it. There remains to be written a history of this metaphor, a metaphor that systematically contrasts divine or natural writing and the human and laborious, finite and artificial inscription.
(17) Writing in the common sense is the
dead letter, it is the carrier of death.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (24) 20130915f 0 -7+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Writing is forgetting of the self, exteriorization, in contrast to interiorizing memory. (24) Writing is that forgetting of the self, that exteriorization, the contrary of the interiorizing memory, of the
Erinnerung that opens the history of the spirit. It is this that the Phaedrus said: writing is at once mnemotechnique and the power of forgetting. Naturally, the Hegelian critique of writing stops at the alphabet. As phonetic writing, the alphabet is at the same time more servile, more contemptible, more secondary . . . but it is also the best writing, the mindƒs writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (36-37) 20130915g 0 -7+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Language is writing, inverting speech to be its speculum. (36-37) What is intolerable and fascinating is indeed the intimacy intertwining image and thing,
graph, i.e., and phone, to the point where by a mirroring, inverting, and perverting effect, speech seems in its turn the speculum of writing, which manages to usurp the main role. . . . There is an originary violence of writing because language is first, in a sense I shall gradually reveal, writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (43) 20130915h 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Logocentrism as epoch of full speech suppresses reflection on origin and status of writing, leaning on mythology of natural writing, preventing Saussure from determining integral and concrete object of linguistics. (43) This
logocentrism, the epoch of the full speech, has always placed in parenthesis, suspended, and suppressed for essential reasons, all free reflection on the origin and status of writing, all science of writing which was not technology and the history of a technique, itself leaning upon a mythology and a metaphor of a natural writing. It is this logocentrism which, limiting the internal system of language in general by a bad abstraction, prevents Saussure and the majority of his successors from determining fully and explicitly that which is called the integral and concrete object of linguistics.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (62-63) 20130915j 0 -8+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Pure trace is difference, conditioning plenitude, permitting articulation of speech and writing; cannot be described by metaphysics. (62-63)
The (pure) trace is difference. It does not depend on any sensible plenitude, audible or visible, phonic or graphic. It is, on the contrary, the condition of such a plenitude. Although it does not exist, although it is never a being-present outside of all plenitude, its possibility is by rights anterior to all that one calls sign (signified/signifier, content/expression, etc.), concept or operation, motor or sensory. . . .

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (63) 20131028 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Sound-image is what is heard. (63) The
sound-image is what is heard; not the sound heard but the being-heard of the sound. Being-heard is structurally phenomenal and belongs to an order radically dissimilar to that of the real sound in the world.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (68) 20130915k 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Consider Freud dreamwork: Derrida goal is to make our immediate understanding of presence enigmatic by deconstruction of consciousness. (68)
Arche-writing as spacing cannot occur as such within the phenomenological experience of a presence. It marks the dead time within the presence of the living present, within the general form of all presence.
(68) Perhaps it is now easier to understand why Freud says of the
dreamwork that it is comparable rather to a writing than to a language, and to a hieroglyphic rather than to a phonetic writing.
(70-71) To make enigmatic what one thinks one understands by the words proximity, immediacy, presence (the proximate, the own, and the pre- of presence), is my final intention in this book.
This deconstruction of presence accomplishes itself through the deconstruction of consciousness, and therefore through the irreducible notion of the trace (Spur), as it appears in both Nietzschean and Freudian discourse. And finally, in all scientific fields, notably in biology, this notion seems currently to be dominant and irreducible.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (73) 20130915l 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Signified always already in position of the signifier. (73) That the signified is originarily and essentially (and not only for a finite and created spirit) trace, that it is
always already in the position of the signifier, is the apparently innocent proposition within which the metaphysics of the logos, of presence and consciousness, must reflect upon writing as its death and its resource.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (81) 20131028a 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Overtaking of speech by the machine is the technicism of our epoch. (81) The greatest difficulty was already to conceive, in a manner at once historical and systematic, the organized cohabitation, within the same graphic code, of figurative, symbolic, abstract, and phonetic elements.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (86) 20121020 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
War suppressing resistances to linearization; pluri-dimensional mythogram, for example: relate to suspicion by Mcgann of OHCO textuality thesis. (86) these limits came into being at the same time as the possibility of what they limited, they opened what they finished and we have already named them: discreteness, difference, spacing. The production of the linear norm thus emphasized these limits and marked the concepts of symbol and language. . . . If one allows that the linearity of language entails this vulgar and mundane concept of temporality (homogeneous, dominated by the form of the now and the ideal of continuous movement, straight or circular) which Heidegger shows to be the intrinsic determining concept of all ontology from Aristotle to Hegel, the meditation upon writing and the deconstruction of the history of philosophy become inseparable.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (86) 20131028b 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
End of linear writing is end of the book. (86) The end of linear writing is indeed the end of the book, even if, even today, it is within the form of a book that new writings - literary or theoretical - allow themselves to be, for better or for worse, encased. It is less a question of confiding new writings to the envelope of a book than of finally reading what wrote itself between the lines in the volumes.
(87) The meta-rationality or the meta-scientificity which are thus announced within the meditation upon writing can therefore be no more shut up within a science of man than conform to the traditional idea of science. In one and the same gesture, they leave
man, science, and the line behind.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (89) 20131028c 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Problem of phoneticization of writing calls for privileging psychoanalytic types of research; consider primitive scripts of cultures without writing. (89) Within the structure of a pictographic tale for example, a representation-of-a-thing, such as a totemic blazon, may take the symbolic value of a proper name. From that moment on, it can function as appellation within other series with a phonetic value. Its stratification may thus become very complex and go beyond the empirical
consciousness linked to their immediate usage. Going beyond this real consciousness, the structure of this signifier may continue to operate not only on the fringes of the potential consciousness but according to the causality of the unconscious.
(89) Thus the name, especially the so-called proper name, is always caught in a chain or a system of differences.
(90) We shall now discover the complexity of this structure in the so-called primitive scripts and in cultures believed without writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (93) 20131028d 0 -11+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Incompetence of science and philosophy: thought means nothing, what we have not begun, broached only in the episteme, walled-in within presence. (93) Indeed, one must understand this
incompetence of science which is also the incompetence of philosophy, the closure of the episteme. . . . this unnameable movement of difference-itself, that I have strategically nicknamed trace, reserve, or difference, could be called writing only within the historical closure, that is to say within the limits of science and philosophy.
In a certain sense, thought means nothing. Like all openings, this index belongs within a past epoch by the face that is open to view. This thought has no weight. It is, in the play of the system, that very thing which never has weight. Thinking is what we already know we have not yet begun; measured against the shape of writing, it is broached only in the episteme.
(93) Grammato
logy, this thought, would still be walled-in within presence.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (98) 20130915m 0 -10+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Derrida positions Rousseau between Plato and Hegel as landmarks in history of logocentrism, where consciousness defined as experience of pure auto-affection. (98) Ideality and substantiality relate to themselves, in the element of the
res cogitans, by a movement of pure auto-affection. Consciousness is the experience of pure auto-affection. . . . From Descartes to Hegel and in spite of all the differences that separate the different places and moments in the structure of that epoch, Godƒs infinite understanding is the other name for the logos as self-presence. . . . That experience lives and proclaims itself as the exclusion of writing, that is to say of the invoking of an exterior, sensible, spatial signifier interrupting self-presence.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (105) 20130915n 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
To Levi-Strauss, Rousseau is the founder of modern anthropology; Derrida emphasizes the eschatology of the proper. (105) he reads Rousseau as the
founder, not only the prophet, of modern anthropology.
(106-107) Ellipsis of the originary writing within language as the irreducibility of metaphor, which it is necessary here to think in its possibility and short of its rhetorical repetition. The irremediable absence of the proper name, Rousseau no doubt believed in the figurative initiation of language, but he believed no less, as we shall see, in a progress toward literal (proper) meaning. Figurative language was the first to be born, he says, only to add, proper meaning was discovered last (
Essay). It is to this eschatology of the proper (prope, proprius, self-proximity, self-presence, property, own-ness) that we ask the question of the graphein.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (168) 20130915p 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Speech as something whose specificity as one among asymptotically limitless possibilities seems free of gross overdetermination by any feature/cause within its surrounding environment (other, not-itself). (168) Among all these representations, the exteriority of liberty and nonliberty is perhaps privileged. More clearly than others, it brings together the historical (political, economic, technological) and the metaphysical. Heidegger has summarized the history of metaphysics by repeating that which made of liberty the condition of presence, that is to say, of truth. And speech always presents itself as the best expression of liberty.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (168) 20130915q 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Significance for texts and technology studies: Derrida identifies and helps loosen the bias favoring speech that Ong and others helped reveal in the first place as a component of human communication that can be meaningfully differentiated from literacy. (168)
The Essay on the Origin of Languages opposes speech to writing as presence to absence and liberty to servitude. . . a classicist ideology according to which writing takes the status of a tragic fatality come to prey upon natural innocence, interrupting the golden age of the present and full speech.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (168) 20130915r 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
The historicity of language is but not the favoring of speech shaped Rousseau essay and the modern genealogical form of analysis (not sure what this note intended). (168) Rousseau concludes thus: These superficial reflections, which hopefully might give birth to more profound ones, I shall conclude with the passage that suggested them to me:
To observe in fact and to show by examples, the degree to which the character, customs, and interests of people influence their language, would provide material for a sufficiently philosophical investigation. (Remarks on a General and Reasoned Grammar, by M. Duclos).

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (170) 20130915s 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Difficulty of pedagogy of language inseparability of signifier and signified. (170) The difficulty of the pedagogy of language and of the teaching of foreign languages is,
Emile will say, that one cannot separate the signifier from the signified, and, changing words, one changes ideas in such a way that the teaching of a language transmits at the same time an entire national culture over which the pedagogue has no control, which resists him like the already-there preceding the formation, the institution preceding instruction.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (170) 20130915t 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Does rigorous distinctions separating thing, meaning and sigh relate to the discussion of types of hyperlinks taken up by Landow, noting, too, that Rousseau was occupied with the study of music? (170) And this entire theory of the teaching of languages rests on rigorous distinctions separating thing, meaning (or idea), and sign; today we would speak of the referent, the signified, and the signifier. . . . each thing may have a thousand different signs for him; but each idea may have only one form.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (226-227) 20130915u 0 -15+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Can there be any parallelism between the representation of computer languages as formatted source code versus their object/machine form or actual physical substrate? (226-227) Cancellation amounts to producing a supplement. But as always, the supplement is incomplete, unequal to the task, it lacks something in order for the lack to be filled, it participates in the evil that is should repair. . . . Writing - here the inscribing of accents - not only hides language under its artifice, it masks the already decomposed corpse of language. . . . Accents are, like punctuation, an evil of writing: not only an invention of
copyists but of copyists who are strangers to the language which they transcribe; the copyist or his reader is by definition a stranger to the living use of language. . . . Especially but not only within the musical order, the moment of transcription is the dangerous moment, as is the moment of writing, which in a way is already a transcription, the imitation of other signs; reproducing the signs, producing the signs of signs, the copyist is always tempted to add supplementary signs to improve the restitution of the original. The good copyist must resist the temptation of the supplementary sign.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (245) 20130915v 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
No phonemes before the grapheme: typical Derridean gnomic formula. (245) Writing will appear to us more and more as another name for this structure of supplementarity. . . . one should be assured of what Saussure hesitated to say in what we know of the
Anagrams, namely, that there are no phonemes before the grapheme. That is, before that which operates as a principle of death within speech.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (246) 20130915w 0 -11+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Eschatological parousia as presence of full speech within consciousness. (246) And when Hegel will proclaim the unity of absence and presence, of nonbeing and being, dialectics or history will continue to be, at least on the level of discourse that we have called Rousseauƒs wishing-to-say, a movement of mediation between two full presences. Eschatological parousia is also the presence of full speech, bringing together all its differences and its articulations within the consciousness (of) self of the logos. Consequently, before asking the necessary questions about the historical situation of Rousseauƒs text, we must locate all the signs of its appurtenance to the metaphysics of presence, from Plato to Hegel, rhythmed by the articulation of presence upon self-presence. . . . All this interplay of implications is so complex. . . . There is not, strictly speaking, a text whose author or subject is Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (248) 20130915x 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Child without speech; writing is a second organ so speaking and writing is united, into the order of the supplement, exploiting changing between languages: consider Clark extended cognition. (248) The child will know how to speak when one form of his unease can be substituted for another, then he will be able to slip from one language to another, slide one sign under another, play with the signifying substance; he will enter into the
order of the supplement, here determined as the human order: he will no longer weep, he will know how to say I hurt.
(248) Articulation, wherever one finds it, is indeed articulation: that of the members and the organs, difference (in the) (self-same) [
propre] body.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (249) 20130915y 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Neume is pure vocalization, according to the dictionary of music. (249) Such a breath cannot have a human origin and a human destination. It is no longer on the way to humanity like the language of the child, but is rather on the way to superhumanity. . . . It is the
neume: pure vocalization, form of an inarticulate song without speech, whose name means breath, which is inspired in us by God and may address only Him.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (250) 20130915z 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Pleasure as jouissance of self-presence, pure auto-affection: like that which never ceases to not have been writing itself of Lacan, here the neume. (250) The pleasure [
jouissance] of self-presence, pure auto-affection, uncorrupted by any outside, is accorded to God.
(251) The neume, the spell of self-presence, inarticulate experience of time, tantamount to saying:
utopia. Such a language since a language must be involved does not, properly speaking, take place. It does not know articulation, which cannot take place without spacing and without organization of spaces. There is no language before differences of locale.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (257) 20130916 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Seems to be struggling toward infinite force of logotropos instantiated now in machine language code. (257) A nearly nonexistent force is a nearly infinite force when it is strictly alien to the system it sets going. The system offers it no resistance; for antagonistic forces play only within a globe.
(257) It
certainly concerns God, for the genealogy of evil is also a theodicy. The catastrophic origin of societies and languages at the same time permitted the actualization of the potential faculties that slept inside man.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (259-260) 20130916a 0 -8+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Rousseau psychosocial history per Derrida is of civilization and consciousness, connecting, after the continuous festival, age of signs to prohibition of incest, the blank in The Social Contract. (259-260) The supplement can only respond to the nonlogical logic of a game. That game is the play of the world. The world had to be able to play freely on its axes in order that a simple movement of the finger could make it turn upon itself. . . . The consequent luck and evil of writing will carry with them the sense of play. But Rousseau does not
affirm it.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (265) 20130916b 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Prohibition of incest is hinge between nature and culture. (265) Society, language, history, articulation, in a word supplementarity, are born at the same time as the prohibition of incest. That last is the hinge [
brisure] between nature and culture.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (268) 20130916c 0 -6+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Writing is the differance between desire and pleasure. (268) Language, passion, society, are neither of the North nor of the South. They are the movement of supplementarity by which the poles substitute each other
by turn: by which accent is broached within articulation, is deferred through spacing. Local difference is nothing but the differance between desire and pleasure. It does not, then, concern only the diversity of languages, it is not only a criterion of linguistic classification, it is the origin of languages. Rousseau does not declare it, but we have seen that he describes it.
(268) From here on, I shall constantly reconfirm that writing is the other name of this differance.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (287) 20130916e 0 -9+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Derrida notes that passing through the logocentric stage was a byproduct of phonetic writing, hinting that it is being surpassed; likewise organization of the textual surface determined by movement of hand, whereas the visual economy of reading could be by furrows. (287) It is a matter of writing by furrows. The furrow is the line, as the ploughman traces it: the road via rupta broken by the ploughshare. The furrow of agriculture, we remind ourselves, opens nature to culture (cultivation). And one also knows that writing is born with agriculture which happens only with sedentarization.
(288) Writing by the
turning of the ox boustrophedon--writing by furrows was a movement in linear and phonographic script. . . . Why did the economy of the writer [scripteur] break with that of the ploughman?

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (288) 20130916f 0 -11+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Writing and reading largely determined by movement of hand. (288) Thus, for example, the surface of the page, the expanse of parchment or any other receptive substance distributes itself differently according to whether it is a matter of writing or reading. An original economy is prescribed each time. In the first case, and during an entire technological era, it had to order itself according to the system of the hand. In the second case, and during the same epoch, to the system of the eye. In both cases, it is a matter of a linear and oriented path, the orientation of which is not indifferent and reversible in a homogeneous milieu. In a word, it is more conventional to read than to write by furrows. The visual economy of reading obeys a law analogous to that of agriculture. The same thing is not turn of the manual economy of writing and the latter was predominant during a specific era and period of the great phonographic-linear epoch. The fashion outlives the conditions of its necessity: it continued till the age of printing.
Our writing and our reading are still largely determined by the movement of the hand. The printing press has not yet liberated the organization of the surface from its immediate servitude to the manual gesture, and to the tool of writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (289) 20130916g 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Linear temporality imposed on speech by the form of inscription; other forms of consciousness and subjectivity may arise from acculturation to other forms of writing; the best examples of such transformations, first hinted at by new media like cinema, radio, television, now ubiquitously enabled by computer technologies (see Hayles and Manovich). (289)
It is not enough to say that the eye or the hands speak. Already, within its own representation, the voice is seen and maintained. The concept of linear temporality is only one way of speech.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (292) 20130916h 0 -13+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Rousseau buys into Platonic critique of writing as like painting, as a pharmakon, seeding later work of Derrida. (292) There is never a painting of the thing itself and first of all because there is no thing itself. . . . The original possibility of the image is the supplement, which adds itself without adding anything to fill an emptiness which, within fullness, begs to be replaced. Writing as painting is thus at once the
evil and the remedy within the phainesthai or the eidos. Plato already said that the art or technique (techne) of writing was a pharmakon (drug or tincture, salutary or maleficent). And the disquieting part of writing had already been experienced in its resemblance to painting. . . . Zoography has brought death. The same goes for writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (299) 20130916i 0 -10+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Birth of graphic order mirrors political, phoneticization using letters with no inherent significant put together according to certain rules. (299) Access to phonetic writing constitutes at once a supplementary degree of representativity and a total revolution in the structure of representation. Direct or hieroglyphic pictography represents the thing or the signified. It already paints language. It is the moment located by all historians of writing as the
birth of phoneticization, through, for example, the picture puzzle [rebus a transfert]; a sign representing a thing named in its concept ceases to refer to the concept and keeps only the value of a phonic signifier. Its signified is no longer anything but a phoneme deprived by itself of all meaning. . . . This synthetic character of representation is the pictographic residue of the ideo-phonogram that paints voices. Phonetic writing works to reduce it.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (300) 20130916j 0 -10+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Money and phonetic writing exemplify absolute anonymity of abstraction in which meaning only arises through arrangement of elementary signifiers under regime of certain rules. (300) This movement of analytic abstraction in the circulation of arbitrary signs is quite parallel to that within which money is constituted. . . . The critical description of money is the faithful reflection of the discourse on writing. In both cases an anonymous supplement is substituted for the thing. . . . If the sign has led to the neglect of the thing signified, as
Emile says speaking of money, then the forgetfulness of things is greatest in the usage of those perfectly abstract and arbitrary signs that are money and phonetic writing.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (302) 20130916k 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Bureaucratic model of political decentralization relying on virtual center in written laws rather than persistence through living voice of citizens. (302) Political decentralization, dispersion, and decentering of sovereignty calls, paradoxically, for the existence of a capital, a center of usurpation and of substitution. In opposition to the autarchic cities of Antiquity, which were their own centers and conversed in the living voice, the modern capital is always a monopoly of writing. It commands by written laws, decrees, and literature.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (306) 20130916l 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Signifier as death of festival. (306) The signifier is the death of the festival. The innocence of the public spectacle, the good festival, the dance around the water hole, would open a theater without representation.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (307) 20130916m 0 -8+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Spectators entertaining themselves: SCA, social networks, role playing games, reversing death of the festival by the entertaining signifier. (307) That festival represses the relationship with death; what was not necessarily implied in the description of the enclosed theater.
(307) And Rousseauƒs text must constantly be considered as a complex and many-leveled structure; in it, certain propositions may be read as interpretations of other propositions that we are, up to a certain point and with certain precautions, free to read otherwise.
(308) But more precisely, the open air is the element of the voice, the liberty of a breath that nothing breaks into pieces. A voice that can make itself heard in the open air is a free voice, a clear voice that the northern principle has not yet muzzled with consonants, not yet broken, articulated, compartmentalized, and which can reach the interlocutor immediately. . . . The winter substitute of the festival is our dance for young brides-to-be.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (312-313) 20130916n 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Artificiality of algebraic writing consummated in computer languages (perhaps by Ong avoids their study), alienation for Rousseau, which Derrida concludes in his digression on Leibniz universal characteristic represents the very death of enjoyment, recalling Platonic myth of Theuth in Phaedrus. (312-313) This entire digression was necessary in order to mark well that,
unless some extrinsic desire is invested in it, Leibnizƒs universal characteristic represents the very death of enjoyment. It leads the representer to the limit of its excess. Phonetic writing, however abstract and arbitrary, retained some relationship with the presence of the represented voice, to its possible presence in general and therefore to that of a certain passion. A writing that breaks with the phone radically is perhaps the most rational and effective of scientific machines; it no longer responds to nay desire or rather it signifies its death to desire. It was what already operated within speech as writing and machine.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (314) 20130916o 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Derrida claims his contribution is showing the interiority of exteriority of system of writing developed by Rousseau and Saussure. (314) As Saussure will do, so does Rousseau wish at once to maintain the exteriority of the system of writing and the maleficent efficiency with which one singles out its symptoms on the body of the language.
But am I saying anything else? Yes, in as much as I show the interiority of exteriority, which amounts to annulling the ethical qualification and to thinking of writing beyond good and evil; yes above all, in as much as we designate the impossibility of formulating the movement of supplementarity within the classical logos, within the logic of identity, within ontology, within the opposition of presence and absence, positive and negative, and even within dialectics, if at least one determines it, as spiritualistic or materialistic metaphysics has always done, within the horizon of presence and reappropriation. Of course the designation of that impossibility escapes the language of metaphysics only by a hairsbreadth. For the rest, it must borrow its resources from the logic it deconstructs.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-of_grammatology (316) 20130916p 0 -9+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_derrida-of_grammatology.html
Metaphysics of presence cannot express the economy of differance or supplementarity, for which Derridean philosophy is required as a starting point, but perhaps what is realized through technology better expresses; subjectivity as at stake, since dreaming and wakefulness also contested through this study of writing. (316) The opposition of dream to wakefulness, is not that a representation of metaphysics as well? And what should dream or writing be if, as we know now, one may dream while writing? . . . Rousseau adds a note [in
Emile]: . . . the dreams of a bad night are given to us as philosophy.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (5) 20130914d 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Proposition 1 that construction of gender is product and process of representation: can the same methodological approach be applied to study of machines and programs as entities, as per Bogost, there is no logical necessity to deny their existence. (5) The sex-gender system, in short, is both a sociocultural construct and a semiotic apparatus, a system of representation which assigns meaning (identity, value, prestige, location in kinship, status in the social hierarchy, etc.) to individuals within the society. . . .

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (86-87) 20130914l 0 -10+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Cambria may be researching emotional energy women contribute to male thought, but de Lauretis wants to outline new textual pratices for women. (86-87) Who were these women outside of the pale, pathetic hagiography constructed by Gramsciƒs biographers? That is what Adele Cambria set out to investigate. . . . Cambriaƒs purpose throughout was to reconstruct an affective biography of the Schuchts and to discover the sources and modes of that emotional energy Shulamith Firestone identifies as the essential female contribution to male thought. . . . In restoring to Gramsciƒs epistolary monologue its real nature as dialogue, Cambria adds depth to the cultural image of a person whose complex humanity has been expediently stereotyped.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (90) 20130914n 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Would/does knowledge of textual editing practices matter to this construction, is Cambria commenting on male scholarly activity? (90) Cambria chose to print portions of the original documents in italics interspersed with passages from Gramsciƒs letters, quotations, statements by friends or others involved in the events, while her own comments link, interpret, and contextualize each passage. The rigorous separation, by different typefaces, between the womenƒs letters and her own commentary explicitly manifests the interpretive nature of the commentary, its tendentiousness, its having a viewpoint, its being sectarian rather than an innocent or objective explanation.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (91) 20120925 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
Interdependent conception of historical and theatrical text demonstrates new textual practice enjoining subjects in modes of production (writer, reader, performer, audience), emphasizing historical over mythical, and rejecting novel as single narrative form, articulating subject dialectically at personal and social dimensions, where women are subjects, not commodities; compare to Boal Theater of the Oppressed. (91)
The historical text and the theatrical text were conceived interdependently.
(92) The characteristic features of Cambriaƒs entire work point to a new practice and vision of the
relation between subject and modes of textual production. As for the form of content: historical, not mythical, materials are chosen from a concrete situation and real events.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK havelock-muse_learns_to_write (59) 20131031 0 -4+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_havelock-muse_learns_to_write.html
Efficiency and distribution of Greek alphabet; invention of consonant first visual economical and exhaustive representation of linguistic noise. (59) Surely, of all systems of communication used by man, the Greek alphabet has proven to be historically unique in its efficiency and its distribution.
(60) The Greeks did not add vowels (a common misconception: vowel signs had already shown up as in Mesopotamian Cuneiform and Linear B) but invented the (pure) consonant. In so doing they for the first time supplied our species with a visual representation of linguistic noise that was both economical and exhaustive: a table of atomic elements which by grouping themselves in an inexhaustible variety of combinations can with reasonable accuracy represent any actual linguistic noise. The invention also supplied the first and last instrument perfectly constructed to reproduce the range of previous orality.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (89) 20130929j 0 -11+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
Print bias in notions of textuality manifest by examining William Blake Archive. (89) To explore these complexities, I propose to regard the transformation of a print document into an electronic text as a form of translation - media translation - which is inevitably also an act of interpretation. . . . The challenge is to specify, rigorously and precisely, what these gains and losses entail and especially what they reveal about presuppositions underlying reading and writing. My claim is that they show that our notions of textuality are shot through with assumptions specific to print, although they have not been generally recognized as such.
(90) The issues can be illustrated by the William Blake Archive, a magnificent Web site designed by three of our most distinguished Blake scholars and editors. . . . They thus declare implicitly their allegiance to an idea that Jerome McGann, among others, has been championing: the physical characteristics of a text page size, font, gutters, leading, and so on are bibliographic codes, signifying components that should be considered along with linguistic codes.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (90-91) 20130929k 0 -3+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
Navigational functions part of signifying structure. (90-91) A momentƒs thought suffices to show that changing the navigational apparatus of a work changes the work. Translating the words on a scroll into a codex book, for example, radically alters how a reader encounters the work; by changing
how the work means, such a move alters what it means. One of the insights electronic textuality makes inescapably clear is that navigational functionalities are not merely ways to access the work but part of a workƒs signifying structure.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (92) 20130929l 0 -7+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
Definition of text as abstract artistic entity. (92) A work is an abstract artistic entity, the ideal construction toward which textual editors move by collating different editions and copies to arrive at their best guess for what the artistic creation should be (86). It is important to note that the work is ideal not in a Platonic sense, however, for it is understood to be the result of editorial assumptions that are subject to negotiation, challenge, community norms, and cultural presuppositions. . . . Gunder points out the the work as such can never be accessed but through some kind of text, that is, through the specific sign system designated to manifest a particular work (86). Texts, then, are abstract entities from which editors strive to excavate the work.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (95) 20130929m 0 -5+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
TEI and OHCO; I experienced this underdetermination implying interpretations of what a text is working on symposia. (95) When texts are translated into electronic environments, the attempt to define a work as an immaterial verbal construct, already problematic for print, opens a Pandoraƒs box of additional complexities and contradictions, which can be illustrated by debates within the community formulating the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The idea of TEI was to arrive at principles for coding print documents into electronic form that would preserve their essential features and, moreover, allow them to appear more or less the same in complex networked environments, regardless of platform, browser, and so on. To this end, the community (or rather, an influential contingent) arrived at the well-known principle of OHCO, the idea that a text can be encoded as an ordered hierarchy of content objects. As Allen Renear points out in his seminal analysis of this process, the importation of print into digital media requires implicit decisions about what a text is. Expanding on this point, Mats Dahlstrom, following Michael Sperger-McQueen, observes that the markup of a text is a theory of this text, and a general markup language is a
general theory or conception of text.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (95) 20130929n 0 -4+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
The default theories of textuality built from underlying assumptions of practitioners. (95) Although most of these researchers thought of themselves as practitioners rather than theorists, their decisions, as Renear points out, constituted a de facto theory of textuality that was reinforced by their tacit assumption that the Platonic reality of a text really is its existence as an ordered hierarchy of content objects.
(96) My interest in this controversy points in a different direction, for what strikes me is the extent to which all three positions Platonist, pluralist, and antirealist focus almost exclusively on linguistic codes, a focus that allows them to leave the document as a physical artifact out of consideration.
(96-97) Only if we attend to the interrelations of linguistic, bibliographic, and digital codes can we grasp the full implications of the transformations books undergo when they are translated into a digital medium.
(97) Since no print books can be completely encoded into digital media, we should think about correspondences rather than ontologies, entraining processes rather than isolated objects, and codes moving in coordinated fashion across representational media rather than mapping one object onto another.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (97-98) 20130929o 0 -5+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
McGann experiments in failure example of software that keeps revising versus static literary texts. (97-98) Whether textual form should be stabilized is a question at the center of
Jerome McGannƒs experiments in failure, which he discusses in Radiant Textuality. . . . the Webƒs remarkable flexibility and radically different instantiation of textuality also draw into question whether it is possible or desirable to converge on an ideal work at all.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (98) 20130929p 0 -10+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
Deformation as reading practice, emphasizing importance of doing and making. (98) Instead he argues for the practice of what he calls
deformation, a mode of reading that seeks to liberate from the text the strategies by which it goes in search of meaning. . . . Just as textual criticism has traditionally tried to converge on an ideal work, so hermeneutical criticism has tried to converge on an ideal meaning.
(98-99) This kind of argument opens the way for a disciplined inquiry into the differences in materiality between print and electronic textuality. . . . He emphasizes the importance of
doing and making, suggesting that practical experience in electronic textuality is a crucial prerequisite for theorizing about it.

3 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK hayles-writing_machines (99) 20130928e 0 -5+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_hayles-writing_machines.html
Evolutionary or cultural value of random access versus sequential access (scroll example). (99) Readers are consequently less likely to read the text cover-to-cover than open it at random and mediate over a few pages before skipping elsewhere or closing it for the day. . . . the [codex] book is the original random access device.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (42) 20130928j 0 -2+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Different modes of recording (books for others, dialogue of a thinker with himself) links to handwriting (his was horrible, as was that of Heidegger), as well as paragraph 29 of La Pensee Radicale); see (IV,12) on his language. (42) The sketch that lies before us in this fragment is not a section of a book meant for "publication," nor part of a textbook, but the dialogue of a thinker with himself. Here he is speaking not with his "ego" and his "person" but with the Being of beings as a whole and within the realm of what has already been said in the history of metaphysics.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK heim-computer_as_component (316) 20131101b 9 -2+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heim-computer_as_component.html
Studies by Ong and Havelock provide concrete material for distinguishing epochs in Heidegger history of being. (316) The studies by Ong and Eric Havelock (Preface to Plato) provide concrete material for distinguishing different historical epochs by their characteristic ways of symbolizing, storing, and transmitting truths. The patterns of psychic transformation they trace dovetail nicely with Heideggerƒs history of being.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (302) 20130930h 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Textuality becomes turn into code transformation. (302) The classics of the modern can certainly be postmodernized, or transformed into texts, if not into precursors of textuality.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (314) 20130930n 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Reification not neutral, concretization has unconscious like an individual human though those traces seem to be effaced by flattening industrial processes, like the history of ancient forests in refined petroleum. (314) Postmodern things are in any case not the kind Marx had in mind, even the cash nexus in current banking practices is a good deal more glamorous than anything Carlyle can have libidinally cathected.
(314) The other definition of reification that has been important in recent years is the effacement of the traces of production form the object itself, form the commodity thereby produced.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (317-318) 20130930p 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Do not expect anything fantastic to emerge from playfulness of form. (317-318) A playfulness of form, the aleatory production of new ones or joyous cannibilization of the old, will not put you in so relaxed and receptive a disposition that, by happy accident, great or significant form will come into being anyhow.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (378) 20130930x 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Example of a Latour litany, which Bogost deploys for alien phenomenology, from The Pasteurization of France. (378) Latour has cooked up a wonderful table of the synonyms and disguises of this view of Western exceptionalism, in which a number of old Marxist friends will also be found.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (xiv-xv) 20130930 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Audience-centered rather than writer-centered approach to technology informed by Winner, Mitcham, Wacjman. (xiv-xv) I perceive rhetoric as a discipline that, for over twenty-five hundred years, has had a central investment in revealing the unconscious and uncovering the mysterious for the end of transferring knowledge in a democratic and an ethical manner.
(xv) I am arguing for an audience-centered, not a writer-centered approach to technology.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (34) 20120403 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Kinneavy rhetorical triangle has for points Reader, Writer, Reality, and Johnson places Text in the center; his version has points Artifact/System, Artisans/Designers, User Tasks/System Actions with Users in the center; compare to Cummings use of rhetorical triangle to discuss machine rhetorics and programming. (34)
Kinneavyƒs triangle changed the terms on the three points from Richardsƒ referent/symbol/thought to reality/reader/writer, and he provided a fourth term that was added to the center of the triangle - text (see Figure 2.5).
(36)(Figure 2.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (59) 20130930h 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Compare user as producer to Turkle juxtaposition of postmodernism and the retreat from deep technical understanding. (59) Although I think it important to mourn the loss of generalist skills associated with producing something from scratch, it is more important that we
actively pursue changes to the social order that carefully assess the realities of the present situation.
(59) Instead, we should bemoan the loss of a sense of values related to users as they are involved in the actions of practice and production.
(61) Like the idiots who use technologies, those who hold practical positions in the hierarchy have the least power even if they are, like the litigation workers, actually producing knowledge that turns the literal or metaphorical gears of technology.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (118) 20130930i 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Example of Toptech Quality Assurance practices involve only rigorous documentation of test plans, and completely ignore user documentation. (118)
There is, in short, a deeply embedded assumption that instructional materials are adequate merely because the information is there in either print or on-line form. Never mind where or how the instructions will be used, this assumption dictates; the fact that users have a text in front of them is enough. Ironically, almost insidiously, this assumption places virtually the entire burden of comprehending instructional text on the user.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (120) 20130930k 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Why does computer documentation lack serious scholarly analysis finds reasons from history of software studies (see footnote on 124), and the devaluation due to conjunction of complexity, ephemerality, and specificity. (120) Fourth, computer documentation is a marginalized text in the sphere of academic research.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (120) 20131103d 0 -7+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Problems with instructional text magnified by personal computer, residing in multiple media, written for online consumption by technical writers regardless of their specialty. (120) First, the problems associated with instructional text have been magnified as a result of the personal computer.
(120) Second, computer documentation resides in more than one medium (print and on-line forms), and thus further complicates the challenge of user-centered theory.
(120) Third, computer documentation writing is arguably the largest source of employment presently for technical communicators. . . . Most technical and scientific writers, regardless of their specialty, write computer-related instructional materials in print and on-line forms because their audiences are increasingly using the computer medium as a text.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (121) 20120906 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Suggests reasons to study computer user documentation, including the Barker tutorial genre as cultural lens, aligning with software studies, where I argue FOS cultures provide low hanging fruit. (121) Finally, computer user documentation is a valuable lens, not only for the study of the texts themselves but also for studying the users who use them and the constituent cultures that arise/evolve from the activities associated with computer technology.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (122) 20130930l 0 -4+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
UNIX documentation epitomizes system-centered approach, yielding documentation image of system. (122) The documentation in the system-centered approach, as exemplified by the UNIX system, is a literal documenting of the static system: a description of the systemƒs features removed from any context of use.
(123) System-centered documentation places the needs of the technological system at the center and treats the system as the source of all knowledge pertaining to the development of documentation (as the arrow [in Figure 6.2] indicates).
(124) From this designerƒs image follows the documentation image of the system.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (124) 20130930m 0 -1+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Often the most useful parts of man pages are the examples, whereas Internet searches answer most questions of specific use: thus new communication technologies fill in gaps in UNIX (now GNU/Linux) documentation, suggesting the system-centered approach is as much a necessary outcome of social, economic, and technological conditions as a bias perpetrated by its producers (but it is also true that most of the man pages were written by the authors of the software programs themselves). (124) footnote 8) Most system-centered documentation is produced in-house (and thus proprietary) with little or no published material explaining the process.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (125) 20130930n 0 -5+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Screen shots and animated sequences convey a learning by doing rubric since they are exact representations of the user interface in the performance of common operations. (125) The user-friendly approach to documentation development is characterized by an emphasis on the clarity of the verbal text, close attention to structured page design, copious use of visuals (often computer screen shots ), and a warm, sometimes even excited tone that invites the user to enjoy learning the new computer system or software application. . . . the system is assumed to be complete in the user-friendly approach, and user-friendly documentation is viewed as the vehicle for carrying the reality of the system image to the user.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (2) 20131005d 0 -4+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Good view of texts and textuality. (2) Reconnecting with certain performative and rhetorical traditions, however, writers like Jarry laid a groundwork for post-romantic procedural writing. They began to make clear once again the constructed character of textuality the fact that texts and documents are fields open to decisive and rule-governed manipulations. In this view of the matter, texts and documents are not primarily understood as containers or even vehicles of meaning. Rather, they are sets of instantiated rules and algorithms for generating and controlling themselves and for constructing further sets of transmissional possibilities.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (3) 20131005e 0 -4+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Use of IT in humanities beginning with Busa. (3) The use of IT in humanities disciplines began in the late 1940s with Father Roberto
Busa SJ, whose work on the corpus of St. Thomas Aquinas set the terms in which humanities computing would operate successfully for more than 40 years. Two lines of work dominate the period: first, the creation of databases of humanities materials almost exclusively textual materials for various types of automated retrieval, search, and analysis; second, the design and construction of statistical models for studying language formalities of many kinds, ranging from social and historical linguistics to the study of literary forms.
(4) To the degree that IT attracted the attention of humanities scholars, the interest was largely theoretical, engaging the subjects of media and culture in either speculative and relatively abstract ways or journalistic treatments.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (4) 20131005f 0 -8+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Signal event of development of TEI. (4) So far as the humanities are concerned, the signal event was the development of
TEI (Text Encoding Initiative).
(4) These dates and events are important because of what happened in the larger world of IT between 1993 and 1994: the definitive appearance of the W3. . . . The scholarly meetings and journal devoted to humanities computing show with unmistakable clarity, however, that few people in those communities registered the importance of W3.
(5) The upside of these events was the coming of a large and diverse population of new people into digital fields previously occupied by small and tightly connected groups. More significantly, they came to build things with digital tools rather than simply to reflect abstractly on the new technologies.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (6) 20131005g 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
IATH created at UVA through IBM offer evolving through randomized state of affairs; compare to Hayles account of development of the shape and focus of cybernetics. (6) Later that same year IBM approached UVAƒs computer science department with an offer of $1 million in equipment for educational use over a three-year period. Two CS faculty members, Alan Batson and Bill Wulf, contacted two humanities professors, Ed Ayers and myself, to see if IBMƒs offer might be useful to people in the arts and sciences division of the university.
(6) Because IATH came into being fortuitously, its shape and focus evolved through a randomized state of affairs.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (7) 20131105 0 -5+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Batson wanted IATH to promote specific, demonstrable projects rather than making equipment available as soon as possible. (7) The overwhelming initial answer to the central question was that the equipment should be made available as soon as possible to all arts and sciences departments for as long as possible.
Batsonƒs model was different: to seek out projects with demonstrable intellectual importance for humanities scholarship and to fund those projects as completely as possible with the technical resources the projects need. His rationale: Educational change at the level of the university is driven by the active research work of the faculty. Changes in pedagogy and classroom dynamics follow from research.
(9) It is a fact that right now one can function most effectively as a university scholar and teacher by working within the parer-based system we inherit.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (11-12) 20131005h 0 -7+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Scholarly editing theory actively evolved working on Rossetti archive; compare to Burnard. (11-12)
The Rossetti Archive was undertaken as a practical effort to design a model for scholarly editing that would have wide applicability and that would synthesize the functions of the two chief models for such works: the critical edition (for analyzing the historical relations of a complex set of descendant texts with a view toward locating accumulated linguistic error); and the facsimile edition (a rigorously faithful reproduction of a particular text, usually a rare work, for scholarly access and study). . . . The theory holds two positions: first, that the apparitions of text its paratexts, bibliographical codes, and all visual features are as important in the textƒs signifying programs as the linguistic elements; second, that the social intercourse of texts the context of their relations must be conceived an essential part of the text itself if one means to gain an adequate critical grasp of the textual situation.
(12) We spent the year from 1992 to 1993 theorizing the methodology of the project and designing its logical structure. Then in 1993 we built the first small demonstration model of
The Rossetti Archive, which at that time I described in the following general terms.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (17) 20120318 0 -9+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Digital humanities scholarship missing depth for not building critical and reflective functions into the deep components; compare to discussions of unknown knowns, Reddell. (17) Works like The Rossetti Archive or The Perseus Project or The Dickens Web are fundamentally archival and editorial. . . . Unlike works imagined and organized in bibliographical forms, however, these new textual environments have yet to develop operational structures that integrate their archiving and editorial mechanisms with their critical and reflective functions at the foundational level of their material form, that is, at the digital/computational level. . . . Thus, however primitive hyperfiction and video games may seem, we recognize their functional relation to their underlying digital processes.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (24) 20131005l 0 -2+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Wild, putatively incorrect interpretation of a poem breathes new life into otherwise stale interpretation, inspiring The Alice Fallacy. (24) My argument begins, therefore, with a performance definition of the state of my thinking in 1993, just before I undertook
The Rossetti Archive, about problems of scholarly method and aesthetic interpretation. Like its companion dialogues, The Alice Fallacy is an open-ended inquiry into current ideas about textuality, on one hand, and interpretive method, on the other.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (56) 20131005m 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Same problem duplication in data structures and programming, which can be a theme linking McGann to code studies. (56) Because the entire system develops through the codex form, however, duplicate, near-duplicate, or differential archives appear in different places. The crucial problem here is simple: The logical structures of the critical edition function at the same level as the material being analyzed.
(56-57) When a book is translated into electronic form, the bookƒs (heretofore distributed) semantic and visual forms can be made simultaneously present to each other.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (57) 20131005n 0 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Hayles may object to his assumptions about embodiment that are based on print culture. (57) Of course, the electronic text will be read in normal space-time, even by its programmers: the mind that made (or that uses) both codex and computer is embodied.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK mcgann-radiant_textuality (69) 20131005o 0 -6+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mcgann-radiant_textuality.html
Possibilities of hyperediting themselves create new problems while addressing existing problems. (69) How to incorporate digitized images into the computational field is not simply a problem that hyperediting must
solve; it is a problem created by the very arrival of the possibilities of hyperediting. . . . Those of us who were involved with The Rossetti Archive from the beginning spent virtually the entire first year working at this problem. In the end we arrived a a double approach: first, to design a structure of SGML markup tags for the physical features of all the types of documents contained in The Rossetti Archive (textual as well as pictorial); and second, to develop an image tool that permits one to attach anchors to specific features of digitized images.

3 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK