CRITICAL PROGRAMMING: Toward A Philosophy Of Computing

Chapter 1 Introduction{11}

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation{11}

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing{11}

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation{11}


Chapter 2 Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg{11}

2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman{11}

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage{11}

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and methodology{11}

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology{11}

3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers{11}

3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies{11}

3.4 platform studies, diachrony in synchrony, technogenesis and synaptogenesis, cyborg revisited{11}

Chapter 4 Philosophical programmers{11}

4.1 system engineers pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists{11}

4.2 application developers beyond hard mastery and bricolage, auto-ethnographers of coding places{11}

Chapter 5 Critical programming studies{11}

5.1 working code places{11}

5.2 programming philosophers{11}

5.3 symposia, ensoniment{11}

5.4 tapoc, flossification{11}

5.5 pmrek, machine embodiment{11}

Chapter 6 Conclusion{11}

6.1 recommendations{11}

6.2 future directions{11}

Works Cited

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

TOC 1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation+

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing

TOC 1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing+

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation


2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman

-2.1.0+++ {11}

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140117 20140117 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
The goal of the second chapter is to articulate the current intellectual climate in the United States as the situation of the post-postmodern network dividual cyborg taking off from the collective intelligence problems entailed by there having been a dumbest generation passing through the technological era of electronic computing into the Internet epoch. Sections will therefore be devoted to broad outlines of modernism and postmodernism, subjectivity, and relevant philosophies of technology before focusing on the relationships between cybernetics, human embodiment, and techno-capitalist networks to arrive at our present, post-postmodern period of the cyborg dividual. From this vantage the general collective intelligence problem implicating humans and machines in our shared destinies will be firmly established.

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140208 20140208 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
Following the invitation by Kittler to situate ourselves and give stock of our present condition in the age of electronic media, assembling a multidisciplinary perspective combining humanities, technology, and socioeconomic positions, this chapter articulates it as that of the post-postmodern network dividual cyborg. To reach this plateau of rhizomorphous conceptual combination, I will traverse modernism, postmodernism, subjectivity, through the philosophy of technology, into studies of cybernetics, cognition, embodiment, then with theories of late capitalism, networks, globalization, to hypothesize the dividual cyborg as replacement for the liberal humanist subject of prior technological eras.

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20141120 20141120 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
That a post postmodern mind thought up the quintessential emblem of modernism, according to Foucault, distinguishes cybersage perspective of taking into account affordances of media in compositions: this becomes tied to the image of Las Meninas, the painting Foucault describes in On The Order Of Things. That goes into the thinking on chapter two to cast as is situation from regressive subjectivity.

-2.1.1+++ {11}

2 1 1 (+) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20140306 20140306 0 -9+ journal_2014.html
The liberal humanist subject signifies the properly cognitive, intellectual, spiritual individuality of a specific, putatively universal biological creature, yet has been demonstrated to reflect not only ocularcentric biases specific to print media but also preferences of hegemonic male, privileged actors. Following a pattern well established in the digital humanities of enframing fundamental philosophical positions within their technological age, the constitution of the broad notion of human being is formed around the physical, cultural, and technical contours of their dominant media technologies. In this broad periodization model, centuries of sway by print literacy begin to be surpassed by dynamic, electrically powered media in the late nineteenth through mid twentieth century, ending the period generally called modernism and ushering in the period after, the post modern, whose conception of humanity was threatened by dissolution of guiding metanarratives into inauthentic relativisms featuring the precession of simulacra in unconscious market economies. As electronic surpassed electromechanical regulation, a new model of the soul emerged that was far superior to the gramophone, film and typewriter construction: the automatic digital computer. At the same time, the unified, private individuality of the modernist subject, splintered into the schizoid, postmodern dividual, begins to reassemble around a virtual core whose sense organs, memory and cognitive faculties extend into the inhuman environment. However, as convincingly argued by Catherine Malabou in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, it has become difficult to distinguish between the latest findings of neural science and the prevalent rhetorics of global capitalism. The fate of the dividual cyborg therefore seems to be at the mercy of transnational corporate agendas that manufacture desires and means to achieve them, consummating the regressive consumer mentality railed against by Frankfurt school critical theorists like Horkheimer and Adorno. As Postman was quoted in the previous chapter, nothing interesting every happens for the losers.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20141118 20141118 0 -1+ journal_2014.html
To explain post-postmodern we must pass through modernity, what came before us, literary minds, favoring analysis that discards its adherence yet leaves it as exemplar.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (96) 20141123b 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Dominant class figures; per Luxemburg nationalism usurps democratic organization. (96) Behind the ideal dimension of the concept of nation there were the class figures that already dominated the processes of accumulation.
(97) [Rosa] Luxemburg recognized that national sovereignty and national mythologies effectively usurp the terrain of democratic organization by renewing the powers of territorial sovereignty and modernizing its project through the mobilization of an active community.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (97) 20141123c 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Bodin leading theorist on national sovereignty, anticipating its critique by modernity in natural right and historicist state traditions. (97) Jean Bodinâs work lies at the heart of the road in European thought that leads to the concept of national sovereignty. . . . By adopting a realistic standpoint, he managed to anticipate modernityâs own critique of sovereignty.
(98) By taking up Roman law and drawing on its capacities to articulate the sources of right and order the forms of property, Bodinâs doctrine became a theory of a unified political body articulated as administration that appeared to surmount the difficulties of the crisis of modernity.
(98-99) After Bodin, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there developed in Europe simultaneously two schools of thought that also accorded the theme of sovereignty a central role and effectively anticipated the concept of national sovereignty: the natural right tradition and the realist (or historicist) tradition of state theory.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (28) 20130928d 0 -6+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Quoting the fragment Decline of the Cosmological Values naming nihilism as a psychological state: discouraged (no meaning in becoming, events); lost faith in own value (we do not really have a place in a totality to give us value); no metaphysical afterworlds (only the earth); cosmology points to anthropological nature of Nietzsche psychology. (28) Man is what lies at the bottom of all beings; that is, in modern terms, at the bottom of all objectification and representability. No matter how sharply Nietzsche pits himself time and again against Descartes, whose philosophy grounds modern metaphysics, he turns against Descartes only because the latter still does not posit man as subiectum in a way that is complete and decisive enough. The representation of the subiectum as ego, the I, thus the "egoistic" interpretation of the subiectum, is still not subjectivistic enough for Nietzsche. Modern metaphysics first comes to the full and final determination of its essence in the doctrine of the Overman, the doctrine of manâs absolute preeminence among beings. In that doctrine, Descartes celebrates his supreme triumph.
(29) (quoting Nietzsche) To conceive of psychology as the morphology and doctrine of the development of will to power, as I do no one has yet come close to this in his thought.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (xiv) 20130929a 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Resounding next after rewriting operation as unknown known transcoding rubrics. (xiv) But this prodigious rewriting operation which can lead to whole new perspectives on subjectivity as well as on the object world has the additional result, already touched on above, that
everything is grist for its mill and that analyses like the one proposed here are easily reabsorbed into the project as a set of usefully unfamiliar transcoding rubrics.
(xiv) The fundamental ideological task of the new concept, however, must remain that of coordinating new forms of practice and social and mental habits (that is finally what I take [Raymond] Williams to have had in mind by the notion of a structure of feeling ) with the new forms of economic production and organization thrown up by the modification of capitalism the new global division of labor in recent years.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (xvii) 20130929c 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Nature of text replaces work. (xvii) it has more to do with the nature of postmodern texts themselves, which is to say, the nature of a
text in the first place, since that is a postmodern category and phenomenon which has replaced the older one of work.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (2-3) 20130929e 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Popular Culture Association conference proceedings exemplify fascination with degraded landscape of schlock and kitsch, effacement of frontier between high and mass culture. (2-3) one fundamental feature of all the postmodernisms enumerated above: namely, the effacement in them of the older (essentially high-modernist) frontier between high culture and so-called mass or commercial culture, and the emergence of new kinds of texts infused with the forms, categories, and contents of that very culture industry so passionately denounced by all the ideologues of the modern, from Leavis and the American New Criticism all the way to Adorno and the Frankfurt School. The postmodernisms have, in fact, been fascinated precisely by this whole degraded landscape of schlock and kitsch . . . materials they no longer simply quote, as a Joyce or a Mahler might have done, but incorporate into their very substance.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (5) 20130929f 0 -6+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Underside of culture: Kittler, Zizek? (5) Of all the arts, architecture is the closest constitutively to the economic, with which, in the form of commissions and land values, it has a virtually unmediated relationship. It will therefore not be surprising to find the extraordinary flowering of the new postmodern architecture grounded in the patronage of multinational business, whose expansion and development is strictly contemporaneous with it. . . . this whole global, yet American, postmodern culture is the internal and superstructural expression of a whole new wave of American military and economic domination throughout the world: in this sense, as throughout class history, the underside of culture is blood, torture, death, and terror.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (66) 20130929u 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Postpone gratification of chronological understanding in ascesis of the diachronic. (66) What rescues the new schema from the aporias of the dualisms enumerated here then also offers a kind of intellectual training in leaving the dates out, a kind of ascesis of the diachronic in which we learn to postpone the final gratification of the chronological as a mode of understanding, a gratification that would in any case involve getting out of the system itself, of which, however the two or three terms rehearsed here are the internal, infinitely substitutable elements.

2 1 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (60) 20131005n 0 -2+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Not that basic math is abandoned: the controlled world relies upon it; postmodern science adds more variations (fracta, catastrophes, paradoxes). (60) The conclusion we can draw from the research (and much more not mentioned here) is that the continuous differentiable function is losing its preeminence as a paradigm of knowledge and prediction. Postmodern science by concerning itself with such things as undecidables, the limits of precise control, conflicts characterized by incomplete information,
fracta, catastrophes, and pragmatic paradoxes is theorizing its own evolution as discontinuous, catastrophic, nonrectifiable, and paradoxical.

--2.1.2+++ {11}

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (149) 20131025 0 -1+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Experience shared by analysts and creators, as shared by readers and writers. (149) We can in fact resume that there exist certain writers, painter, musicians, in whose eyes a certain exercise of structure (and not only its thought) represents a distinctive experience, and that both analysts and creators must be placed under the common sign of what we might call structuralist man, defined not by his ideas or his languages, but by his imagination in other words, by the way in which he mentally experiences structure.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (150-151) 20131025c 0 -1+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Mimesis based on analogy of functions, Levi-Strauss homology. (150-151) both derive from a
mimesis, based not on the analogy of substances (as in so-called realist art), but on the analogy of functions (what Levi-Strauss calls homology).

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (152) 20131025e 0 -5+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Work of art is what man wrests from chance; although Barthes uses units, Bogost may consider this the epitome of systems operations thinking. (152) Once the units are posited, structural man must discover in them or establish for them certain rules of association: this is the activity of articulation, which succeeds the summoning activity. . . . form, it has been said, is what keeps the contiguity of units appearing as a pure effect of change: the work of art is what man wrests from chance.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (IX) 20130910c 6 -1+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
With Arnheim scream art has a new ground besides representing beauty; enter Baudrillard. (IX) The frightened reaction can be shot now and be cut into the screen version.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction (XI) 20130910e 0 -7+ progress/2011/03/notes_for_benjamin-work_of_art_in_age_of_mechanical_reproduction.html
Cutting in film produces equipment-free reality, complete artifice impossible in theater. (XI) In the theater one is well aware of the place form which the play cannot immediately be detected as illusionary. There is no such place for the movie scene that is being shot. Its illusionary nature is that of the second degree, the result of cutting. . . . The equipment-free aspect of reality here has become the height of artifice; the sight of immediate reality has become an orchid in the land of technology.

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If the preceding discussions of modernism and postmodern lay out the primary stances from which macro scale world views have been conceived up to the present age, at the level of individuals the term subjectivity is often invoked the describe our human situation. To continue describing the current situation, I will quickly sketch the conception of subjectivity that accompanies modernism, then examine hallmark critics of its regression and ocularcentrism, leading into the electrified, technologically extended subjectivity made prominent by Marshall McLuhan from which contemporary cyborg identities arise.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (1) 20130915b 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Archive implies physical and social operations, commencement and commandment. (1) Arkhe, we recall, names at once the commencement and the commandment.
(2) The archons are first of all the documentsâ guardians. They do not only ensure the physical security of what is deposited and of the substrate. They are also accorded the hermeneutic right and competence.
(2) It is thus, in this
domiciliation, in this house arrest, that archives take place.

2 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (3) 20130915c 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Consignation the term for domiciling operation of coordinating a single corpus articulating unity of ideal configuration, with hints at idealized operation of memory and formation of units. (3)
Consignation aims to coordinate a single corpus, in a system or a synchrony in which all the elements articulate the unity of an ideal configuration.
(4) A science of the archive must include the theory of this institutionalization, that is to say, the theory both of the law, which begins by inscribing itself there and of the right which authorizes it.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (7) 20130915e 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Recall meaning of exergue: A space on the reverse of a coin or medal, usually below the central design and often giving the date and place of engraving. (7) According to a proven convention, the
exergue plays with citation. To cite before beginning is to give the tone through the resonance of a few words, the meaning or form of which ought to set the stage.
(8) These citations concern and bind between themselves, perhaps secretly, two places of
inscription: printing and circumcision.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (8) 20130915f 0 -7+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
First citation from Freud questioning value of writing so much about what is self-evident; question of separation between inside and outside dissolved by extended cognition theorists. (8) The
first of these exergues is the more typographical. The archive seems here to conform better to its concept. Because it is entrusted to the outside, to an external substrate and not, as the sign of the covenant in circumcision, to an intimate mark, right on the so-called body proper. But where does this outside commence? This question is the question of the archive.
There is no archive without a place of consignation, without a technique of repetition, and without a certain exteriority. No archive without outside.

2 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (12) 20130915h 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Death drive is archive fever. (12) The death drive is not a principle. It even threatens every principality, every archontic primacy, every archival desire. It is what we will call, later on,
le mal dâarchive, archive fever.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (21) 20130915m 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Second citation for the exergue is from Yerushalmi, which must be important if it left such a strong impression on Derrida, or is he just doing with texts (thus as logocentric) what OGorman recommends with hypericonomy? (21) Like some of you, I supposed, I discovered the treasure of this archive, illuminated by a new translation and by an original interpretation, in Yosef Hayim
Yerushalmiâs handsome book Freudâs Moses: Judaism Terminable and Interminable. This book left a strong impression on me.
(21) Here is the archived dedication that the grandfater or the arch-patriarch of psychoanalysis, Jakob Freud, inscribed on the Bible he gave, but in truth returned, sous peau neuve [ under new skin ], as they say in French, to his son, that is, to the father or the patriarch of psychoanalysis.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (26) 20120422 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Archiving locating when writing as hypomnesis begins, a great description of posthuman comportment to technology, changing consciousness, intellectual, of scholarly activity because of shimmering signifier word processor technology. (26) So what are these
three meanings which, in a single instant, condensed themselves and overprinted each other, that is to say overdetermined each other, in the word impression and the phrase Freudian impression ? And above all, of course, in their relationship to the re-producible, iterable, and conservative production of memory, to that objectivizable storage called the archive?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (34-36) 20130915q 0 -7+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Irrepressible transgenerational memory needed to speak with ancestors, ghosts. (34-36) Let us imagine in effect a project of general
archiviology, a word that does not exist but that could designate a general and interdisciplinary science of the archive. . . . Without the irrepressible, that is to say, only suppressible and repressible, force and authority of this transgenerational memory, the problems of which we speak would be dissolved and resolved in advance. There would no longer be any essential history of culture, there would no longer be any question of memory and of archive, of patriarchive or of matriarchive, and one would no longer even understand how an ancestor can speak within us, nor what sense there might be in us to speak to him or here, to speak in such an unheimlich, uncanny fashion, to his or her ghost. With it.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (63) 20121019 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Like a computing effect, the surety of logotropos, absolute, performative rhetoric: compare to legal documents today, and include Cicero on the way to truth being concealed in programmed constraints such as the need to dynamically generated the text on a certain day of the year. (63) The right to speak is
left, given or lent to him. I would need hours to justify any of these three words. What interests me here, in the first place, is the nearly formal fatility of a performative effect.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (74) 20130915x 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Nonbelief in the future makes great space for focusing on analysis of past through real-time analytic encounter, in which by definition nothing new can occur: thus primary injunction is to remember to remember the future. (74) What would be the least Jewish, the most un-Jewish, the most heterogeneous to Jewishness, would not be a lack of
Judaism, a distancing, as the French translation says, with respect to Judaism (religion, belief in God, Israelâs election), but not the nonbelief in the future that is to say, in what constitutes Jewishness beyond all Judaism.
(76) As if God had inscribed only one thing into the memory of one
single people and of an entire people: in the future, remember to remember the future. And as if the word people, in this sentence, could only be conceived of out of the unprecedented uniqueness of this archive injunction.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (84) 20130916a 0 -7+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
At an extreme, the idea is that all Freud writings and the writings about Freud writings must pass through the language operation only feasible in French programmed by Derrida as a hypomnesic or technical archive; his later casting as a three plus one argument structure is morphologically indistinct from numerous common algorithms employed in software projects. (84) Let us thus recall the idiomatic formulas which we claimed could only print themselves so economically in the French language.
(84) The thesis would first say this: all the Freudian theses are cleft, divided, contradictory, as are the concepts, beginning with that of the archive.
(89-90) Freudâs discourse on the archive, and here is the thesis of the theses, seems thus to be divided. As does his concept of the archive. It takes on two contradictory forms. That is why we say, and this declaration can always translate an avowal,
archive fever. One should be able to find traces of this contradiction in all Freudâs works.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (91) 20130916b 0 -6+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Contradictory nature of archive fever is stepping out of draft into which all writers never wish to cease being engulfed (Heidegger WICT). (91) The
trouble de lâarchive stems from a mal dâarchive. We are en mal dâarchive: in need of archives. . . . It is to run after the archive, even if thereâs too much of it, right where something in it anarchives itself.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (91-92) 20130916d 0 -8+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
First thesis and higher bid: psychic apparatus afforded technical archive, but interpreted as secondary in light of analysis. (91-92)
On the one hand, with the single but decisive conception of a topic of the psychic apparatus (and thus of repression or of suppression, according to the places of inscription, both inside and outside), Freud made possible the idea of an archive properly speaking, of a hypomnesic or technical archive, of the substrate or the subjectile (material or virtual) which, in what is already a psychic spacing, cannot be reduced to memory: neither to memory as conscious reserve, nor to memory as rememoration, as act of recalling. The psychic archive comes neither under mneme nor under anamnesis.
(92-93) But
on the other hand, as I tried to show in Freud and the Scene of Writing, this does not stop Freud, as classical metaphysician, from holding the technical prosthesis to be a secondary and accessory exteriority. . . . The archaeologist has succeeded in making the archive no longer serve any function. It comes to efface itself, it becomes transparent or unessential so as to let the origin present itself in person.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (94) 20130916e 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Second thesis and higher bid: death drive engenders archive, but scholars avoid interrogating phantoms. (94)
On the one hand, the archive is made possible by the death, aggression, and destruction drive, that is to say also by originary finitude and expropriation.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (94) 20130916f 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Derrida is aware of the Greek awareness of this fact about writing in the white and dark horses myth not of Phaedrus but of Symposium, where the dosage is much higher impossibly virtualizing multiple personalities beyond the two to three count, recalling psychological fact regulating technical discussion of spatial surround processing. (94) But
on the other hand, in the same moment, as classical metaphysician and positive Aufklarer, as critical scientist of a past epoch, as a scholar who does not want to speak with phantoms, Freud claims not to believe in death and above all in the virtual existence of the spectral space which he nonetheless takes into account.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (95) 20130916g 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Third thesis and higher bid: archontic principle best articulated by Freud, but nonetheless repeated patriarchal logic; different from Plato writing Socrates, Freud intentionally produced an archive that would outlive him yet retain his voice. (95)
On the one hand, no one has illuminated better than Freud what we have called the archontic principle of the archive. . . at best the takeover of the archive by the brothers.
(95) But
on the other hand, in life as in his works, in his theoretical theses as in the compulsion of his institutionalizing strategy, Freud repeated the patriarchal logic.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (97) 20130916h 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Back to theories of discursive concept formation, and the question of what Freud concealed, beyond even dialogues with his ghost. (97) Who better than Gradiva, I said to myself this time, the
Gradiva of Jensen and of Freud, could illustrate this outbidding in the mal dâarchive? Illustrate it where it is no longer proper to Freud and to this concept of the archive, where it marks in its very structure (and this is a last supplementary thesis) the formation of every concept, the very history of conception?
(101) We will wonder what he may have kept of his unconditional right to secrecy, while at the same time burning with the desire to know, to make known, and to archive the very thing he concealed forever. What was concealed? What did he conceal even beyond the intention to conceal, to lie, or to perjure?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (9) 20130919 0 -11+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Collective responsibility for inherent violence in justice recedes from immediate public presence, as punishment becomes non-corporal, striking the soul. (9) Punishment, then, will tend to become the most hidden part of the penal process. This has several consequences: it leaves the domain of more or less everyday perception and enters that of abstract consciousness; its effectiveness is seen as resulting from its inevitability, not from its visible intensity; it is the certainty of being punished and not the horrifying spectacle of public punishment that must discourage crime; the exemplary mechanics of punishments changes its mechanisms. As a result, justice no longer takes public responsibility for the violence that is bound up with its practice.
(10-11) The disappearance of public executions marks therefore the decline of the spectacle; but it also marks a slackening of the hold on the body. . . . From being an art of unbearable sensations punishment has become an economy of suspended rights. . . .

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (23) 20130919a 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Correlative history of soul and collective power to regard punishment as a complex social function. (23) This book is intended as a correlative history of the modern soul and of a new power to judge; a genealogy of the present scientifico-legal complex from which the power to punish derives its bases, justifications and rules, from which it extends its effects and by which it masks its exorbitant singularity.
(23) regard punishment as a complex social function.
(23) Regard punishment as a political tactic.
(23) make the technology of power the very principle both of the humanization of the penal system and of the knowledge of man.
(24) In short, try to study the metamorphosis of punitive methods on the basis of a political technology of the body in which might be read a common history of power relations and object relations.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (30-31) 20130919d 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Study past history of the French penal system to write a history of the present. (30-31) In fact, all these movements and the innumerable discourses that the prison has given rise to since the early nineteenth century have been about the body and material things. . . . I would like to write the history of this prison, with all the political investments of the body that it gathers together in its closed architecture. Why? Simply because I am interested in the past? No, if one means by that writing a history of the past in terms of the present.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (66) 20130919e 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Last words of a condemned man genre also glorified the criminal, so broadsheets were suppressed and a new crime literature developed, replacing the rustic hero with the exceptional, master criminal. (66) But the existence of the âlast words of a condemned manâ genre is in itself significant. The law required that its victim should authenticate in some sense the tortures that he had undergone.
(68) In the wake of a ceremony that inadequately channeled the power relations it sought to ritualize, a whole mass of discourses appeared pursuing the same confrontation; the posthumous proclamation of the crimes justified justice, but also glorified the criminal. That was why the reformers of the penal system were soon demanding suppression of these broadsheets.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (77) 20130919f 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Increase in fraud correlative with changes in punitive practices as well as societal shifts. (77) In fact, the shift from a criminality of blood to a criminality of fraud forms part of a whole complex mechanism, embracing the development of production, the increase of wealth, a higher juridical and moral value placed on property relations, stricter methods of surveillance, a tighter partitioning of the population, more efficient techniques of locating and obtaining information: the shift in illegal practices is correlative with an extension and a refinement of punitive practices.
(80) This dysfunction of power was related to a central excess: what might be called monarchical âsuper-powerâ, which identified the right to punish with the personal power of the sovereign.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (81) 20130919g 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Distributed effects of public power should replace whims of sovereign. (81) In short, the power to judge should no longer depend on the innumerable, discontinuous, sometimes contradictory privileges of sovereignty, but on the continuously distributed effects of public power.
(82) The conjuncture that was the birth of reform is not, therefore, that of a new sensibility, but that of another policy with regard to illegalities.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (85) 20130919h 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
New policy (semio-technique) with regard to illegalities required to support investment in commodities and machines: rule of minimum quantity, sufficient identity, lateral effects, perfect certainty, common truth, optimal specification. (85) The way in which wealth tended to be invested, on a much larger scale than ever before, in commodities and machines presupposed a systematic, armed intolerance of illegality.
(93) Things must be so arranged that the malefactor can have neither any desire to repeat his offense, nor any possibility of having imitators. Punishment, then, will be an art of effects; rather than opposing the enormity of the penalty to the enormity of the crime, one must adjust to one another the two series that follow from the crime: its own effects and those of the penalty.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (120) 20130919j 0 -13+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Detention quickly became the general form of legal punishment. (120) How then could detention, so evidently bound up with an illegality that was denounced even in the power of the prince, become in so short a time one of the most general forms of legal punishment?
(121) The
maison de force at Ghent organized penal labor above all around economic imperatives.
(122) To the principle of work, the English model added, as an essential addition to correction, isolation.
(123-124) Then came the Philadelphia model. . . . Life was partitioned, therefore, according to an absolutely strict time-table, under constant supervision; each moment of the day was devoted to a particular type of activity, and brought with it its own obligations and prohibitions.
(125-126) No doubt the most important thing was that this control and transformation of behavior were accompanied both as a condition and as a consequence by the development of a knowledge of the individuals. . . . The prison became a sort of permanent observatory that made it possible to distribute the varieties of vice or weakness.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (128) 20130919k 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Corrective penality reforms body, time, activities, therefore the soul. (128) The apparatus of
corrective penality acts in a quite different way. The point of application of the penalty is not the representation, but the body, time, everyday gestures and activities; the soul, too, but in so far as it is the seat of habits.
(129) In short, the divergence is the following: punitive city or coercive institution?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (131) 20130919l 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
How did training the body in prisons triumph over reforming jurists and old monarchical law of public spectacles becomes the problem to study as three technologies of power. (131) The problem, then, is the following: how is it that, in the end, it was the third that was adopted? . . . Why did the physical exercise of punishment (which is not torture) replace, with the prison that is its institutional support, the social play of the signs of punishment and the prolix festival that circulated them?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (164) 20130919r 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Soldier as fragment of mobile space. (164) The solider is above all a fragment of mobile space, before he is courage or honor.
(165) The school became a machine for learning, in which each pupil, each level and each moment, if correctly combined, were permanently utilized in the general process of teaching.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (177-178) 20130919v 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Disciplinary punishment corrective via small mechanisms; infra-penality like Zizek informal, unwritten rules. (177-178) At the heart of all disciplinary systems functions a small penal mechanism. . . . The disciplines established an â
infra-penalityâ; they partitioned an area that the laws had left empty; they defined and repressed a mass of behavior that the relative indifference of the great systems of punishment had allowed to escape.
(179) The order that the disciplinary punishments must enforce is of a mixed nature: it is an âartificialâ order, explicitly laid down by a law, a program, a set of regulations. But it is also an order defined by natural and observable processes: the duration of an apprenticeship, the time taken to perform an exercise, the level of aptitude refer to a regularity that is also a rule.
(179) Disciplinary punishment has the function of reducing gaps.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (180-181) 20130919w 0 -9+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Rank in graded system serves as reward or punishment and normalizes, transposition of the system of indulgences. (180-181) In discipline, punishment is only one element of a double system: gratification-punishment. . . . A penal accountancy, constantly brought up to date, makes it possible to obtain the punitive balance-sheet of each individual. . . . What we have here is a
transposition of the system of indulgences.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (183) 20131030c 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Perpetual penality normalizes by imposing comparison, differentiation, hierarchy, homogenization, exclusions; penality of the norm built within flexible space of infra-penality. (183) The perpetual penality that traverses all points and supervises every instant in the disciplinary institutions compares, differentiates, hierarchizes, homogenizes, excludes. In short, it
(183) The disciplinary mechanisms secreted a âpenality of the normâ, which is irreducible in its principles and functioning to the traditional penality of the law.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (222) 20130921f 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Disciplines as counter-law introduce structure changes favoring the collective over the individual. (222) The disciplines should be regarded as a sort of counter-law. They have the precise role of introducing insuperable asymmetries and excluding reciprocities.
(224) What generalizes the power to punish, then, is not the universal consciousness of the law in each juridical subject; it is the regular extension, the infinitely minute web of panoptic techniques.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (224-225) 20130921h 0 -11+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Inquisitorial techniques the forerunner of panopticism for methodology of examination for human sciences. (224-225) But it must be recognized that, compared with the mining industries, the emerging chemical industries or methods of national accountancy, compared with the blast furnaces or the steam engine, panopticism has received little attention. . . . If a historical equivalent or at least a point of comparison had to be found for them, it would be rather in the âinquisitorialâ technique.
(225-226) In fact, the investigation has been the no doubt crude, but fundamental element in the constitution of the empirical sciences; it has been the juridico-political matrix of this experimental knowledge, which, as we know, was very rapidly released at the end of the Middle Ages. . . . On the threshold of the classical age, Bacon, lawyer and statesman, tried to develop a methodology of investigation for the empirical sciences. What Great Observer will produce the methodology of examination for the human sciences?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (254) 20130921j 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Criminology possible through knowledge of acts and individuals in terms of offenses and delinquents. (254) The task of this new knowledge is to define the act âscientificallyâ
qua offense and above all the individual qua delinquent. Criminology is thus made possible.
(255) Delinquency is the vengeance of the prison on justice. It is a revenge formidable enough to leave the judge speechless. It is at this point that the criminologists raise their voices.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (257) 20130921k 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
The spectacle for this chapter is the chain gang. (257) From the point of view of the law, detention may be a mere deprivation of liberty. But the imprisonment that performs this function has always involved a technical project. . . . From this transition spring a symptom and a symbol: the replacement, in 1837, of the chain-gang by the police carriage.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (277) 20130921l 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Prison has succeeded in producing specific types of delinquency, pathologized subjects, including prostitution networks and organized crime. (277) For the observation that prison fails to eliminate crime, one should perhaps substitute the hypothesis that prison has succeeded extremely well in producing delinquency, a specific type, a politically or economically less dangerous and, on occasion, usable from of illegality; in producing delinquents, in an apparently marginal, but in fact centrally supervised milieu; in producing the delinquent as a
pathologized subject.
(279) Delinquency, controlled illegality, is an agent for the illegality of the dominant groups. The setting up of prostitution networks in the nineteenth century is characteristic in this respect.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (293-294) 20130921m 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Function of training. (293-294) Why Mettray? Because it is the disciplinary form at its most extreme, the model in which are concentrated all the coercive technologies of behavior. . . . the entire parapenal institution, which is created in order not to be a prison, culminates in the cell, on the walls of which are written in black letters: âGod sees you.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (299-300) 20130921p 1 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Excellent summary of the book. (299-300) The generality of the punitive function that the eighteenth century sought in the âideologicalâ technique of representations and signs now had as its support the extension, the material framework, complex, dispersed, but coherent, of the various carceral mechanisms. . . . The carceral network linked, through innumerable relations, the two long, multiple series of the punitive and the abnormal.

2 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (304) 20130921s 1 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Universal reign of normative is the repression of civilization distributed through economy of panoptic power. (304) With this new economy of power, the carceral system, which is its basic instrument, permitted the emergence of a new form of âlawâ: a mixture of legality and nature, prescription and constitution, the norm. . . . The judges of normality are present everywhere.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (305) 20130921t 1 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Functional, trans-embodiment definition of individuality that nonetheless essentially imbricates embodiment and combinatorial structure control affordances. (305) If, after the age of âinquisitorialâ justice, we have entered the age of âexaminatoryâ justice, if, in an even more general way, the method of examination has been able to spread so widely throughout society, and to give rise in part to the sciences of man, one of the great instruments for this has been the multiplicity and close overlapping of the various mechanisms of incarceration. . . . This policy required the involvement of definite relations of knowledge in relations of power; it called for a technique of overlapping subjection and objectification; it brought with it new procedures of individualization. The carceral network constituted one of the armatures of this power-knowledge that has made the human sciences historically possible.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (99) 20141123d 0 -17+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Subjectivity of historical process revealed in real forms of administration; nation becomes condition of human action and social life. (99) An important segment of the natural right school thus developed the idea of distributing and articulating the transcendent sovereignty through the real forms of administration.
(99-100) The synthesis that was implicit in the natural right school, however, became explicit in the context of historicism. . . . Whereas an important segment of the natural right school developed the idea of articulating transcendent sovereignty through the real forms of administration, the historicist thinkers of the Enlightenment attempted to conceive
the subjectivity of the historical process and thereby find an effective ground for the title and exercise of sovereignty. . . . In effect, we can already recognize in [Giambattista] Vico the embryo of Hegelâs apologia of effectiveness, making the present world arrangement the telos of history.
(100-101) Vicoâs argument that ideal history is located in the history of all nations became more radical in [J.G.] Herder so that every human perfection is, in a certain respect, national. . . . The nation becomes finally the condition of possibility of all human action and social life itself.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (101) 20141123e 0 -23+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
People versus multitude: people exists within ideological context of nation-state as the multitude prepared for sovereignty. (101) The nation became explicitly the concept that summarized the bourgeois hegemonic solution to the problem of sovereignty.
(102-103) We, by contrast, must de-naturalize these concepts and ask what is a nation and how is it made, but also, what is a people and how is it made? Although the people is posed as the originary basis of the nation,
the modern conception of the people is in fact a product of the nation-state, and survives only within its specific ideological context. . . . We should note that the concept of the people is very different from that of the multitude. . . . Whereas the multitude is an inconclusive constituent relation, the people is a constituted synthesis that is prepared for sovereignty. . . . Every nation must make the multitude into a people.
(103) The concepts of nation, people, and race are never very far apart. The construction of an absolute racial difference is the essential ground for the conception of a homogeneous national identity.
(104) The representative group is the active agent that stands behind the effectiveness of the concept of nation. . . . Never was the concept of nation so reactionary as when it presented itself as revolutionary. Paradoxically, this cannot but be a completed revolution, and end of history.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (104-105) 20141123f 0 -14+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Spiritual construction of identity well framed by Romantic counterrevolution. (104-105) National sovereignty and popular sovereignty were thus products of a spiritual construction, that is, a construction of identity. . . . The Romantic counterrevolution was in fact more realistic than the Enlightenment revolution. It framed and fixed what was already accomplished, celebrating it in the eternal light of hegemony. The Third Estate is power; the nation is its totalizing representation; the people is its solid and natural foundation; and national sovereignty is the apex of history. Every historical alternative to bourgeois hegemony had thus been definitively surpassed through the bourgeoisieâs own revolutionary history.
(105) National particularity is a potent universality. . . . This is a decisive shift in the concept of sovereignty. Married to the concepts of nation and people, the modern concept of sovereignty shifts its epicenter from the mediation of conflicts and crisis to the unitary experience of a nation-subject and its imagined community.

2 1 2 (+) [0+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (106) 20141123g 0 -18+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Concept of nation weapon of change for the subordinated representing commonality of potential community, exemplified by black nationalism in US. (106) Stated most boldly, it appears that
whereas the concept of nation promotes stasis and restoration in the hands of the dominant, it is a weapon for change and revolution in the hands of the subordinated.
(106) The right to self-determination of subaltern nations is really a right to secession from the control of dominant powers. . . . the claim to nationhood affirmed the dignity of the people and legitimated the demand for independence and equality. In each of these cases,
the nation is progressive strictly as a fortified line of defense against more powerful external forces. . . . The flip side of the structure that resists foreign powers is itself a dominating power that exerts an equal and opposite internal oppression, repressing internal difference and opposition in the name of national identity, unity, and security.
(106-107) The nation appears progressive in the second place insofar as it poses the commonality of a potential community. . . . Every imagination of a community becomes overcoded as a nation, and hence our conception of community is severely impoverished.
(107) Both of these simultaneously progressive and regressive aspects of subaltern nationalism are present in all their ambiguity in the tradition of black nationalism in the United States.
(108) Despite the range of disparate phenomena called black nationalism, then, we can still recognize in them the two fundamental progressive functions of subaltern nationalism: the defense and the unification of the community.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (109) 20141123h 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Progressive functions vanish as nation forms. (109) As soon as the nation begins to form as a sovereign state, its progressive functions all but vanish. . . . With national liberation and the construction of the nation-state, all of the oppressive functions of modern sovereignty inevitably blossom in full force.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (110) 20141123i 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia exemplars of barbarisms of nation state form. (110) When we take up again our genealogy of the concept of sovereignty in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe, it is clear that the state-form of modernity first fell into the nation-state form, then the nation-state-form descended into a whole series of barbarisms. . . . If Nazi Germany is the ideal type of the transformation of modern sovereignty into national sovereignty and of its articulation in capitalist form, then Stalinist Russia is the ideal type of the transformation of popular interest and the cruel logics that follow from it into a project of national modernization, mobilizing for its own purposes the productive forces that yearn for liberation from capitalism.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (110) 20141123j 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Leave Nazi story for other scholars and focus on conjunction of nationalism and socialism in Europe. (110) Let us leave this story to other scholars and to the disgrace of history.
(110-111) We are more interested here with the other side of the national question in Europe during this era. In other words, what really happened when nationalism went hand in hand with socialism in Europe?
(112) It is a tragic irony that nationalist socialism in Europe came to resemble national socialism. This is not because the two extremes meet, as some liberals would like to think, but because the abstract machine of national sovereignty is at the heart of both.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (123) 20140928d 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Counterpower of slaves in revolt also absorbed by capitalist development. (123) Political unrest did of course undercut the economic profitability of the system, but more important, the slaves in revolt came to constitute a real counterpower.
(123-124) The claim that regimes of slavery and servitude are internal to capitalist production and development points toward the intimate relationship between the laboring subjectsâ desire to flee the relationship of command and capitalâs attempts to block the population within fixed territorial boundaries. . . . The deterritorializing desire of the multitude is the motor that drives the entire process of capitalist development, and capital must constantly attempt to contain it.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (129) 20141123l 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
European Self craves general state of war to maintain itself. (129) The European Self needs violence and needs to confront its Other to feel and maintain its power, to remake itself continually.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (130) 20140928i 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Nondialectical negativity refusing cultural terms. (130) The negative dialectic has most often been conceived in cultural terms, for example, as the project of negritude the quest to discover the black essence or unveil the black soul.
(131) The strategy of negativity, however, the moment of the boomerang, appears in an entirely different light when it is cast in a nondialectical form and in political rather than cultural terms. [Franz] Fanon, for example, refuses the cultural politics of negritude with its consciousness of black identity and poses the revolutionary antithesis instead in terms of physical violence.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (132-133) 20140928j 0 -14+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Internal domination accompanying national sovereignty; modernization project establishes delegated struggle for postcolonial nation-states like a poisoned gift. (132-133) The progressive functions of national sovereignty, however, are always accompanied by powerful structures of internal domination. The perils of national liberation are even clearer when viewed externally, in terms of the world economic system in which the liberated nation finds itself. . . . In most cases it involves a
delegated struggle, in which the modernization project also establishes in power the new ruling group that is charged with carrying it out.
(133-134) The postcolonial nation-state functions as an essential and subordinated element in the global organization of the capitalist market. . . . The entire logical chain of representation might be summarized like this: the people representing the multitude, the nation representing the people, and the state representing the nation. Each link is an attempt to hold in suspension the crisis of modernity. Representation in each case means a further step of abstraction and control. From India to Algeria and Cuba to Vietnam,
the state is the poisoned gift of national liberation.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (41) 20131102i 0 -4+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Western logos tradition emphasizes books, argument, persuasion as much as it does logic. (41) Judaeo-Christian religion reveals a thoroughly biblical world, where
biblical is taken in its strict etymological root from biblia, or books : the world as book of God, that is, articulated by god and to be read as the articulation of God.
(41) Today, with the emphasis on how paradigms for inquiry develop in scientific communities, the nature of science is understood less emphatically as logic and increasingly as the logos of argument, persuasion, and communication.
(42) There is then a stream common in Western religion and science which has roots in the Greek logos tradition. And the logos tradition can be characterized as a development of the transcendental intimacy of thought, words, and reality.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment (14-15) 20130929d 0 -6+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment.html
Compare mana to Benjamin aura. (14-15) The work of art constantly reenacts the duplication by which the thing appeared as something spiritual, a manifestation of
mana. That constitutes its aura. . . . The paradox of faith degenerates finally into fraud, the myth of the twentieth century and faithâs irrationality into rational organization in the hands of the utterly enlightened as they steer society toward barbarism.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment (163) 20130929q 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_horkheimer_adorno-dialectic_of_enlightenment.html
Zizek discusses this role of electronic media instantiating the global village as the imaginary of the virtual. (163) Those who were excluded from humanity against their will, like those who excluded themselves from it out of longing for humanity, knew that the pathological cohesion of the established group was strengthened by persecuting them. Its normal members relieve their paranoia by participating in the collective one, and cling passionately to the objectified, collective, approved forms of delusion.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (132) 20130929v 0 -18+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Basis of discussion is Claude Simon 1971 nouveau roman novel Les corps conducteurs as exemplary of experimental high literature, which demand a particular reading practice that might be considered postmodern, and is certainly ubiquitous in current digital cultural practices; working these alien, narrative matricies following laws of an artificial genre empties the rich subject and its deep phenomenological experience. (132) Does experimental high literature of this type have any sociological value, and does it tell us anything about its social context and the evolution of late capitalism or its culture?
(132) Some will remember what reading a
nouveau roman felt like. Les corps conducteurs begins with window displays in a downtown street. . . . We learn to make an inventory of these plot strings and to coordinate them something done in two contradictory operations by learning to tell them apart and by conjecturing their larger interrelationship.
(133) This peculiar alternation within Simonâs oeuvre must serve as our starting point, since it does not seem to be a matter of development or evolution but rather of the optional availability of two distinct narrative matricies. . . . This is, then, in the largest sense what is postmodern about Simon: the evident emptiness of that subject beyond all phenomenology, its capacity to embrace another style as though it were another world.
(134-135) But the mode of Faulknerian modernism in Simon does not alternate with the practice of another style (personal style in that sense being preeminently a modernist phenomenon), but instead with something rather different, which it may be appropriate to characterize as the codification of the laws of a new
artificial genre. . . . The postmodern period, however, eschews temporality for space and has generally grown skeptical about deep phenomenological experience in gneral, and the very concept of perception itself in particular (see Derrida). Robbe-Grilletâs manifestos can in this respect be read today less as an affirmation of the visual over the other senses than as a radical repudiation of phenomenological perception as such.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (143) 20130929y 0 -11+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Transformation of reading experience to systems of unit operations and nonterritorialized mental activities. (143) Meanwhile, in this situation in which mental activities are colonized and miniaturized, specialized, reorganized like some enormous modern automated factory somewhere, other kinds of mental activities fall out and lead a somewhat different, unorganized or marginal existence within the reading process. . . . But this extraordinary feeling of aesthetic relief has very little in common with the Aristotelean emotion that accompanies a more traditional mimesis of a completed action.
(144) The realist temptation, of course, involves the reassembling of all the raw materials into a single unified action, something which is not frustrated only because of the random presence of other aleatory materials, as we shall see. But there is also something that might be called a modernist interpretative temptation: that of reading the very form of the novel as a stream of perceptions. . . . The analysis of image culture (including its aesthetic products, such as the one of Claude Simon) can thus only be meaningful if it leads us to rethink the image itself in some nontraditional and nonphenomenological way.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (146) 20130929z 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Can specialized practice of reading experimental high literature represent nonalienated intellectual labor in an achievable utopia? (146) Is it possible, then, that the reading of so specialized and highly technical an elite literary artifact as Les corps conducteurs might offer a figure or analogon for nonaliented labor and for the Utopian experience of a radically different, alternate society?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (150-151) 20130930b 3 -6+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Too many private perspectives to take any one seriously. (150-151) It needs to be labeled as such as stamped as Jamesian point of view: only in the population explosion of the postmodern there have come to be too many of these private worldviews, personal styles, or points of view for anyone to take them seriously, as was done in the modern period.
(151) Rather, it tells of contradictions as such, which constitute the deepest form of social reality in our prehistory and must stand in for the referent for a long time to come.
(151) either we read the whole thing as one elaborate point of view . . . or else we follow Simonâs own lead and see these pages as a verbal equivalent of Rauschenbergâs great collage installations.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (301) 20130930f 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
An interesting statement about human behavior and conclusion. (301) We do, however, make comparisons of this kind and seem to enjoy the process, however meaningless it may be; one can therefore only conclude that such compulsive matchings and rankings
must mean something else.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (306-307) 20130930k 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Bourdieu genius, Turkle surface space versus depth (units to galaxies of meaning): epistemological spirit of modernism is the impossible universal application of Socrates method of division, hinting at silly-named Ulmer methods to derive significance from analyzing individual life stories instead of great works. (306-307) That objective possibility is now given, not in subjective talent as such or some inner richness or inspiration, but rather in strategies of a well-nigh military character, based on superiority of technique and terrain, assessment of the counterforces, a shrewd maximization of oneâs own specifc and idiosyncratic resources. . . . This is, it seems to me, a properly postmodern revision in biographical historiography, which characteristically substitutes the horizontal for the vertical, space for time, system for depth.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK misa-leonardo_to_the_internet (173) 20131007g 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_misa-leonardo_to_the_internet.html
Modernist art derived styles taking into account artistic consequences of modern science and technology. (173) The task of the artist was to derive a style or universal collective manner of expression that took into account the artistic consequences of modern science and technology.
(176) The durable contribution of de Stijl, then, was not merely to assert, as the Futurists had done, that modern materials had artistic consequences, but to identify specific consequences and embed these in an overarching aesthetic theory.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK neel-plato_derrida_writing (41-42) 20131006w 0 -5+ progress/2009/02/notes_for_neel-plato_derrida_writing.html
Maybe he wishes this disingenuous method made habit, and only seems to be railing against it? (41-42) Finally, structural analysis is problematic because it demands the law of simultaneity. . . . The disingenuousness of a writer demanding such structure from discourse while at the same time denying writing as a mode of attaining that structure cannot be overstated.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK norman-design_of_everyday_things (61) 20120416 0 -2+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_norman-design_of_everyday_things.html
Also consider stickiness of memory when what is being learned relates or does not relate to the overall context of activities of which the learning is a part; see page 67 on the difficulty with organizing long term memory. (61) The notion that someone should be able to recite word for word is relatively modern. Such a notion can be held only after printed texts become available; otherwise who could judge the accuracy of a recitation?

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (xi) 20131009a 0 -13+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Translator Introduction: complex systems of contrasts recognized in everyday vocal interactions in communities of speakers hints at Foucault Order of Things. (xi) Where historical philology had failed, in Saussureâs opinion, was in simply not recognizing the structural nature of the linguistic sign. . . . For linguistic signs, Saussure insisted, do not exist independently of the complex system of contrasts implicitly recognized in the day-to-day vocal interactions of a given community of speakers.
(xi) Nor, although the terminology of the
Cours itself falls short of ideal consistency on this point, are signs to be equated simply with the signals (signifiants) by which they are identified. Each sign is a dual entity, uniting signal with signification (signifie). . . . Linguistic signs are therefore not like individual bricks, put together in a certain way to form an architectural structure. Unlike bricks, they are not separate self-contained units. Except as parts of the total structure, they do not even exist, any more than the circumference or the radii of a circle exist without the circle.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (xi) 20131009b 0 -6+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Translator Introduction: historians metaphor to treat words as discrete linguistic units persisting from Latin to modern Italian. (xi) Thus to treat words as linguistic units somehow capable of surviving through time from Latin down to modern Italian is, for Saussure, no more than a historianâs metaphor.
(xii) When Saussure died in 1913, he left no manuscript setting out his theories in detail. What was published three years later as the
Cours de linguistique generale was put together by his colleagues, mainly from lecture notes taken by his pupils.
(xii) What is beyond dispute is that they subsequently admitted to having failed to represent Saussureâs view of the phoneme correctly.
(xiii) Either Saussureâs closest colleagues and sympathizers were not able fully to understand a whole generation of scholars, and the instrument through which an entirely new approach to linguistic analysis was established. Thereby it acquires in its own right âmistakesâ and all a place in the history of modern thought which cannot retrospectively be denied to it.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (xiv) 20131009c 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Translator Introduction: complaint that Saussure misunderstood by English-speaking academic world, including Chomsky, who dismisses for lacking rule-governed creativity. (xiv) It is small wonder that even Saussureâs major theses on the subject of language are poorly understood in the English-speaking academic world. In particular, one is led to wonder whether this may not have played some part in the patently ill-informed view taken by those American generativists who dismiss Saussureâs view of language structure as âna veâ (Chomsky) and lacking in any conception of ârule-governed creativityâ.
(xiv) It is a text which is hard going for the non-specialist, for the lectures on which it is based were given to students who already had an extensive knowledge of Indo-European languages and comparative philology, as well as being able to speak French.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (xv) 20131009d 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Translator Introduction: difficulty translating langue, as sometimes fits the language, a language, linguistic structure, and linguistic system. (xv) Finally, some of the central problems of interpretation of the
Cours de linguistique generale hinge upon the fact that the word langue seems to be used in a variety of ways.
the language or a language are often perfectly adequate English translations, there are also many instances where expressions such as linguistic structure and linguistic system bring out much more clearly in English the particular point that is being made.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (xviii-xix) 20131009e 0 -9+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Translator Preface: reconstructive synthesis based on notes taken during third course of lectures, but linguistics of speech never realized due to death of Saussure. (xviii-xix) We eventually hit upon a bolder solution which was also, in our view, a more rational one. We would attempt a reconstruction, a synthesis. It would be based upon the third course of lectures, but make use of all the material we had, including Saussureâs own notes. This would involve a task of re-creation. It would be by no means a straightforward one, since complete objectivity was essential. We should need to identify every essential idea by reference to the system as a whole, analyze it in depth, and express it in a definitive form, unobscured by the variations and hesitations which naturally accompany oral delivery. We should then need to put each idea in its proper place, and present all the various parts in an order corresponding to the authorâs intentions, even if the intentions were not apparent but could only be inferred.
(xix) The absence of a âlinguistics of speechâ is more serious. This had been promised to those who attended the third course of lectures, and it would doubtless have occupied a prominent place in later series.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (1) 20131009f 0 -18+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Three phases of history of linguistics: grammar, philology, comparative philology. (1) The science which has grown up around linguistic facts passed through three successive phases before coming to terms with its one and only true object of study.
(1) First of all came what was called âgrammarâ. This discipline, first instituted by the Greeks and continued mainly by the French, is based on logic. It offers no scientific or objective approach to a language as such. Grammar aims solely at providing rules which distinguish between correct and incorrect forms.
(1) Next came philology. . . . Philology seeks primarily to establish, interpret and comment upon texts. This main preoccupation leads to a concern with literary history, customs, institutions, etc. In all these areas, philology applies its own methods, which is that of criticism.
(2) The third period began when it was discovered that languages could be compared with one another. That discovery ushered in comparative philology, or âcomparative grammarâ. . . . What was new was the elucidation of one language by reference to a related language, explaining the forms of one by appeal to the forms of the other.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (2) 20131009g 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Bopp aided by discovery of Sanskrit; compare to McLuhan and Ong on self-reflexive aspect of electronic media accelerating paradigm inauguration. (2) It is doubtful whether Bopp would have been able to inaugurate his science or at least to inaugurate it so quickly without the discovery of Sanskrit.
(3) But although no one would deny that the comparative succeeded in opening up a new and profitable field of investigation, they did not manage to found a true science of linguistics. For they never took very great care to define exactly what it was they were studying.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (3) 20131009h 0 -4+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Neogrammarians of 1870 placed results of comparative philology in historical perspective, seeing language as product of collective mind of linguistic community rather than independent organism. (3) Comparative grammar was exclusively comparative, instead of being historical.
(4) Not until about 1870 did anyone begin to inquire into the conditions governing the life of languages.
(5) The achievement of the Neogrammarians was to place all the results of comparative philology in a historical perspective, so that linguistic facts were connected in their natural sequence. The Neogrammarians no longer looked upon a language as an organism developing of its own accord, but saw it as a product of the collective mind of a linguistic community.

2 1 2 (+) [-6+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (6) 20131009j 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Aims of linguistics: describe languages and history; formulate general laws; delimit linguistics itself. (6) Linguistics takes for its data in the first instance all manifestations of human language.
(6) The aims of linguistics will be:
(a) to describe all known languages and record their history. This involves tracing the history of language families and, as far as possible, reconstructing the parent language of each family;
(b) to determine the forces operating permanently and universally in all languages, and to formulate general laws which account for all particular linguistic phenomena historically attested;
(c) to delimit and define linguistics itself.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (9) 20131009l 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Linguistic structure comes first, recognized as social product and convention supporting language faculties. (9)
The linguist must take the study of linguistic structure as his primary concern, and relate all other manifestations of language to it.
(9-10) The structure of a language is a social product of our language faculty. At the same time, it is also a body of necessary conventions adopted by society to enable members of society to use their language faculty.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (10) 20131009m 0 -4+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Nature of sign is arbitrary, although vocal apparatus not accidental as Whitney claims. (10) Moreover,
Whitney goes too far when he says that the selection of the vocal apparatus for language was accidental. For it was in some measure imposed upon us by Nature. But the American linguist is right about the essential point: the language we use is a convention, and it makes no difference what exactly the nature of the agreed sign is.
(10) one may say that it is not spoken language which is natural to man, but the faculty of constructing a language, i.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (12-13) 20130909 0 -8+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Mind depicted as association center, for tracing computational metaphors of mind further back than cybernetics (Golumbia). (12-13) The circuit as here represented may be further divided: . . . (c) into an active part and a passive part, the former comprising everything which goes from the association center of one individual to the ear of the other, and the latter comprising everything which goes from an individualâs ear to his own association center.
(13) Finally, in the psychological part localized in the brain, one may call everything which is active âexecutiveâ (
c s), and everything which is passive âreceptiveâ (s c).
(13) In addition, one must allow for a faculty of association and coordination which comes into operation as soon as one goes beyond individual signs in isolation. It is this faculty which plays the major role in the organization of the language as a system.
(13) All the individuals linguistically linked in this manner will establish among themselves a kind of mean; all of them will reproduce doubtless not exactly, but approximately the same signs linked to the same concepts.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (12) 20131009n 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Separate physiological phonation and hearing from psychological sound patterns of words and concepts. (12) We have included only those elements considered essential; but our schematisation enables us straight away to separate the parts which are physical (sound waves) from those which are physiological (phonation and hearing) and those which are psychological (the sound patterns of words and the concepts).

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (18) 20131009r 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Phonation does not affect the system itself: seems to deny materiality of language although speech itself, like Morse code, depends on apparatus. (18) The vocal organs are as external to the language system as the electrical apparatus which is used to tap out the Morse code is external to that code. Phonation, that is to say the execution of sound patterns, in no way affects the system itself.
(19) Historically, speech always takes precedence.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (21) 20131009s 0 -13+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Exclude external linguistics, what does not belong to its structure as system, as Barthes differentiates genotype and phenotype to develop concept of grain of the voice: exclude links with ethnology, political history, institutions, geography and fragmentation into dialects. (21) Our definition of a language assumes that we disregard everything which does not belong to its structure as a system; in short everything that is designated by the term âexternal linguisticsâ.
(21) First of all, there are all the respects in which linguistics links up with ethnology.
(21) Secondly, mention must be made of the relation between languages and political history.
(21-22) This brings us to a third point. A language has connections with institutions of every sort: church, school, etc. These institutions in turn are intimately bound up with the literary development of a language. . . . The linguist must also examine the reciprocal relations between the language of books and the language of colloquial speech.
(22) Finally, everything which relates to the geographical extension of languages and to their fragmentation into dialects concerns external linguistics.
(23) In any case, a separation of internal and external viewpoints is essential. The more rigorously it is observed, the better.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (23) 20131009t 0 -7+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Language as internal, closed system like game of chess. (23) The language itself is a system which admits no other order than its own. This can be brought out by comparison with the game of chess. In the case of chess, it is relatively easy to distinguish between what is external and what is internal. . . . Everything is internal which alters the system in any degree whatsoever.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (24-25) 20131009v 0 -8+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Spoken word alone constitutes object of linguistics, but usurps principal role. (24-25) The object of study in linguistics is not a combination of the written word and the spoken word. The spoken word alone constitutes that object. But the written word is so intimately connected with the spoken word it represents that it manages to usurp the principal role.
(25) Even Bopp does not distinguish clearly between letters and sounds.
(26) (1) The written form of a word strikes us as a permanent, solid object.
(26) (2) For most people, visual impressions are clearer and more lasting than auditory impressions.
(26) (3) A literary language enhances even more the unwarranted importance accord to writing.
(26) (4) Finally, when there is any discrepancy between a language and its spelling, the conflict is always difficult to resolve for anyone other than a linguist.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (29) 20131009w 0 -11+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Writing obscures view of language: not a garment but a disguise. (29) The obvious result of all this is that writing obscures our view of the language. Writing is not a garment, but a disguise.
(30) Thus when people say that a certain letter should be pronounced in this way or that, it is the visual image which is mistaken for the model.
(30) The pronunciation of a word is determined not by its spelling but by its history. . . . The only factor to consider, although it is most frequently forgotten, is the etymological derivation of the word.
(31) These phonetic distortions do indeed belong to the language but they are not the result of its natural evolution. They are due to an external factor. Linguistics should keep them under observation in a special compartment: they are cases of abnormal development.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (36) 20131009y 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Mention of words borrowed from other languages, puns, parodies affecting various of spelling. (36) Mention must be made, finally, of the spelling of words borrowed from other languages, of puns, of parodies, and similar evidence.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK saussure-general_course_in_linguistics (67) 20110805 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_saussure-general_course_in_linguistics.html
Compare and contrast analysis of sign, concept, signification and sound to Barthes, Lacan, Ihde. (67) We propose to keep the term
sign to designate the whole, but to replace concept and sound pattern respectively by signification and signal.

2 1 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK sterne-audible_past (12) 20131013 0 -3+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_sterne-audible_past.html
Interesting proposition but he does not return to canning and embalming much, referring to Nietzsche conception of modernity. (12) The connections among canning, embalming, and sound recording require that we consider practices of sound reproduction in relation to other bodily practices.
(13) As Nietzsche would have it, modernity is a time and place where it becomes possible for people to be measured. It is also a place where the human-built environment modifies the living body.

--2.1.3+++ {11}

2 1 3 (+) [-6+]mCQK floridi-philosophy_and_computing (130-131) 20130921s 0 -5+ progress/2012/12/notes_for_floridi-philosophy_and_computing.html
Can digital natives stressing epistemic managerial functions implemented by ICT develop Renaissance minds (like Floridi himself) if an essential component is also close reading, explored in Hayles How We Think? (130-131) It is to be hoped that one of the direct efforts of the transformation both in the ontology and in the organizing logic of the infosphere may be an inversion of a secular tendency towards the diffusion and reinforcement of specialization. . . . Thus, the necessity of stressing the importance of the
epistemic managerial functions implemented by ICT rests also on the crucial role that the latter may have in weakening the concept of compartmentalization.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (134) 20140928k 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Not unqualified freedom but glimpse of passage to Empire in end of modern colonialism. (134) The end of modern colonialism, of course, has not really opened an age of unqualified freedom but rather yielded to new forms of rule that operate on a global scale. Here we have our first real glimpse of the passage to Empire.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (136) 20140928l 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Anxiety of contagion is dark side of consciousness of globalization. (136)
The contemporary processes of globalization have torn down many of the boundaries of the colonial world. Along with the common celebration of the unbounded flows in our new global village, one can still sense also an anxiety about increased contact and a certain nostalgia for colonialist hygiene. The dark side of the consciousness of globalization is the fear of contagion. . . . As AIDS has been recognized first as a disease and then as a global pandemic, there have developed maps of its sources and spread that often focus on central Africa and Haiti, in terms reminiscent of the colonialist imaginary: unrestrained sexuality, moral corruption, and lack of hygiene.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (137) 20141022 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Symptoms of passage into post-postmodern; theories as effects pointing toward paradigmatic leap of Empire. (137) Postmodernists continually return to the lingering influence of the Enlightenment as the source of domination; postcolonialist theories combat the remnants of colonialist thinking.
(138) In short, what if a new paradigm of power, a postmodern sovereignty, has come to replace the modern paradigm and rule through differential hierarchies of the hybrid and fragmentary subjectivities that these theorists celebrate?
(138) There is no need to doubt the democratic, egalitarian, and even at times anticapitalist desires that motivate large segments of these fields of work, but it is important to investigate the utility of these theories in the context of the new paradigm of power.
(138-139) To a certain extent postmodernist and postcolonialist theories are important
effects that reflect or trace the expansion of the world market and the passage of the form of sovereignty. These theories point toward Empire, but in a vague and confused way, with no awareness of the paradigmatic leap that this passage constitutes.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (140) 20141022b 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Postmodern challenge dialectic as central logic of modernism, especially international relations. (140) When postmodernists propose their opposition to modernity and an Enlightenment that exalt the universality of reason only to sustain white male European supremacy, it should be clear that they are really attacking the second tradition of our schema (and unfortunately ignoring or eclipsing the first). . . . these various theoretical contestations are brought together most coherently in a challenge to the dialectic as the central logic of modern domination, exclusion, and command for both its relegating the multiplicity of difference to binary oppositions and its subsequent subsumption of these differences in a unitary order.
(142) The resulting postmodernist analyses point toward the possibility of a global politics of difference, a politics of deterritorialized flows across a smooth world, free of the rigid striation of state boundaries.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (142) 20141022c 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire immune to postmodernist politics of difference; postmodernism bypassed politically. (142) The structures and logics of power in the contemporary world are entirely immune to the liberatory weapons of the postmodernist politics of difference. In fact, Empire too is bent on doing away with those modern forms of sovereignty and on setting differences to play across boundaries.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (143-144) 20141022d 0 -10+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Bhabha attack on binary divisions and Hegelian dialectic. (143-144) Postcolonial studies encompass a wide and varied group of discourses, but we want to focus here on the work of Homi Bhabha because it presents the clearest and best-articulated example of the continuity between postmodernist and postcolonialist discourses. One of the primary and constant objects of Bhabhaâs attack are
binary divisions. . . . Bhabhaâs refusal to see the world in terms of binary divisions leads him to reject also theories of totality and theories of the identity, homogeneity, and essentialism of social subjects. . . . In short, the specter that haunts Bhabhaâs analysis and that coherently links together these various opponents is the Hegelian dialectic, that is, the dialetic that subsumes within a coherent totality the essential social identities that face each other in opposition.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (145) 20141022e 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Utopia of unhomely nomadism. (145) The utopia Bhaba points toward after the binary and totalizing structures of power have been fractured and displaced is not an isolated and fragmentary existence but a new form of community, a community of the unhomely, a new internationalism, a gathering of people in the diaspora.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (146-147) 20141022f 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
View fundamentalism as opposition to modernity rather than return to premodern world. (146-147) It is more accurate and more useful, however, to understand the various fundamentalism not as the re-creation of a premodern world, but rather as a powerful refusal of the contemporary historical passage in course.
(147) Islamic fundamentalisms are most coherently united, however, in their being
resolutely opposed to modernity and modernization.
(147) Christian fundamentalisms in the United States also present themselves as movements against social modernization, re-creating what is imagined to be a past social formation based on sacred texts.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (148) 20141022g 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Return to tradition a new invention; fundamentalism is a postmodern project. (148) In fact, fundamentalist visions of a return to the past are generally based on historical illusions. The purity and wholesomeness of the stable, nuclear heterosexual family heralded by Christian fundamentalists, for example, never existed in the United States. . . . It is a fictional image projected on the past, like Main Street USA at Disneyland, constructed retrospectively through the lens of contemporary anxieties and fears.
(148) Similarly, the current forms of Islamic fundamentalism should not be understood as a return to past social forms and values, not even from the perspective of the practitioners.
(149) The anti-modern thrust that defines fundamentalisms might be better understood, then, not as a
premodern but as a postmodern project.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (150) 20141022i 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Ideology of world market tracks postmodernist discourse. (150) Many of the concepts dear to postmodernists and postcolonialists find a perfect correspondence in the current ideology of corporate capital and the world market. The ideology of the world market has always been the anti-foundational and anti-essentialist discourse par excellence.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (150-151) 20141022j 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Appadurai scapes exemplify regimented but mobile global networks deconstructing national boundaries establishing real politics of difference. (150-151) As the world market today is realized ever more completely, it tends to deconstruct the boundaries of the nation-state. . . . These differences of course do not play freely across a smooth global space, but rather are regimented in global networks of power consisting of highly differentiated and mobile structures. Arjun Appadurai captures the new quality of these structures with the analogy of landscapes, or better, seascapes: in the contemporary world he sees finanscapes, technoscapes, ethnoscapes, and so forth. The suffix -scape allows us on the one hand to point to the fluidity and irregularity of these various fields and on the other to indicate formal commonalities among such diverse domains as finance, culture, commodities, and demography. The world market establishes a real politics of difference.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (161-162) 20141022r 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Republic as network; texts of Founding Fathers hint at protocol. (161-162) Against the tired transcendentalism of modern sovereignty, presented either in Hobbesian or in Rousseauian form, the American constituents thought that only the republic can give order to democracy, or really that the order of the multitude must be born not from a transfer of the title of power and right, but from an arrangement internal to the multitude, from a democratic interaction of powers linked together in networks. . . . What takes shape here [in
Federalist citation on science of politics ] is an extraordinarily secular and immanentist idea, despite the profound religiousness that runs throughout the texts of the Founding Fathers. It is an idea that rediscovers the revolutionary humanism of the Renaissance and perfects it as a political and constitutional science. Power can be constituted by a whole series of powers that regulate themselves and arrange themselves in networks.
(163) The Constitution was designed to resist any cyclical decline into corruption by activating the entire multitude and organizing its consituent capacity in networks of organized counterpowers, in flows of diverse and equalized functions, and in a process of dynamic and expansive self-regulation.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (164) 20141022s 0 -9+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Immanence of power in US sovereignty based on productivity, internal limit enacts control but requires unbounded terrain, like ancient Rome. (164) The first characteristic of the U.S. notion of sovereignty is that it poses an idea of the immanence of power in opposition to the transcendent character of modern European sovereignty. This idea of immanence is based on an idea of productivity.
(165) In the process of the constitution of sovereignty on the plane of immanence, there also arises an experience of finitude that results from the conflictive and plural nature of the multitude itself. The new principle of sovereignty seems to produce its own internal limit. To prevent those obstacles from disrupting order and completely emptying out the project, sovereign power must rely on the exercise of control.
(165) The third characteristic of this notion of sovereignty is its tendency toward an open, expansive project operating on an unbounded terrain.
(166) It is striking how strongly this American experiment resembles the ancient constitutional experience, and specifically the political theory inspired by imperial Rome!

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (166) 20141022t 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Profoundly reformist; contrast always open space of imperial sovereignty to Edwards closed world. (166) What opens is the basis of consensus, and thus, through the constitutive network of powers and counterpowers, the entire sovereign body is continually
reformed. Precisely because of this expansive tendency, the new concept of sovereignty is profoundly reformist.
(166) The idea of sovereignty as an expansive power in networks is poised on the hinge that links the principle of a democratic republic to the idea of Empire.
(167) Perhaps the fundamental characteristic of imperial sovereignty is that
its space is always open.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (168) 20141022u 0 -10+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Four phases of US constitutional history: founding to Civil War, Progressive era, New Deal, post Cold War imperial project. (168) This material, social constitution has indeed changed radically since the founding of the republic. U.S. constitutional history, in fact, should be divided into four distinct phases or regimes. . . . Each of these phases of U.S. constitutional history marks a step toward the realization of imperial sovereignty.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (182) 20141022v 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Imperial versus imperialism; extension of internal constitutional processes. (182) It is imperial because (in contrast to imperialismâs project always to spread its power linearly in closed spaces and invade, destroy, and subsume subject countries within its sovereignty) the U.S. constitutional project is constructed on the model of rearticulating an open space and reinventing incessantly diverse and singular relations in networks across an unbounded terrain.
(182) The contemporary idea of Empire is born through the global expansion of the internal U.S. constitutional project. It is in fact through the extension of
internal constitutional processes that we enter into a constituent process of Empire.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (23) 20130928c 0 -1+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Heidegger thesis is that valuative thought unwittingly thinks being as nonessence. (23) In valuative thought the essence of Being is--unwittingly-- thought in a definite and necessary aspect; that is, in its nonessence.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (34) 20130928e 0 -5+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Death drive, unconscious as feeling? (34) Nihilism now becomes outright disbelief in anything like a meta-physical world, that is, a world set "above" what is sensuous and what becomes (the "physical"). . . .the world of becoming shows itself to be the "only reality"; that is, the one authentic "true" world.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (34-35) 20130928f 0 -4+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Punk view could be woven into this conclusion; bootstrapping and grand style other ways out. (34-35) It is not simply the feeling of the valuelessness of reality that dominates but also a feeling of helplessness within what alone is real. What is missing is an insight into the grounds for the predicament and the possibility of overcoming it.
(35) We can easily see that the three forms of nihilism designated sustain an inner relation to one another and together constitute a particular movement; that is to say, history. True, nowhere does Nietzsche identify any historically recognized and demonstrable forms of the positing of the uppermost values, nor the historically representable contexts of such positings, which we might describe as fundamental metaphysical positions.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (36) 20130928g 0 -2+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Like Deleuze and Guattari molar items, with fuzzy belongingness. (36) Depending on the matter at hand, the terms category, class, or sort are used to delineate a region, a schema, or pigeonhole into which something is deposited and so classified.
(36) Katgorein therefore means that,in an explicit view on something, we reveal what it is and render it open.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (41) 20130928i 0 -2+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
Technology and culture signify the same thing; to Aristotle assertion is judgment of what categories belong to domain of philosophy; Nietzsche betrays his allegiance to the tradition. (41) As an earmark of the essence of all metaphysics, therefore, we can inscribe the title Being and Thinking or, more specifically, Beingness and Thinking, a formulation which stresses that Being is conceived by way of thinking from beings and back to beings as their "most universal" element, whereby "thinking" is understood as assertory speech. Such thinking of beings, in the sense of physei and technei on, "something present that rises up of itself or is produced," is the guiding thread for the philosophical thinking of Being as beingness.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK ihde-philosophy_of_technology (13) 20130929j 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_ihde-philosophy_of_technology.html
Philosophy transitions from engineering to interpreter; thus OGorman urges digital humanities scholars to pick up soldering irons. (13) Here was the latent beginning of the next transformation, the invention of
philosophies of...

2 1 3 (+) [-3+]mCQK mcluhan-understanding_media (44) 20131006e 0 -1+ progress/1994/08/notes_for_mcluhan-understanding_media.html
Does this point that passive consumer wants aphorisms relate to writing style McLuhan deploys? (44) The passive consumer wants packages, but those, he [Bacon] suggested, who are concerned in pursuing knowledge and in seeking causes will resort to aphorisms, just because they are incomplete and require participation in depth.

2 1 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK thomson-understanding_technology_ontotheologically (146) 20131013 0 -1+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_thomson-understanding_technology_ontotheologically.html
Need to be taught to hear ambiguity of subjective and objective genitives that Heidegger elucidated because concealed in dual meanings. (146) Thanks to Heidegger, we have learned to hear the ambiguity of subjective and objective genitives in many phrases of the form, âThe X of Yâ.

--2.1.4+++ {11}

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (172) 20140421 0 -2+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
We feel long past the fixation with materiality that obsessed Baudrillard with otherness, we who in the post-postmodern period accept network ontology, enough to create its being would be the ultimate ontogenetic philosophical finesse. (172) In the end, all figures of otherness boil down to just one: that of the Object. In the end, all that is left is the inexorability of the Object, the irredeemability of the Object.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (172-173) 19940611a 0 -7+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
And we are so stuck with ourselves that we nave no power. (172-173) The subject tries desperately to follow it, even at the cost of abandoning rationality. The Object is an insoluble enigma, because it is not itself and does not know itself. . . . The Objectâs power and sovereignty derive from the fact that it is estranged from itself, whereas for us the exact opposite is true. Civilizationâs first gesture is to hold up a mirror to the Object, but the Object is only seemingly reflected therein; in fact it is the Object itself which is the mirror, and it is here that the subject is taken in by the illusion of himself.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (172) 20140421a 0 -2+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
The irredeemabiliy of the Object gets cashed out in computational simulacra. (172) In the end, all figures of otherness boil down to just one: that of the Object. In the end, all that is left is the inexorability of the Object, the irredeemability of the Object.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (172-173) 20140421b 1 -1+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Acknowledging distortion of instrumentation grounds strange attractor metaphor, which Zizek also touts. (172-173) The Object is an insoluble enigma, because it is not itself and does not know itself.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (173) 20140421c 0 -1+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Baudrillard legitimates SCOT, History and Philosophy of Science and other science studies as analysis of science to get a glimpse of the Object. (173) The diabolical pursuit-race of the Object and the subject of science is an event worth following.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (173) 20140421d 0 -4+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
The subject is too well known, or known to be shaped by the objects, which become the new site of philosophical studies as vanishing points; the diagram of the post-postmodern period is the object as strange attractor turned inside out as software ontology. (173) All that remains is the Object as strange attractor. The subject is no longer a strange attractor. We know the subject too well; the subject knows himself too well. It is the Object that is exciting, because the Object is my
vanishing point.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (173) 20140421e 0 -8+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Poles of disalienation and absolute exoticism both point toward interest in radical otherness, as evident by positions promoted by Harman, Bogost, Montfort, and others. (173) Either disalienation and the reappropriation of oneself . . . Or the other extreme the path of the absolute Other, of absolute exoticism. This alternative path leads to . . . what is more other than the Other, to radical otehrness.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (173-174) 20140421f 0 -3+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Call it the turn to the vicissitudes of execution. (173-174) I have lost any trace of desire of my own. I answer only to something non-human something inscribed not within me but solely in the objective and arbitrary vicissitudes of the worldâs signs. Just as what we deem fatal in catastrophes is the worldâs sovereign indifference to us, so what we deem fatal in seduction is the Otherâs sovereign otherness with respect to us.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (173-174) 20140421g 0 -2+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Or now otherness based on AI operations are the seductive draw of our attention and labor: Gee on the crossover training logic, Turkle for reminding us that technology gets what it wants. (173-174) I have lost any trace of desire of my own. I answer only to something non-human something inscribed not within me but solely in the objective and arbitrary vicissitudes of the worldâs signs.

2 1 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (174) 19940611c 0 -1+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Possible escape from eternal orbit return of the same when we go, try to go, seeking the not-self asymptotic relation between subject and object, narcissism again? (174) The Other is what allows me not to repeat myself for ever.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK baudrillard-transparency_of_evil (174) 20140421h 0 -2+ progress/1994/06/notes_for_baudrillard-transparency_of_evil.html
Scintillation of being, which we know is related to the precession of simulacra, manifest by locus of vertiginousness that Baudrillard hardly dares utter everyday experience of shimmering signifiers: the concept Baudrillard struggles to present via terms of human seduction to otherness of objects better enshrined by arbitrary behaviors like writing and using computer user interfaces. (174) Rather, this other is the locus of what escapes us, and the way whereby we escape from ourselves. The other here is not the locus of desire, not the locus of alienation, but the
locus of vertiginousness, of eclipse, of appearing and disappearing the locus, one might say (but we must not), of the scintillation of being.

2 1 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK conley-rethinking_technologies (xi) 20131205d 0 -2+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_conley-rethinking_technologies.html
Decentering of human subject; compare to Lyotard cosmic frontiers, Bogost alien phenomenology. (xi) And in its most advanced stages, at the cosmic frontiers, technology reveals the very uncertainties of human thought. Thus, technology not only alters human subjectivities, but, paradoxically, decenters humansâ position in the world.

2 1 4 (+) [-7+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (11) 20130915g 0 -2+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Archive as hypomnesic is computable because it supports virtual memory for everyone, even its author, the primary coder as if it was self software. (11) Let us never forget this Greek distinction between
mneme or anamensis on the one hand, and hypomnema on the other. The archive is hypomnesic.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (13-14) 20130915i 0 -11+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
The Mystic Pad soul model: Kittler also notes psychic models track media, from slates to cinema; there are many approaches to the ambiguous questions implied here. (13-14) Let us consider the technical model of the machine tool, intended, in Freudâs eyes, to
represent on the outside memory as internal archivization, namely the Mystic Pad (der Wunderblock). . . . In translating and questioning this strange Notiz uber den Wunderblock, I attempted long ago to analyze, as closely as possible, the relations between the model of archivization, technicality, time, and death. . . . To represent the functioning of the psychic apparatus in an exterior technical model, Freud did not have at his disposition the resources provided today by archival machines of which one could hardly have dreamed in the first quarter of this century. Do these new archival machines change anything? Do they affect the essentials of Freudâs discourse?

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (19) 20130915l 0 -5+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Theory of psychoanalysis becomes theory of institutional archive as well as of memory. (19) And with this
domestic outside, that is to say also with the hypothesis of an internal substrate, surface, or space without which there is neither consignation, registration, impression nor suppression, censorship, repression, it prepares the idea of a psychic archive distinct from spontaneous memory, of a hypomnesis distinct from mneme and from anamnesis: the institution, in sum, of a prosthesis of the inside. . . . The theory of psychoanalysis, then, becomes a theory of the archive and not only a theory of memory.

2 1 4 (+) [-9]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (80-81) 20130916 0 -11+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Archive fever is a form of the death drive related to both oedipal violence and release of thought to hypomensis. (80-81) In any case, there would be no future without repetition. And thus, as Freud might say (this would be his thesis), there is no future without the specter of the oedipal violence that inscribes the superrepression into the archontic institution of the archive, in the position, the auto-position or the hetero-position of the One and of the Unique, in the nomological
arkhe. And the death drive. Without this evil, which is also archive fever, the desire and the disorder of the archive, there would be neither assignation nor consignation. For assignation is a consignation. And when one says nomological arkhe, one says nomos, one says the law, but also thesis or themis. The law of institution (nomos, thesis, or themis) is the thesis. Thesis and themis are sometimes, not always, in tension with the originary physis, with what one translates commonly as nature.
(81) It is thus that, with the thesis, the supplement of theses that were to follow the
Exergue, Preamble, and Foreword has insinuated itself already and in advance. That is, not to resist the desire of a postscript, a prosthesis on Freudâs theses. Which is advanced at the pace of other ghosts.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK derrida-dissemination (104) 20130915x 0 -6+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_derrida-dissemination.html
Resistance to technogenesis and synaptogenesis, conjoining living mind with not alive traces; model of soul as dynamic, autochthonous wax tablet versus static external imprints (Kittler and others). (104) The imprints (
tupoi) of writing do not inscribe themselves this time, as they do in the hypothesis of the Theaetetus, in the wax of the soul in intaglio, thus corresponding to the spontaneous, autochthonous motions of psychic life. Knowing that he can always leave his thoughts outside or check them with an external agency, with the physical, spatial, superficial marks that one lays flat on a tablet, he who has the tekhne of writing at his disposal will come to rely on it.
(105) It would be better to assert that the written traces no longer even belong to the order of the
phusis, since they are not alive.
(105) Letting itself get stoned [
medusee] by its own signs, its own guardians, by the types committed to the keeping and surveillance of knowledge, it will sink down into lethe, overcome by non-knowledge and forgetfulness.
(106) This is Platoâs definition of the sophist. For it is above all against sophistics that this diatribe against writing is directed.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK feenberg-democratic_rationalization (653) 20131029 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_feenberg-democratic_rationalization.html
McLuhan declares it dystopian modernity in which technology has reduced humans to sex organs of machines, foreshadowing the horrifying apocalyptic portrayal of cocooned somnambulists populating vast server farm power supplies in the Matrix. (653) My title is meant to reject the dichotomy between rational hierarchy and irrational protest implicit in
Weberâs position.
(653) As Marshal
McLuhan once put it, technology has reduced us to the sex organs of machines.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (25) 20130929 0 -9+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
The influence of Heidegger on Heim is obvious here. (25) Another reason to commemorate ancient Greek thought is that it serves as antidote to the information technology in which our thinking increasingly transpires. . . . By commemorating Greek thought, we can at least make explicit an effort to hear some of the complex linguistic cognates still active in English. . . . Etymological resonance, as a recall of experience, articulates this development.

2 1 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (49-50) 20130929j 0 -5+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Heim takes upon himself the responsibility of doing the philosophical work, particularly if you have an aversion to reading ancient Greek or the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. (49-50) the transformation theory harbors certain epistemological assumptions that subvert the critical assessment of word-processing technology. . . . the historical transformations will have to be understood as finite expressions of different experiences of the temporality of symbols rather than as the progressive accumulation of layered human skills.

select Chapter, Heading, SubHeading, InterstitialSequence, RelevanceLevel, TextName, PositionStart, TimestampBookmarkExtra, CitationOffset, CitationSentences, Path, Lexia from Notes where Chapter=2 and (Heading=0 or Heading=1) and ((RelevanceLevel=0 or RelevanceLevel>2) and RelevanceLevel<10) and (InterstitialSequence=0 or InterstitialSequence=100) order by Heading, SubHeading, InterstitialSequence desc, TextName, cast((trim(leading '(' from substring_index(PositionStart, '-', 1))) as unsigned)

TOC 2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman+

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage

--2.2.0+++ {11}

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 5 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140117 20140117 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
The goal of the second chapter is to articulate the current intellectual climate in the United States as the situation of the post-postmodern network dividual cyborg taking off from the collective intelligence problems entailed by there having been a dumbest generation passing through the technological era of electronic computing into the Internet epoch. Sections will therefore be devoted to broad outlines of modernism and postmodernism, subjectivity, and relevant philosophies of technology before focusing on the relationships between cybernetics, human embodiment, and techno-capitalist networks to arrive at our present, post-postmodern period of the cyborg dividual. From this vantage the general collective intelligence problem implicating humans and machines in our shared destinies will be firmly established.

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 5 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140208 20140208 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
Following the invitation by Kittler to situate ourselves and give stock of our present condition in the age of electronic media, assembling a multidisciplinary perspective combining humanities, technology, and socioeconomic positions, this chapter articulates it as that of the post-postmodern network dividual cyborg. To reach this plateau of rhizomorphous conceptual combination, I will traverse modernism, postmodernism, subjectivity, through the philosophy of technology, into studies of cybernetics, cognition, embodiment, then with theories of late capitalism, networks, globalization, to hypothesize the dividual cyborg as replacement for the liberal humanist subject of prior technological eras.

2 0+ 0+ 1 2 3 4 5 (+) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20141120 20141120 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
That a post postmodern mind thought up the quintessential emblem of modernism, according to Foucault, distinguishes cybersage perspective of taking into account affordances of media in compositions: this becomes tied to the image of Las Meninas, the painting Foucault describes in On The Order Of Things. That goes into the thinking on chapter two to cast as is situation from regressive subjectivity.

2 2 0+ 1 2 3 4 5 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (40) 20140814s 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire is being built by globalized biopolical machine; functional, industrial management rationality. (40) The constitution of Empire is being formed neither on the basis of any contractual or treaty-based mechanism nor through any federative source. The source of imperial normativity is born of a new machine, a new economic-industrial-communicative machine in short, a globalized biopolitical machine. . . . In the genesis of Empire there is indeed a rationality at work that can be recognized not so much in terms of the juridical tradition but more clearly in the often hidden history of industrial management and the political uses of technology.
(41) The logic that characterizes this neo-Weberian perspective would be functional rather than mathematical, and rhizomatic and undulatory rather than inductive or deductive.

2 2 0+ 1 2 3 4 5 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (204) 20141125k 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Examples of politics of refusal of voluntary servitude Melvilles Bartleby and Coetzees Michael K as beginning of liberatory politics against Empire. (204) These simple mean and their absolute refusals cannot but appeal to our hatred of authority. The refusal of work and authority, or really the refusal of voluntary servitude, is the beginning of liberatory politics.

--2.2.1+++ {11}

2 2 1 (+) [-6+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (151) 20131025d 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Dissection and articulation will become functionalism in a few paragraphs, separate from philosophy motivated by computer science and artificial intelligence research. (151) The structuralist activity involves two typical operations: dissection and articulation. To dissect the first object, the one which is given to the simulacrum-activity, is to find in it certain mobile fragments whose differential situation engenders a certain meaning; the fragment has no meaning in itself, but it is nonetheless such that the slightest variation wrought in its configuration produces a change in the whole.

2 2 1 (+) [-6+]mCQK barthes-structuralist_activity (153) 20131025f 0 -5+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_barthes-structuralist_activity.html
Functional category of object, different than real and rational, but man fabricating meanings, also in scientific objects. (153) First of all, it manifests a new category of the object, which is neither the real nor the rational, but the
functional, thereby joining a whole scientific complex which is being developed around information theory and research. . . . Ultimately, one might say that the object of structuralism is not man endowed with meanings, but man fabricating meanings.

2 2 1 (+) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20081209 20081209 0 -3+ journal_2008.html
Here is a sketch of my experimental book. [image needs to be recovered from other computer]

It is a giant underwater ribbon of recycled garbage arranged to be read by divers over many years using flashlights that project three dimensionally on the surrounding particles (BS&W). What is the name of a book that is a continuous sheet like the old cloth towels wound like typewriter ribbon you used to find in restrooms to dry your hands?

2 2 1 (+) [-4+]mCQK weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming (277-278) 20140331a 0 -1+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming.html
In early 1970s no hesitation to equivocate machine and brain operation by sharing metaphors; interesting that Weinberg deploys them to draw attention away from technical details to the psychological component. (277-278) So rather than be concerned so much about that computer operating system, the reader who has really been touched by this book will start to work on the operating system he carries around in his own central processing unit his head.

---2.2.2+++ {11}

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (206-207) 20130913a 0 -5+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Plural, permeated space versus atemporal, distanced visual comportment. (206-207) These small examples point to what is perhaps the most important distinguishing feature of auditory experience, namely its capacity to disintegrate and reconfigure space. . . . Where auditory experience is dominant, we may say,
singular, perspectival gives way to plural, permeated space.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (207) 20130913b 0 -3+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Synaesthesia before the fascination with cybernetics. (207) The electrodynamic principles of the telephone, phonograph and microphone were the scientific equivalents of the principle of synaesthesia, or the correspondence of the different senses, which held such fascination for late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century artistic culture.
(208) Marinettiâs claims for the radiomorphic sensibility of La Radia anticipate some of the claims made more recently for the cybernetic sensibility of postmodernism.
(208) The new art of Marinetti is also formed on the model of a new kind of human subjectivity, which is continuously being traversed, dissolved and remade.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (219-220) 20130908 0 -6+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Acoustic experience fits postmodern subject and remains open to raptuorous exorbitance. (219-220) But I have further suggested that acoustic experience is also experienced as a principle of rapturous exorbitance, as what goes beyond, or may not be encompassed in the regimes of sight and demonstrability. . . . As such, the notion of the auditory self prepares the way for many of the claims for the disintegrated, libidinized, pulsive self argued for by Lyotard, Kristeva, Barthes and others. But we have seen that the auditory is also an insufficiency, in that the auditory always leads to, or requires completion by the other senses.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK connor-modern_auditory_i (219) 20130913f 0 -4+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_connor-modern_auditory_i.html
Emphasis on participation, process, and embodiment; compare to conclusion of Keller and Grontokowski. (219) Certainly, the idea of the auditory self provides a way of positing and beginning to experience a subjectivity organized around the principles of openness, responsiveness and acknowledgement of the world rather than violent alienation from it. The auditory self discovers itself in the midst of the world and the manner of its inherence in it, not least because the act of hearing seems to take place in and through the body. The auditory self is an attentive rather than an investigatory self, which takes part in the world rather than taking aim at it. For this reason, the auditory self has been an important part of phenomenologyâs attempt to redescribe subjectivity in terms of its embodiedness.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender (23-24) 20130914j 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_de_lauretis-technologies_of_gender.html
De-centered and de-sexualized subject poor alternative and still hides biases and interests built into subjectivity. (23-24) [Rosi] Braidotti then goes on to discuss the various forms that femininity assumes in the work of Deleuze, Foucault, Lyotard, and Derrida, and, concurrently, the consistent refusal by each philosopher to identify femininity with real women. On the contrary, it is only by giving up the insistence on sexual specificity (gender) that women, in their eyes, would be the social group best qualified (because they are oppressed by sexuality) to foster a radically other subject, de-centered and de-sexualized.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK haraway-simians_cyborgs_women (193) 20130923m 0 -2+ progress/2009/04/notes_for_haraway-simians_cyborgs_women.html
Positioning as key grounding knowledge organized around visual imagery. (193)
Positioning is, therefore, the key grounding knowledge organized around the imagery of vision, as so much Western scientific and philosophic discourse is organized. Positioning implies responsibility for our enabling practices.

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK haraway-simians_cyborgs_women (195) 20130923n 0 -3+ progress/2009/04/notes_for_haraway-simians_cyborgs_women.html
Epistemologies of location, positioning, and situating. (195) I am arguing for politics and epistemologies of location, positioning, and situating, where partiality and not universality is the condition of being heard to make rational knowledge claims.
(195) Feminism loves another science: the sciences and politics of interpretation, translation, stuttering, and the partly understood.
(196) Rational knowledge is power-sensitive conversation (King, 1987a).

2 2 2 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (195-196) 20141125e 0 -18+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Production of subjectivity affected by progressive lack of distinction between inside and outside: widespread indefiniteness replaces discrete places of production, corrupting subjectivity. (195-196) First, subjectivity is a constant social process of generation. . . . In a reflexive way, then, through its own actions, the subject is acted on, generated. Second, the institutions provide above all a discrete
place (the home, the chapel, the classroom, the shop floor) where the production of subjectivity is enacted. . . . This clearly delimited place of the institutions is reflected in the regular and fixed form of the subjectivities produced.
(196) We might say that postmodernism is what you have when the modern theory of social constructivism is taken to its extreme and all subjectivity is recognized as artificial. . . . The crisis means, in other words, that today the enclosures that used to define the limited space of the institutions have broken down as that the logic that once functioned primarily within the institutionalized walls now spreads across the entire social terrain. Inside and outside are becoming indistinguishable.
(197) The indefiniteness of the
place of the production corresponds to the indeterminacy of the form of the subjectivities produced. The imperial social institutions might be seen, then, in a fluid process of the generation and corruption of subjectivity.

---2.2.3+++ {11}

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (129) 20140125 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Familiar characterization of innovation based on distributed recombination by rather than ex nihilo by individual actor of inspirational city. (129) Moreover, it is a matter of
recombination, rather than creation ex nihilo, and readily assumes a âdistributedâ form (as one talks of âdistributed intelligenceâ), with responsibility for innovation being allocated between different actors.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (131) 20140125a 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Transformative usefulness of links, information transmission means products not distinctly separated from persons as in commercial city. (131) In a connexionist world, by contrast, links are useful and enriching when they have the power to change the beings who enter into relations.
(131) The transmission of information plays a key role in establishing the link in all those sectors where the value added is cognitive in kind as in the case, for example, with scientific research.
(131) It follows that in a connexionist world, products (especially products without a material medium) are not contrary to what occurs in market exchange clearly identified and distinctly separated from persons.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (132) 20140125b 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Links lack transparency of reputational city. (132) But the network world of the projective city does not possess the transparency that is one of the dimensions of the reputational world. Each link in it is established independently of the others, without visibility, and without there existing a point from which the quantity of links amassed could be assessed in the way, for example, that the popularity of a particularly politician or TV star is measured by opinion polls.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (133) 20140125c 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Forms of control and gratification of domestic city defined by hierarchical position; in projective city mobility more important. (133) The domestic city presents forms of control, gratification and sanction that are very different from those proposed by a projective city.
(134) In a network world, everyone seeks to establish links that interest them, and with people of their choice.
(134) Finally, in contrast to what we observe in a domestic world, mobility and instability are very important elements in the stuff a person is made of, and constitute a condition of access to high status.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (135) 20140125d 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Flexibility and adaptability more advantageous than technical expertise and experience of industrial city. (135) Their flexibility, their ability to adapt and learn continuously become major advantages, which take precedence over their technical expertise (knowledge changes so quickly) and their experience. Personality make-up, the qualities of communication, listening and openness to differences, thus count for more than efficiency as measured by the ability to achieve predefined objectives.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (138) 20140125h 0 -6+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Network metaphor extending to general representation of societies: connection and disconnection, inclusion and exclusion, openness and solitude. (138) this phenomenon is in no way restricted to the domain of management, or even to the sphere of firms. On the contrary, various indications suggest that the metaphor of the network is gradually raking on the task of a new general representation of societies. . . . The focus is on a representation of the lived world in terms of connection and disconnection, inclusion and exclusion, of closure in collectivities that are closed in on themselves (âsectsâ), or of openness to a hazardous world of encounters, mutual aid, losses and, ultimately, solitude.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (141) 20140125k 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Network formerly referred to constraints. (141) The word network is thus used in the 1960s to refer to constraints, meshes being associated with those of a net hemming the individual in, rather than representing the activity of connectivity.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (143) 20140125l 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Interest in relational properties and ontologies, philosophy of science in France; try to position in Hayles three eras of cybernetics. (143) The formation of the network paradigm was bound up in a very general way with a growing interest in
relational properties (and relational ontologies), as opposed to properties substantially attached to entities they supposedly defined in themselves.
(144) In France, interest in the field of the human sciences for representation in network terms emerged in the course of the 1960s from philosophy in particular, philosophical enterprises that helped to renew the philosophy of science by rejecting the boundary established by the dominant epistemologies between scientific activities and other types of practice of knowledge, in order to set this discipline on non-reductionistic paths.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (144) 20140125m 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Network approach identified with radical empiricism, against reductionism apriorism implied by structuralism. (144) However, unlike structuralism, whose project is to identify the original structures on the basis of which transformations occur, and which therefore sets off âin search of the logical structure of the world â, the network approach is identified with a radical empiricism. Rather than assuming a world organized according to basic structures (even if they remain hidden and must be unveiled by a scientific labor reducing them to elementary constituents), it presents a world where everything potentially reflects everything else: a world, often conceived as âfluid, continuous, chaoticâ, where anything can be connected with anything else, which must therefore be tackled without any reductionist apriorism.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (145) 20140125n 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Network approach developed with ontological primacy of philosopheme of event of connection, Deleuze encounter, giving langauge to Latour and Callon sociology of science. (145) The ontological primacy accorded to the event of connection with respect to entities related to one another is much more radical than in American versions of the network paradigm, which we shall examine shortly. The moment of connection (the âencounterâ in Gilles Deleuze), is the moment of constitution of the identity of the entities that enter into a certain relation.
(145) The utterly original kind of description made possible by this novel language helped in the 1980s to renew sociology, penetrating it via the new sociology of science developed by Bruno Latour and Michel Callon.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (146) 20140125o 0 -13+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Less radical American network logics attached to pragmatism, radical empiricism, semiotics, based on Peirce triad. (146) In the Anglophone literature, the world-views (and not simply conceptions of society) based on network logics attached themselves to pragmatism and radical empiricism. . . . It leads to representing the world in the form of a meshing of âsignsâ, each of which is capable of reflecting or representing the others according to its particular position (and not from some overarching standpoint, which does not feature in such a model). Hence the often implicit importance of semiotics, invented by C. S.
Peirce, in the formation of a representation of the world conceived as a network. . . . This triadic conception of the sign (sign, object, interpretant) makes it possible to represent the world, inasmuch as it can be invested with a meaning, as a ânetworkâ with indeterminate contours constituted by a multiplicity of translations, since âthe sign is not a sign unless it can be translated into another sign in which it is more fully developedâ. The interpretant thus plays a role as translator or mediator, allowing the network to expand by connecting entities that would otherwise remain isolated, and hence devoid of meaning.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (151) 20140125r 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Change in terms relating to money and work from saving and competence from first two spirits. (151) Whereas the first spirit of capitalism gave more than its due to an ethic of saving, and the second to an ethic of work and competence, the new spirit is marked by a change in terms of the relation to both money and work.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (152) 20140125s 0 -6+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Time the basic resource to be save and constantly reinvested. (152) As Gary
Becker anticipated more than thirty years ago, the main scarcity in our societies at least among categories like cadres, who do not face immediate necessity concerns time, not material goods. . . . Time represents the basic resource for connecting the actors who control access to money, and on whom the project budget depends. Given that time is a resource that cannot be stored, however, this type of saving cannot remain dormant, and must be constantly reinvested.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (152) 20140125t 0 -8+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Washida definition of property foregrounding rented availability appropriate to separation of ownership and control. (152) The modes of activity best adjusted to a connexionist world signal a turning-point in the history of capitalism, because they contribute to making a Western definition of property operative. Kiyokazu Washida has devoted a remarkable article to this definition, on which the remarks below draw.
(153) Renting isolates a third component of property: availability, which is total but temporary. Now, it is precisely this component, and it alone, that people should be concerned with in a connexionist world. . . . Renting is the form suitable to the project, to arrangements for a temporary operation.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (153) 20140125u 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Licensing like renting for sphere of information; intellectual rights as rental contracts. (153) But this kind of relationship to property is not restricted to the world of objects. It is just as valid in the sphere of information, where the optimal strategy consists in borrowing elements that can be recombined without having to become the exclusive owner of the ensembles to which they pertain. In some respects, intellectual rights may be treated as rental contracts.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (154) 20140125v 0 -6+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Liberal conception of property taken to its conclusion, individuals owning themselves as product of labor of self-fashioning. (154) Does this mean that the anthropology underlying the projective city is indifferent to ownership? On the contrary, it takes an element at the origin of the liberal conception of property to its ultimate conclusion: connexionist human beings are the owners of themselves not by natural right, but inasmuch as they are the product of a labor of self-fashioning. . . . It is now defined exclusively as a responsibility towards the self: in so far as they are the producers of themselves, everyone is responsible for their bodies, their image, their success, their destiny.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (155) 20140125w 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
Premium on activity in relationship to work replacing rational asceticism and responsibility of prior spirits. (155) Associated in the first state of capitalism with rational asceticism and then, in the mid-twentieth century, with responsibility and knowledge, it tends to make way for a premium on
activity, without any clear distinction between personal or even leisure activity and professional activity. To be doing something, to move, to change this is what enjoys prestige, as against stability, which is often regarded as synonymous with inaction.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism (500) 20140223n 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_boltanski_chiapello-new_spirit_of_capitalism.html
New capitalism uncoupled itself from the state, civic world and domestic arrangements, making nuclear family the boundary of private space. (500) Whereas the second spirit of capitalism operated in an era when the driving force was large national firms pursuing endogenous growth in a domestic market, which justified a stabilization of social relations by means of a national system of âindustrial relationsâ under state auspices, the new capitalism uncoupled itself from the state.
(500-501) It was only in the second half of the 1970s, when the managers of firms sought to put an end to the expansion of the civic world by encouraging a management style more attentive to demands for autonomy and creativity, that the legitimacy of domestic forms of arrangement in firms and, more generally, outside the closed space of the nuclear family, began to crumble.

2 2 3 (+) [-6+]mCQK deleuze-postscript_on_the_societies_of_control (7) 20130914f 4 -11+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_deleuze-postscript_on_the_societies_of_control.html
Calls for young people to discern the telos of the disciplines; can this need to understand the complex coils of the serpent call for a philosophy of computing, for humanities skills to merge with technical skills, both in individual persons and groups, local and distributed? (7) What counts is that we are at the beginning of something. . . . These are very small examples, but ones that will allow for better understanding of what is meant by the crisis of the institutions, which is to say, the progressive and dispersed installation of a new system of domination. One of the most important questions will concern the ineptitude of the unions. . . . Itâs up to them [young people] to discover what theyâre being made to serve, just as their elders discovered, not without difficulty, the telos of the disciplines. The coils of a serpent are even more complex than the burrows of a molehill.

2 2 3 (+) [-6+]mCQK galloway-protocol (246) 20130924q 0 -3+ progress/2013/01/notes_for_galloway-protocol.html
Comparing protocol to market economy permits analogous critical questioning; however, the special feature of code being executable and autonomous requires further analysis and differentiation. (246) Thus the same types of critiques that can be levied against so-called successful social realities such as market economies (or even liberalism, or civil society, or the bourgeois class itself) can be levied against protocol. As critics we must first ask ourselves: Do we
want the Web to function like a market economy? Can we imagine future technological solutions that fulfill our social desires more fully than protocol can?

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xi) 20140803 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire is the new form of political subject and sovereignty. (xi) Along with the global market and global circuits of production has emerged a global order, a new logic and structure of rule in short, a new form of sovereignty. Empire is the political subject that effectively regulates these global exchanges, the sovereign power that governs the world.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xi-xii) 20140803a 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Sovereignty has not declined with nation-states; empire is new form of national and supranational organisms. (xi-xii)
The decline in sovereignty of nation-states, however, does not mean that sovereignty as such has declined. Throughout the contemporary transformations, political controls, state functions, and regulatory mechanisms have continued to rule the realm of economic and social production and exchange. Our basic hypothesis is that sovereignty has taken a new form, composed of a series of national and supranational organisms united under a single logic of rule. This new global form of sovereignty is what we call Empire.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xii) 20140803b 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Nation-states and imperialism structured by territorial boundaries; empire is decentered and deterritorializing. (xii) the territorial boundaries of the nation delimited the center of power from which rule was exerted over external foreign territories through a system of channels and barriers that alternately facilitated and obstructed the flows of production and circulation. Imperialism was really an extension of the sovereignty of the European nation-states beyond their own boundaries.
(xii) In contrast to imperialism, Empire establishes no territorial center of power and does not rely on fixed boundaries or barriers. It is a
decentered and deterritorializing apparatus of rule that progressively incorporates the entire global realm within its open, expanding frontiers. Empire manages hybrid identities, flexible hierarchies, and plural exchanges through modulating networks of command.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xiii) 20140803c 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Capital faced with smooth world defined by biopolitical production. (xiii) Capital seems to be faced with a smooth world or really, a world defined by new and complex regimes of differentiation and homogenization, deterritorialization and reterritorialization. . . . In the postmodernization of the global economy, the creation of wealth tends ever more toward what we will call
biopolitical production, the production of social life itself, in which the economic, the political, and the cultural increasingly overlap and invest one another.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xiii-xiv) 20140803d 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Modernity European, postmodernity American; US position is privileged but will not form center of an imperialist project. (xiii-xiv) If the nineteenth century was a British century, then the twentieth century has been an American century; or really, if modernity was European, then postmodernity is American. The most damning charge critics can level, then, is that the United States is repeating the practices of old European imperialists, while proponents celebrate the United States as a more efficient and more benevolent world leader, getting right what the Europeans got wrong. Our basic hypothesis, however, that a new imperial form of sovereignty has emerged, contradicts both these views.
The United States does not, and indeed no nation-state can today, form the center of an imperialist project. Imperialism is over. No nation will be world leader in the way modern European nations were.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xiv) 20140803e 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Ancient imperial model inspired founders of United States to imagine open, expanding empire distributed power in networks. (xiv) Thomas
Jefferson, the authors of the Federalist, and the other ideological founders of the United States were all inspired by the ancient imperial model; they believed they were creating on the other side of the Atlantic a new Empire with open, expanding frontiers, where power would be effectively distributed in networks. This imperial idea has survived and matured throughout the history of the United States constitution and has emerged now on a global scale in its fully realized form.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xiv-xv) 20140803f 0 -13+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire conceptualized as limitless rule of spatial totality, suspending history and fixing existing state for eternity, operating on all social registers to regulate human nature as well as actions, dedicated to perpetual peace outside of history although continually waging war. (xiv-xv) The concept of Empire is characterized fundamentally by a lack of boundaries. Empireâs rule has no limits. First and foremost, then, the concept of Empire posits a regime that effectively encompasses the spatial totality, or really that rules over the entire civilized world. No territorial boundaries limit its reign. Second, the concept of Empire presents itself not as a historical regime originating in conquest, but rather as an order that effectively suspends history and thereby fixes the existing state of affairs for eternity. . . . Third, the rule of Empire operates on all registers of the social order extending down to the depths of the social world. Empire not only manages a territory and a population but also creates the very world it inhabits. It not only regulates human interactions but also seeks directly to rule over human nature. The object of its rule is social life in its entirety, and thus Empire presents the paradigmatic form of biopower. Finally, although the practice of Empire is continually bathed in blood, the concept of Empire is always dedicated to peace a perpetual and universal peace outside of history.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xiv-xv) 20140803g 8 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire presents paradigmatic form of biopower. (xiv-xv) Third, the rule of Empire operates on all registers of the social order extending down to the depths of the social world. Empire not only manages a territory and a population but also creates the very world it inhabits. It not only regulates human interactions but also seeks directly to rule over human nature. The object of its rule is social life in its entirety, and thus Empire presents the paradigmatic form of biopower. Finally, although the practice of Empire is continually bathed in blood, the concept of Empire is always dedicated to peace a perpetual and universal peace outside of history.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xv) 20140803h 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
The multitude struggles against Empire; hope for new democratic forms of power. (xv) The creative forces of the multitude that sustain Empire are also capable of autonomously constructing a counter-Empire, an alternative political organization of global flows and exchanges. The struggles to contest and subvert Empire, as well as those to construct a real alternative, will thus take place on the imperial terrain itself indeed, such new struggles have already begun to emerge. Through these struggles and many more like them, the multitude will have to invent new democratic forms and a new constituent power that will one day take us through and beyond Empire.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xv-xvi) 20140803i 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire tracking progress of capital in European and US logics, but has global scope. (xv-xvi) The genealogy we follow in our analysis of the passage from imperialism to Empire will be first European and then Euro-American . . . with the development of the capitalist mode of production. Whereas the genealogy of Empire is in this sense Eurocentric, however, its present powers are not limited to any region. Logics of rule that in some sense originated in Europe and the United States now invest practices of domination throughout the globe.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xvi) 20140803j 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Interdisciplinary framework and toolbox modeled on Marx and Deleuze and Guattari for theorizing, acting in and against Empire. (xvi) In writing this book we have tried to the best of our abilities to employ a broadly interdisciplinary approach. . . . What we hope to have contributed in this book is a general theoretical framework and toolbox of concepts for theorizing and acting in and against Empire.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (xvii) 20140803k 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Realm of production reveals social inequalities and provides most effective resistances and alternatives to Empire. (xvii) The realm of production is where social inequalities are clearly revealed and, moreover, where the most effective resistances and alternatives to thw power of Empire arise.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (3) 20141112 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Reject conceptions that order arose spontaneously or by dictated by transcendent power. (3) We should rule out from the outset, however, two common conceptions of this order that reside on opposing limits of the spectrum: first, the notion that the present order somehow rises up spontaneously out of the interactions of radically heterogeneous global forces, as if this order were a harmonious concert orchestrated by the natural and neutral hidden hand of the world market; and second, the idea that order is dictated by a single power and a single center of rationality transcendent to global forces, guiding the various phases of historical development according to its conscious and all-seeing plan, something like a conspiracy theory of globalization.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (4-5) 20140809 0 -13+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
International order sustaining European modernity is in crisis; United Nations transfers sovereign right to supranational center of nascent global order. (4-5) It is widely recognized that the notion of international order that European modernity continually proposed and reproposed, at least since the Peace of Westphalia, is now in crisis. . . . The birth of the United Nations at the end of the Second World War merely reinitiated, consolidated, and extended this developing international juridical order that was first European but progressively became completely global. The United Nations, in effect, can be regarded as the culmination of this entire constitutive process, a culmination that both reveals the limitations of the notion of
international order and points beyond it toward a new notion of global order. . . . On the one hand, the entire U.N. conceptual structure is predicated on the recognition and legitimation of the sovereignty of individual states, and it is thus planted squarely within the old framework of international right defined by pacts and treaties. On the other hand, however, this process of legitimation is effective only insofar as it transfers sovereign right to a real supranational center.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (5) 20140809a 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Kelsen sought rational idea of Enlightenment modernization in United Nations. (5) As early as the 1910s and 1920s, [Hans] Kelsen proposed that the international juridical system be conceived as the supreme source of every national juridical formation and constitution. . . . Behind the formal sequence that Kelsen described, then, there was a real and substantial drive of Enlightenment modernization.
(6) For him the United Nations organized a rational idea.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (6) 20140809b 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Need material realization of Kelsen utopia. (6) How can the system actually be constructed? This is the point at which Kelsenâs thought ceases to be of any use to us: it remains merely a fantastic utopia. The transition we wish to study consists precisely in this gap between the formal conception that grounds the validity of the juridical process in a supranational source and the material realization of this conception.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (6-7) 20140809c 0 -18+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Many theorists resurrect old models based on domestic analogy featuring Hobbesian monarchism and Lockean liberalism. (6-7) Instead of recognizing what was really new about these supranational processes, the vast majority of juridical theorists merely tried to resurrect anachronistic models to apply to the new problems. . . . The domestic analogy thus became the fundamental methodological tool in the analysis of international and supranational forms of order.
(7-8) The Hobbesian variant focuses primarily on the transfer of the title of sovereignty and conceives the constitution of the supranational sovereign entity as a contractual agreement grounded on the convergence of preexisting state subjects. . . . By contrast, according to the Lockean variant, the same process is projected in more decentralized, pluralistic terms. . . . Rather than global security, then, what is proposed here is a global constitutionalism, or really this amounts to a project of overcoming state imperatives by constituting a
global civil society. . . . Rather than recognizing the new nature of imperial power, the two hypotheses simply insist on the old inherited forms of state constitution: a monarchic form in the Hobbesian case, a liberal form in the Lockean.

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Imperial sovereignty makes paradigm shift that only Kelsen correctly theorizes. (8)
What they do not understand is that imperial sovereignty marks a paradigm shift. Paradoxically (but it is really not that paradoxical), only Kelsenâs conception poses the real problem, even if his conception is limited to a strictly formalist point of view.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (8) 20140809e 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire is a new notion of right adequate to globalization of capitalist production, also a symptom of changed biopolitical constitution of societies. (8) Many contemporary theorists are reluctant to recognize the globalization of capitalist production and its world market as a fundamentally new situation and a significant historical shift.
(9) This is really the point of departure for our study of Empire: a new notion of right, or rather, a new inscription of authority and a new design of the production of norms and legal instruments of coercion that guarantee contracts and resolve conflicts.
(10) In effect, the juridical transformation functions as a symptom of the modifications of the material biopolitical constitution of our societies.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (10) 20140812 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Historical concept of empire as global concert under single conductor exhausting historical time in its ethical order. (10) The concept of Empire is presented as a global concert under the direction of a single conductor, a unitary power that maintains the social peace and produces its ethical truths.
(11) Empire exhausts historical time, suspends history, and summons the past and future within its own ethical order. In other words, Empire presents its order as permanent, eternal, and necessary.
(11) The fundamental alternative between these two notions ran throughout all of European modernity, including the two great ideologies that defined its mature phase: the liberal ideology that rests on the peaceful concert of juridical forces and its supersession in the market; and the socialist ideology that focuses on international unity through the organization of struggles and the supersession of right.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (12) 20140812a 0 -12+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Observable symptoms include bellum justum of Gulf War as sacralized police action. (12) We can already recognize, however, some important symptoms of the rebirth of the concept of Empire symptoms that function like logical provocations arising on the terrain of history that theory cannot ignore.
(12) One symptom, for example, is the renewed interest in an effectiveness of the concept of bellum justum, or just war. . . . These two traditional characteristics have reappeared in our postmodern world: on the one hand, war is reduced to the status of police action, and on the other, the new power that can legitimately exercise ethical functions through war is sacralized.
(13) Two distinct elements are combined in this concept of just war: first the legitimacy of the military apparatus insofar as it is ethically grounded, and second, the effectiveness of military action to achieve the desired order and peace. The synthesis of these two elements may indeed be a key factor determining the foundation and the new tradition of Empire. . . . The Gulf War gave us perhaps the first fully articulated example of this new epistemology of the concept.

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New paradigm hybrid of Luhman systems theory and Rawls theory of justice. (13-14) The new paradigm is both system and hierarchy, centralized construction of norms and far-reaching production of legitimacy, spread out over world space. It is configured
ab initio as a dynamic and flexible systemic structure that is articulated horizontally. We conceive the structure in a kind of intellectual shorthand as a hybrid of Niklas Luhmannâs systems theory and John Rawlsâs theory of justice. . . . Ever movement is fixed and can seek its own designated place only within the system itself, in the hierarchical relationship accorded to it. This preconstituted movement defines the reality of the process of the imperial constitutionalization of world order the new paradigm.
(15) It follows that, as Kelsen wanted, but only as a paradoxical effect of his utopia, a sort of juridical positivism also dominates the formation of the new juridical ordering.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (15) 20140814 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Empire called into being to resolve conflicts. (15) Empire is not born of its own will but rather it is
called into being and constituted on the basis of its capacity to resolve conflicts. Empire is formed and its intervention becomes juridically legitimate only when it is already inserted into the chain of international consensuses aimed at resolving existing conflicts.
(16) In first attempting a definition, we would do well to recognize that the dynamics and articulations of the new supranational juridical order correspond to the new characteristics that have come to define internal orderings in the passage from modernity to postmodernity.
(17) The formation a a new right is inscribed in the deployment of prevention, repression, and rhetorical force aimed at the reconstruction of social equilibrium: all this is proper to the activity of the police.

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Supranational law overdetermines domestic law. (17) Through its contemporary transformation of supranational law, the imperial process of constitution tends either directly or indirectly to penetrate and reconfigure the domestic law of the nation-states, and thus supranational law powerfully overdetermines domestic law.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (18) 20140814b 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Right of police legitimated by universal values. (18) The right of intervention figured prominently among the panoply of instruments accorded the United Nations by its Charter for maintaining international order, but the contemporary reconfiguration of this right represents a qualitative leap. . . . What stands behind this intervention is not just a permanent state of emergency and exception, but a permanent state of emergency and exception justified by
the appeal to essential values of justice. In other words, the right of the police is legitimated by universal values.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (19) 20140814c 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Concrete universal. (19) We could say, in Kantian fashion, that our internal moral disposition, when it is confronted with and tested in the social order, tends to be determined by the ethical, political, and juridical categories of Empire. Or we could say that the external morality of every human being and citizen is by now commensurable only in the framework of Empire. . . . The means of the private and individual apprehension of values are dissolved: with the appearance of Empire, we are confronted no longer with the local mediations of the universal but with a concrete universal itself.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (20-21) 20140814d 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Corruption in moral and metaphysical terms. (20-21) Here we should understand corruption first of all not only in moral terms but also in juridical and political terms, because according to Montesquieu and Gibbon, when the different forms of government are not firmly established in the republic, the cycle of corruption is ineluctably set in motion and the community is torn apart. Second, we should understand corruption also in metaphysical terms: where the entity and essence, effectiveness and value, do not find common satisfaction, there develops not generation but corruption.

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World market as diagram of imperial power; no place of power, it is everywhere and nowhere, infused ou-topia. (190) Perhaps, just as Foucault recognized the panopticon as the diagram of modern power, the world market might serve adequately even though it is not an architecture but really an anti-architecture as the diagram of imperial power.
(190) In this smooth space of Empire, there is no
place of power it is both everywhere and nowhere. Empire is an ou-topia, or really a non-place.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (221-222) 20141026 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Marxist tenet that capitalist expansion entails political form of imperialism; crisis is normal condition for capital. (221-222) One of the central arguments of the tradition of Marxist thinking on imperialism is that there is an intrinsic relation between capitalism and expansion, and that capitalist expansion inevitably takes the political form of imperialism. . . . We do not mean to suggest that this crisis and these barriers will necessarily lead capital to collapse. On the contrary, as it is for modernity as a whole, crisis is for capital a normal condition that indicates not its end but its tendency and mode of operation.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (222) 20141026a 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Unequal quantitative relationship between worker as producer and consumer, forcing expansion. (222) Marx analyzes capitalâs constant need for expansion first by focusing on the process of realization and thus on the unequal quantitative relationship between the worker as producer and the worker as consumer of commodities.
(224) The only effective solution is for capital to look outside itself and discover noncapitalist markets in which to exchange the commodities and realize their value.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (225) 20141029 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Process of capitalization demands expansion that can remain outside when acquiring materials. (225) Capital expands not only to meet the needs of realization and find new markets but also to satisfy the requirements of the subsequent moment in the cycle of accumulation, that is, the process of
(225) The search for additional constant capital (in particular, more and newer materials) drives capital toward a kind of imperialism characterized by pillage and theft. . . . In the acquisition of additional means of production, capital does relate to and rely on its noncapitalist environment, but it does not internalize that environment or rather, it does not necessarily make the environment capitalist. The outside remains outside.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (226) 20141029a 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Capitalist imperialism occurs when acquiring additional variable capital and new labor power. (226) The acquisition of additional variable capital, the engagement of new labor power and creation of proletarians, by contrast, implies a capitalist imperialism. . . . The progressive proletarianization of the noncapitalist environment is the continual reopening of the processes of primitive accumulation and thus the
capitalization of the noncapitalist environment itself. Luxemburg sees this as the real historical novelty of capitalist conquest.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (226) 20141029b 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Exporting social form to achieve differential, organic transformation of noncapitalist environment. (226) What is exported is a relation, a social form that will breed or replicate itself.
(227) Each segment of the noncapitalist environment is transformed
differently, and all are integrated organically into the expanding body of capital.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (227) 20141029c 0 -10+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Contradiction of capitalist expansion; Marxist authorist compelled to denounce imperialism. (227) At this point we can recognize the fundamental contradiction of capitalist expansion: capitalâs reliance on its outside, on the noncapitalist environment, which satisfies the need to realize surplus value, conflicts with the internalization of the noncapitalist environment, which satisfies the need to capitalize that realized surplus value. . . . Capitalâs thirst must be quenched with new blood, and it must continually seek new frontiers.
(228-229) The most important political stake for these authors in the question of economic expansion is to demonstrate the ineluctable relationship between capitalism and imperialism. . . . The evils of imperialism cannot be confronted except by destroying capitalism itself.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (229-230) 20141029d 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Lenin denied possibility of subsumption of crisis into peaceful ultra imperialist phase of unified world market suggested by Hilferding and Kautsky; saw possibility of destroying imperialism. (229-230) In short, Lenin adopted Hilferdingâs hypothesis that capital had entered a new phase of international development defined by monopoly and that this led to both an increase of contradictions and a crisis of equalization. He did not accept, however, that the utopia of a unified international bank could be taken seriously and that a still capitalist
Aufhebung (subsumption) of the crisis could ever come about.
(230) Lenin regarded the position of Kautsky, who also took Hilferdingâs work as his point of departure, as even more utopian and damaging. Kautsky proposed, in effect, that capitalism could achieve a real political and economic unification of the world market. The violent conflicts of imperialism could be followed by a new peaceful phase of capitalism, an ultra-imperialist phase.
(230) Thus, while generally adopting these authorsâ analytical propositions, Lenin rejected their political positions.
(231) Lenin recognized the untimely element of the definition of imperialism and grasped in the subjective practices of the working class not only the potential obstacles to the linear solution of the crises of capitalist realization (which Luxemburg emphasized too), but also the existing and concrete possibility that these practices struggles, insurrections, and revolutions could destroy imperialism itself.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (231-232) 20141029e 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Lenin glimpsed beyond modernity; imperialism a structural stage, turning multitude into people via mechanism of Gramsci hegemony. (231-232) Lenin brought together the problematic of modern sovereignty and that of capitalist development under the lens of one unified critique, and by weaving together the different lines of critique, he was able to glimpse beyond modernity.
(232) The nation-state asks imperialism to resolve or really displace class struggle and its destabilizing effects.
(232-233) Lenin saw imperialism as a structural stage in the evolution of the modern state. He imagined a necessary and linear historical progression from the first forms of the modern European state to the nation-state and then to the imperialist state. At each stage in this development the state had to invent new means of constructing popular consensus, and thus the imperialist state had to find a way to incorporate the multitude and its spontaneous forms of class struggle within its ideological state structures; it had to transform the multitude into a people. This analysis is the initial political articulations of the concept of hegemony that would later become central to Gramsciâs thought.

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Lenin concluded outcome of either world communist revolution or Empire. (233) Lenin recognized finally that, although imperialism and the monopoly phase were indeed expressions of the global expansion of capital, the imperialist practices and the colonial administrations through which they were often pursued had come to be obstacles to the further development of capital.
(234) Leninâs analysis of the crisis of imperialism had the same power and necessity as had Machiavelliâs analysis of the crisis of the medieval order: the reaction had to be revolutionary. This is the alternative implicit in Leninâs work:
either world communist revolution or Empire, and there is a profound analogy between these two choices.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (235) 20141029g 0 -12+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Need theoretical schema for transition from imperialism to Empire as if Marx had finished Capital with missing volumes on wage, state, world market; needed world market to emerge before nation-state could be theorized. (235) We thus arrive at the delicate passage through which the subjectivity of class struggle transforms imperialism into Empire. In this third part of our book we will trace the genealogy of the economic order of Empire so as to reveal the global nature of proletarian class struggle and its ability to anticipate and prefigure the developments of capital toward the realization of the world market. We still need to identify, however, a theoretical schema that can sustain us in this inquiry. The old analyses of imperialism will not be sufficient here because in the end they stop at the threshold of the analysis of subjectivity and concentrate rather on the contradictions of capitalâs own development. We need to identify a theoretical schema that puts the subjectivity of the social movements of the proletariat at center stage in the process of globalization and the constitution of global order.
(235-236) In his outlines for the drafting of
Capital, Marx planned three volumes that were never written: one on the wage, a second on the state, and a third on the world market. . . . The nation-state was a singular organization of the limit. In these conditions a general theory of the state could not but be aleatory and conceived only in the most abstract terms. Marxâs difficulties in writing the volumes of Capital on the state and the world market were thus fundamentally linked: the volume on the state could not be written until the world market had been realized.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (235) 20141029h 4 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Consider analogy between need for realization of world market before nation-state could be theorized, and emergence of Internet before post-postmodern subjectivity and thus a philosophy of computing. (235) We need to identify a theoretical schema that puts the subjectivity of the social movements of the proletariat at center stage in the process of globalization and the constitution of global order.
(235-236) In his outlines for the drafting of
Capital, Marx planned three volumes that were never written: one on the wage, a second on the state, and a third on the world market. . . . The nation-state was a singular organization of the limit. In these conditions a general theory of the state could not but be aleatory and conceived only in the most abstract terms. Marxâs difficulties in writing the volumes of Capital on the state and the world market were thus fundamentally linked: the volume on the state could not be written until the world market had been realized.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (236-237) 20141029i 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Dialectic evaporates at global level because there is no mediation between capital and labor performed by nation-state; Empire posed as site of analysis and conflict. (236-237) The analyses of the state and the world market also become possible in Empire for another reason, because at this point in development class struggle acts
without limit on the organization of power. Having achieved the global level, capitalist development is faced directly with the multitude, without mediation. Hence the dialectic, or really the science of the limit and its organization, evaporates. Class struggle, pushing the nation-state toward its abolition and thus going beyond the barriers posed by it, proposes the constitution of Empire as the site of analysis and conflict. Without that barrier, then, the situation of struggle is completely open. Capital and labor are opposed in a directly antagonistic form. This is the fundamental condition of every political theory of communism.

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Entry into postmodernity poor description of passage from imperialism to Empire. (237)
From imperialism to Empire and from the nation-state to the political regulation of the global market: what we are witnessing, considered from the point of view of historical materialism, is a qualitative passage in modern history. When we are incapable of expressing adequately the enormous importance of this passage, we sometimes quite poorly define what is happening as the entry into postmodernity.

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Arrighi theory that capitalism always returns in cycles of phases of material to financial expansion; masks motors of crisis and restructuring that could surpass Empire. (238)
This historical perspective leads Arrighi to demonstrate how everything returns, or specifically how capitalism always returns. The crisis of the 1970s, then, is really nothing new. What is happening to the capitalist system led by the United States today happened tot he British one hundred years ago, to the Dutch before them, and earlier to the Genoese. The crisis indicated a passage, which is the turning point in every systemic cycle of accumulation, from a first phase of material expansion (investment in production) to a second phase of financial expansion (including speculation).
What concerns us more is that in the context of Arrighiâs cyclical argument it is impossible to recognize a rupture of the system, a paradigm shift, an event. Instead, everything must always return, and the history of capitalism thus becomes the eternal return of the same. In the end, such a cyclical analysis masks the motor of the process of crisis and restructuring. . . . More important than any historical debate about the crisis of the 1970s, however, are the possibilities of rupture today. We have to recognize where in the transnational networks of production, the circuits of the world market, and the global structures of capitalist rule there is the potential for rupture and the motor for a future that is no simply doomed to repeat the past cycles of capitalism.

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Rational organization of labor in 1920s did not lead to organized markets; only with New Deal did surpassing of imperialism commence. (240) This rational organization of labor, however, did not lead to the rational organization of markets, but instead only increased their anarchy.
(241) This set of factors underlay the great economic crisis of 1929 a crisis of both capitalist overinvestment and proletarian underconsumption in the dominant capitalist countries. . . . Only in the United States was capitalist reform put into effect and proposed as a democratic New Deal. . . . With the New Deal the real process of surpassing imperialism began to take root.

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Example of transformation of subjectivity by FDR synthesizing imperialism and reformism into modern welfare state. (242) One could rightly say that FDR resolved the contradictions of American progressivism by forging a synthesis of the American imperialist vocation and reformist capitalism, represented by Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. This subjectivity was the driving force that transformed U.S. capitalism and renewed U.S. society in the process. The state was celebrated not only as mediator of conflicts but also as motor of social movement. . . . Out of this development came the trinity that would constitute the modern welfare state: a synthesis of Taylorism in the organization of labor, Fordism in the wage regime, and Keynesianism in the macroeconomic regulation of society.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (242-243) 20141031b 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
New Deal produced highest form of disciplinary government, factory-society. (242-243) The New Deal produced the highest form of
disciplinary government. . . . We are referring primarily to the fact that in a disciplinary society, the entire society, with all its productive and reproductive articulations, is subsumed under the command of capital and the state, and that the society tends, gradually but with unstoppable continuity, to be ruled solely by criteria of capitalist production. A disciplinary society is thus a factory-society. Disciplinarity is at once a form of production and a form of government such that disciplinary production and disciplinary society tend to coincide completely. In this new factory-society, productive subjectivities are forged as one-dimensional functions of economic development.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (243) 20141031c 0 -12+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
New Deal model projected onto rest of world, giving birth to social state. (243) The New Deal model, then, was first of all a development proper to U.S. politics, a response to the domestic economic crisis, but it also became a flag that the U.S. Army raised throughout the course of the Second World War.
(244) In the aftermath of the war, many viewed the New Deal model as the only path to global recovery (under the pacific power of U.S. hegemony). . . . The social state was born, or really the global disciplinary state, which took into account more widely and deeply the life cycles of populations, ordering their production and reproduction within a scheme of collective bargaining fixed by a stable monetary regime.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (244-245) 20141031d 0 -1+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Postwar global scene organized around decolonization, decentralization of production, framework of international relations. (244-245) The new global scene was defined and organized primarily around three mechanisms or apparatuses: (1) the process of decolonization that gradually recomposed the world market along hierarchical lines branching out from the United States; (2) the gradual decentralization of production; and (3) the construction of a framework of international relations that spread across the globe the disciplinary productive regime and disciplinary society in its successive evolutions.

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Decolonization interrupted by Cold War alignments; economic command by transnationals then supplanted military hardware. (245-246) The linear trajectory of decolonization was thus interrupted by the necessity of selecting a global adversary and lining up behind one of the two models of international order. . . . The bitter and ferocious history of the first period of decolonization opened onto a second phase in which the army of command wielded its power less through military hardware and more through the dollar. This was an enormous step toward the construction of Empire.
(246-247) The transnationals became the fundamental motor of the economic and political transformation of postcolonial countries and subordinated regions. . . . These multiple flows began to converge essentially toward the United States, which guaranteed and coordinated, when it did not directly command, the movement and operation of the transnationals. This was a decisive constituent phase of Empire.

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Vietnam War epitomized struggle against international disciplinary order. (260-261) The Vietnam War represents a real turning point in the history of contemporary capitalism insofar as the Vietnamese resistance is conceived as the symbolic center of a whole series of struggles around the world that had up until that point remained separate and distant from one another. . . . The various struggles converged against one common enemy:
the international disciplinary order.

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Bretton Woods conference rearranged US monetary hegemony. (265) Bretton Woods might thus be understood as the monetary and financial face of the hegemony of the New Deal model over the global capitalist economy.
(268) Taylorist and Fordist mechanisms could no longer control the dynamic of productive and social forces. Repression exercised through the old framework of control could perhaps keep a lid on the destructive powers of the crisis and the fury of the worker attack, but it was ultimately also a self-destructive response that would suffocate capitalist production itself.

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Network is constructed and policed to ensure order and profit: immanent site of production and circulation. (298) These global networks must be constructed and policed in such a way as to guarantee order and profits. It should come as no surprise, then, that the U.S. government poses the establishment and regulation of a global information infrastructure as one of its highest priorities, and that communications networks have become the most active terrain of mergers and competition for the most powerful transnational corporations.
(298) Roman roads, however, did not play a central role in the imperial production processes but only facilitated the circulation of goods and technologies. Perhaps a better analogy for the global information infrastructure might be the construction of railways to further the interests of nineteenth- and twentieth-century imperialist economies. . . .
The novelty of the new information infrastructure is the fact that it is embedded within and completely immanent to the new production processes. At the pinnacle of contemporary production, information and communication are the very commodities produced; the network itself is the site of both production and circulation.

2 2 3 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (298) 20141127a 0 -11+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Railroads better analogy than Roman roads because information highway plays central role in imperial production processes. (298) These global networks must be constructed and policed in such a way as to guarantee order and profits. It should come as no surprise, then, that the U.S. government poses the establishment and regulation of a global information infrastructure as one of its highest priorities, and that communications networks have become the most active terrain of mergers and competition for the most powerful transnational corporations.
(298) Roman roads, however, did not play a central role in the imperial production processes but only facilitated the circulation of goods and technologies. Perhaps a better analogy for the global information infrastructure might be the construction of railways to further the interests of nineteenth- and twentieth-century imperialist economies. . . .
The novelty of the new information infrastructure is the fact that it is embedded within and completely immanent to the new production processes. At the pinnacle of contemporary production, information and communication are the very commodities produced; the network itself is the site of both production and circulation.

---2.2.4+++ {11}

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The key to second order simulacra is implicating humans in the interface as interlocutors, not just embodied affordances and constraints of the natural and built environment. (92-93) The automaton is the analogy of man and remains his interlocutor (they play chess together!). The machine is manâs equivalent and annexes him to itself in the unity of its operational process. This is the difference between a simulacrum of the first order and one of the second.

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Obviously thinking of real robots, not fantasized near-human-equivalents like those portrayed in science fiction; this could be a panel topic of PCA conference philosophy and popular culture if it has not already happened in years past. (94) No such thing with the robot. The robot no longer interrogates appearance; its only truth is in its mechanical efficacy.
(96) We leave natural law and the play of its forms to enter the realm of the mercantile law of value and its calculations of force.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (ix) 20140529b 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Kids need reprieve and mentoring, but adult efforts threatened by incessant peer-to-peer contact by digital tools. (ix) Kids need a reprieve and a retreat. . . . Mentors steer young minds toward deeper wisdom and young tastes toward finder consumptions.
(ix-x) Yet how can adults impart it when peer-to-peer contact extends to every minute and every space of the day and night? Thatâs the threat digital tools pose to parents and teachers.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (x) 20140529c 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Managing omnipresence the new habitus of the digital age; it interrupts cultivation of habits of analysis of reflection enjoyed by former generations. (x) This is the new habitus of the Digital Age. Youths undergo an intense awareness of one another, a high-pressure social feeling.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (65) 20140531p 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Viewer literacy shifts emphasis to technological aptitudes, treating digital literacy as full-fledged intellectual practice; compare to Hayles discussion of close, distant, and hyper reading. (65) The recourse to viewer literacy, however, modifes the terms of the debate. It says that the import of books and the practice of literacy themselves have changed.
(66) Such assertions accept digital literacy as a full-fledged intellectual practice, a mode of reading and learning a lot more exciting and promising than the old kinds. In spite of the confidence, though, there is no ample and growing body of research on the digital facility of adolescents, only the commonplace assertion of their techno-aptitudes.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (72) 20140531r 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Technology expresses youth culture of Millennials, viewed as possessing innate ability to construct knowledge online. (72) And not only is the machinery ever-improving, ever more prosthetic. It has a special relationship to teens and 20-year-olds. More and more, it seems, the technology itself is their possession, their expression.
(73) [quoting 2005 Forrester Research report] The âMillennialsâ--those born between 1980 and 2000 have an innate ability to use technology, are comfortable multitasking while using a diverse range of digital media, and literally demand interactivity as they construct knowledge. Young users donât just possess good skills they have innate ability. They donât just tinker online; the construct knowledge.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (76) 20140531s 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Contrast between uniformity of screen experience and uniqueness of each book. (76) Each book is a new world, and the object itself is unique. . . . The screen, however, is always the same, a generic object. There is nothing special about it except its function as gateway to something else.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (80) 20140531v 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Media use begets more media use, forming larger Gestalt environment, just as literary reading praised for begetting more reading. (80) Youngsters who spend more time with computers and games also watch more television and listen to more radio. Multitasking enables it. As
Generation M concludes, media use begets media use, and as more connections and feeds and streams and channels enter their private space, kids assimilate them with accelerating ease, adding one without dropping another.
(80) They mature in and with the flashing, evolving multimedia environment, integrating each development into a new whole, a larger Gestalt.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (84) 20140601 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Claim is that screen time is cerebral, generating new forms of intelligence based on hyperalertness and multitasking, appealing to Jenkins distributed cognition, collective intelligence, and transmedia navigation. (84) New technologies induce new aptitudes, and bundled together in the bedroom they push consciousness to diversify its attention and multiply its communications.
(84) Thatâs the claim. Screen time is cerebral, and it generates a breakthrough intelligence. E-literacy isnât just knowing how to download music, program an iPod, create a virtual profile, and comment on a blog. Itâs a general development capacity, a particular mental flexbility. E-literacy accommodates hypermedia because e-literates possess hyperalertness. Multitasking entails a special cognitive attitude toward the world, not the orientation that enables slow concentration on one thing a sonnet, a theorem but a ligthsome, intinerant awareness of numerous and dissimilar inputs.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (85) 20140601a 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Stress on learning side over fun side of digital media gives children discretion over judging how they best learn, invoking Gee and Johnson on complex formal elements embedded in popular culture that Bogost argues are absorbed via procedural rhetoric. (85) Over and over, commentators stress the mental advance, the learning side over the fun and fantasy side.
(86) The approach grants remarkable discretion to the kids, assuming that they know what is best, and that their preferences mark a distinct learning style.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (88) 20140601b 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Screens praised for shaping consciousness, developing decision making skills in games, despite passing on juvenile content; likewise progressive complexity of television shows. (88) Once again, the thinking element prevails, and screens are praised for the way they shape the consciousness of users, not pass along to them ideas and values. . . . The content is juvenile, yes, but [quoting Johnson] because learning how to think is ultimately about learning how to make the right decisions, game activity evokes a collateral learning that carries over to usersâ real lives.
(88) The advantages continue with the progressive complexity of television shows.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (89) 20140601c 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Objections to Johnson include ignoring moral, psychological, and philosophical complexities below the surface. (89) The claim is bold, and it ultimately rests not upon the structural elemetns of screen materials, but upon the cognitive outcomes for those who consume them. If we tick to the latter, several objections to Johnsonâs breezy applause stand out. . . . The complexity he approves lies wholly on the surface plotlines and verbal play while other complexity (moral, psychological, and philosophical) go unremarked.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (90-91) 20140601d 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Flynn Effect of rising IQs seems linked to bias on spatial reasoning. (90-91) In the general fund of mental talent, something remarkable has happened. IQ scores have risen markedly over the century, about three points per decade since before World War II, doing so, Johnson observers, at the same time that popular culture has expanded and evolved.
(91) With the largest increases occurring in the area of spatial reasoning, however, some researchers attribute them to escalating cognitive demands of an increasingly visual environment.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (93) 20140601e 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Key to paradox of apparent rising IQs and stagnation of civic talents in learned content versus culturally reduced material. (93) The more test emphasize learned content such as vocabulary, math techniques, and cultural knowledge, the less the Flynn Effect shows up. The more they involve culturally reduced material, puzzles and pictures that require no historical or verbal context, the more the gains surface. Moreover, the significance of those gains apart from the test itself diminishes.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (94) 20140601f 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Bomer viewer literacy. (94) The screen doesnât involve learning per se, but, as [Richard] Sweeney says, a particular learning style, not literacy in general, but viewer literacy (Bomerâs term). It promotes multitasking and discourages single-tasking, hampering the deliberate focus on a single text, a discrete problem. . . . The model is information retrieval, not knowledge formation, and the material passes from Web to homework paper without lodging in the minds of the students.

2 2 4 (+) [-5+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (95) 20140601g 0 -10+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Screen intelligence like interface intelligence leveraging visual and tactile modes over symbolic manipulation, does not transfer to non-screen experiences that build knowledge and verbal skills; ordinary book reading is rejected as alien and irritating. (95) At the same time, however, screen intelligence doesnât transfer well to non-screen experiences, especially the kinds that build knowledge and verbal skills. It conditions minds against quiet, concerted study, against imagination unassisted by visuals, against linear, sequential analysis of texts, against an idle afternoon with a detective story and nothing else.
(95) This explains why teenagers and 20-year-olds appear at the same time so mentally agile and culturally ignorant. . . . The relationship between screens and books isnât benign. As digital natives dive daily into three visual media and two sound sources as a matter of disposition, of deep mental compatibility, not just taste, ordinary reading, slow and uniform, strikes them as incompatible, alien. It isnât just boring and obsolete. Itâs irritating.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (113) 20140601n 0 -13+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Information and Communications Technology literacy an appropriate rubric for rating knowledge activities accomplished with digital electronic technologies developed by Educational Testing Service for profit United States corporation, whose findings revealed poor digital literacy skills. (113) ETS terms the missing aptitude Information and Communications Technology (ICT) literacy, and it includes the ability to conduct research, evaluate sources, communicate data, and understand ethical/legal issues of access and use. To measure ICT literacy, ETS gathered 6300 students and administered a 75-minute test containing 15 tasks. They included determining a Web siteâs objectivity, ranking Web pages on given criteria, and categorizing emails and files into folders.
(113-114) The first conclusion of the report: Few test takers demonstrated key ICT literacy skills (
(114-115) The major finding: More than half the students failed to sort the information to clarify related material. It graded the very comunications skills Web 2.0, the Read/Write Web, supposedly instills, and only a few test takers could accurately adapt material for a new audience.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (118) 20140601o 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Situation of poor writing at school and energetic writing at home fails to consider negative effect of popular technologies. (118) So, we have a contradictory situation, poor writing in school and energetic writing at home online. Instead of pausing to consider a relationship between popular technologies and poor writing skills, though, the report careens in another direction.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (119) 20140601p 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Studies evaluating elearning often use measure of student enthusiasm to judge educational benefits, and most digital initiatives fall short for lack of long term outcome differentials than nonparticipants; seems difficult to assess longer term outcomes for fleeting direction of techniques, which we call culture, learning environments, ultimately influencing development of learning styles and quality of lifelong learning itself. (119) Taking the enthusiasm of 18-yhear olds as a measure of educational benefits may sound like a dicey way to justify such a sweeping change in classroom practices, but many studies out to evaluate e-learning do precisely that.
(120) Various digital initiatives have fallen short, quite simply, because students who were involved in them didnât perform any better than students who werenât.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (124) 20140601q 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Criticism of emphasizing circumstantial factors in failure of studies to find positive benefits of digital literacy initiatives and their underlying theories, failing to check headlong dash to technologize everything. (124) The authors of the studies arenât Luddites, nor are school administrators anti-technology. They observe standards of scientific method, and care about objective outcomes. Their conclusions should, at least, check the headlong dash to technologize education.
(124-125) All too often, however, the disappointment veers toward other, circumstantial factors in the execution, for instance, insufficient usage by the students and inadequate preparation of the teachers.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (130) 20140603c 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Criticism of visual media for minimizing expansion of verbal intelligence and skills building in favor of spatial intelligence, worsened by endorsement by young Americans whose technological tools resemble their beloved toys, and Web use reflects adolescent recreations. (130) Even if we grant that visual media cultivate a type of spatial intelligence, they still minimize verbal intelligence, providing too little stimulation for it, and intense, longterm immersion in it stultifies the verbal skills of viewers and disqualifies them from most every academic and professional labor.
(131) Young Americans suffer the most from their endorsement, even as they adopt the vision and testify to the advantages of digital tools. Here one of the disabling tendencies of youth gains ground. . . . While the rhetoric of pro-technology voices soars, however, the reality of adolescent Web practices the nine out of ten postings and game sessions and messages is just what we should expect, the adolescent expressions and adolescent recreations of adolescents.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (137) 20140603h 0 -11+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Digital media affords autonomous adolescence of personalized reality based on programmed visions, striations mirroring adolescent desires. (137) In both cases, the absorption in local youth society grows, and adolescence appears ever more autonomous. For all of them, popular youths and marginal ones, the celebrated customization power of digital technology is disabling. . . . Itâs a prepackaged representation of the world, a Daily Me, a rendition of things filtered by the dispositions of young users. All of them groove the input, and the screen becomes not a vein of truth but a mirror of desire. . . . Reality is personalized, and the world outside steadily tallies the ego inside.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (140) 20140603j 1 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Screen reading not a supplement for digital natives but replacement for linear thinking, its new habits taken as inevitable. (140)
(141) Screen reading isnât a supplement anymore, is no longer an extension of thinking skills beyond the linear-sequential model. Itâs a primary activity, and the cultivation of nonlinear, nonhierarchical, nonsequential thought patterns through Web reading now transpires on top of a thin and cracking foundation of print reading. For the linear, hierarchical, sequential thinking solicited by books has a shaky hold on the youthful mind, and as teens and young adults read linear texts in a linear fashion less and less, the less they engage in sustained linear thinking.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (148) 20140603l 0 -16+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Nielsen Norman research shows Web reading less creative and complex than enthusiasts claim, forming reading and thought patterns focusing on retrieval and consumption. (148) Web reading and Web learning on average, Nielsen demonstrates, are far less creative, complex, literate, and inquisitive than techno-enthusiasts claim. People seek out what they already hope to find, and they want it fast and free, with a minimum of effort. They judge what they see not on objective traits of the content delivered, the quality of language and image, but on subjective traits of familiarity and ease. . . . In general, the content encountered and habits practiced online foster one kind of literacy, the kind that accelerates communication, homogenizes diction and style, and answers set questions with information bits. It does not favor the acquisition of knowledge, distinctive speech and prose, or the capacity to reason in long sequential units. . . . Forming reading and thought patterns through screens prepares individuals for only part of the communications demands of the twenty-first century, the information-retrieval and consumer-behavior parts. The abilities to concentrate upon a single, recondite text, to manage ambiguities and ironies, to track an inductive proof . . . screen reading hampers them.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (170-171) 20140603t 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Twixters are natives of projective city, their aimless lifestyle justified as journey of self-discovery before engaging in their ultimate life work project, for example plateauing with doctoral dissertation and discipline defining works. (170-171) Despite their circumstance, Twixters arenât marginal youngsters sinking into the underclass. They drift through their twenties, stalled at work and saving no money, but they like it that way. . . . Indeed, precisely along the lines of Reichâs understanding, they justify their aimless lifestyle as a journey of self-discovery.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (172) 20140603u 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Twixter vision is social, peer oriented rather than knowledge oriented perspective cultivated by long habituation with books. (172) In a word, the Twixter vision aligns perfectly with that of their wired younger brothers and sisters. Itâs all social, all peer-oriented.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (173-174) 20140604 0 -1+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Even the successful Art Show neglects cultural authority of artistic heritage, tradition carried by books by valorizing self-contained perspectives of student artists under influence of digital social media, thus by implicit a fortiori argumentation the eighty percent rest of mass communication is consumer oriented limited intelligence, restricted vocabulary outlooks as possible machine other perspectives. (173-174) The truth is that nothing endorses arts education better than educated student-artists, and in neglecting tradition ArtShow overlooks one of artâs strongest claims, the cultural authority of artistic heritage.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (177) 20140614a 2 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Today war against young has passed to institutionally concretized electronic biopower of screen advertisements. (177) The very rationality of the discourse denies any credibility to youth protest. However civil, thoughtful, and reasonable it comes off, he [Poirier] declares, the discourse of counterrevolutionary intellectuals amounts to precisely a war against the young.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (188-189) 20140604i 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Absence of student-teacher contact in learner-centered environments attributable to institutions treating students as commodities and instructors esteeming student knowledge at expense of deauthorizing their own. (188-189) College delinquency of this kind says nothing about these studentsâ intelligence. It marks an attitude, a sign of disrespect, and we may blame several influences for its spread. When colleges treat students as consumers and clients, they encourage it, as does pop culture when it elevates hooky playing tricksters such as Ferris Bueller into heroes. College professors complain all the time about it, but they have their own part in their studentsâ negligence, for they pass it along whenever they esteem the studentsâ knowledge and deauthorize their own.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (421) 20140712h 0 -6+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Simultaneous translation likely complex human machine cyborg. (421) Indeed, the trial process was slowed by the necessity of translating all documents, exhibits, and testimony into several languages of the war crime tribunal: French, Russian, German, and English. Justice Jackson turned to a newly invented process called
simultaneous translation. One company reviewed all the evidence and translated it not only for real time usage at the trial proceedings, but for posterity. That company was International Business Machines. It made the final translated record of all evidence back and forth from French, Russian, German, Polish, and English. Watson offered to undertake the massive evidence handling free of charge.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20130811 20130811 0 -1+ journal_2013.html
Latest reading in Golumbia forces examination of some carelessly sustained positions about computationalism and the putatively emancipatory claims of social media and free open source software, in addition to clearer formulation of where Derrida, Deleuze and Guattari, and other theorists already studied fit in.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20141204 20141204 3 -1+ journal_2014.html
Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg articulated and anticipated by Hardt and Negri whose dumbest generation regressive subjectivity noted in Negativland PHI.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20141209 20141209a 0 -1+ journal_2014.html
Despite their unique computing capabilities, post-postmodern network dividual cyborgs are also themselves or descendants of the dumbest generation, emerging at the turn of the century in the western world with personal computers and flourishing in its second decade Internet, which includes machinery and other technology systems along with humans, for there are dumb devices along with dumb people, with banality of Microsoft Bob hiding family resemblance with concentration camp equipment.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnett-how_images_think (xix) 20130912 0 -7+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnett-how_images_think.html
Legitimate to assert that thinking has moved from humans to machines using quasi-Turing criterion of conversational mediation. (xix) This means that the newer technologies of the late-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are no longer just extensions of human abilities and needs; they are enlarging cultural and social preconceptions of the relationships between body and mind. . . . To the extent that a device can talk back to humans and images can mediate the conversation, some fragment of the thinking process is being moved from humans to their machines.
(xx) The philosophically powerful suggestion that it might be possible to understand the human mind through imaging technologies says more about images and human desire than it does about thinking.
(xx) The ubiquity of computers means that they are increasingly being anthropomorphized, which for me is one of the best examples of the symbiotic relationships that humans have with their technological creations.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnett-how_images_think (72) 20130912c 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnett-how_images_think.html
Ecology is human-machine symbiosis. (72) I use the term
ecology in reference to the indivisible nature of human-machine relations and the interdependence of humans on the technologies they create.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK burnett-how_images_think (168) 20130912o 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnett-how_images_think.html
Games best examples of stunted human computer symboisis and cyborg identities, where images in computer games appear to be thinking due to what is very simple and narrow AI. (168) Computer games are the firmest indication yet of the degree to which humans and their technologies have become not only interdependent but also profoundly interwoven.
(169) Game companies and players talk about the use of artificial intelligence as if all the variables they encounter are evidence of cleverness and brainpower within the game. The irony is that AI is really no more than a series of random selections that are programmed into the engine such that it appears as if choices are made by the game.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition (xli) 20130913e 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition.html
Like Hayles he developed insights from analyzing experience of time in global financial networks. (xli) I first found traces of timeless time while analyzing the workings of financial networks.
(xlii) Yet, there are alternative forms of conceiving and practicing time linked to alternative projects of organizing society. The most important alternative expression of time that I identified in this book is what I called, using a concept from Scott Lash and John Urry, glacial time .

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition (21 note 31) 20130913h 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition.html
Distinction between information and informational. (21 note 31) The term information society emphasizes the role of information in society. . . . In contrast, the term informational indicates the attribute of a specific form of social organization in which information generation, processing, and transmission become the fundamental sources of productivity and power because of new technological conditions emerging in this historical period.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition (481-482) 20130914p 0 -7+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition.html
Cynical view of the denial of death and war. (481-482) Although the matrix of this attempt lies in the rationalist belief in almighty progress, it is the extraordinary breakthroughs in medical technology and biological research in the past two decades that provide a material basis for the oldest aspiration of humankind: to live as if death did not exist, in spite of its being our only certainty. By so doing, the ultimate subversion of the life-cycle is accomplished, and life becomes this flat landscape punctuated by chosen moments of high and low experiences, in the endless boutique of customized feelings. . . . Because we are so close to unveiling the secrets of life, two major trends have diffused from the medical sciences toward the rest of the society: obsessive prevention, and the fight to the end.
(482) This perverted use of medical research is particularly pathetic when contrasted to the indifference of health insurance companies and mainstream business toward primary care and occupational safety.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition (487) 20130914q 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition.html
Advanced technological warfare affects temporality, although thwarted by war on terror. (487) Massive destruction, or a quick demonstration of its possibility, in minimum time seems to be the accepted strategy to fight advanced wars in the Information Age.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK clark-supersizing_the_mind (49) 20130913n 0 -1+ progress/2012/10/notes_for_clark-supersizing_the_mind.html
Carruthers linguaform templates Almost sound like a link for object-oriented philosophy. (49) The linguaform templates of encoded sentences provide, according to Carruthers, special representational vehicles that allow information from otherwise encapsulated resources to interact.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK conley-rethinking_technologies (x) 20131205c 0 -6+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_conley-rethinking_technologies.html
Effect of rhetoric of scientific, technological ideologies on bodies; compare to later Hayles on discursivity. (x) In brief, it is one with the Western project or projet occidental that though initially linked to a geopolitics is now ubiquitous and has become synonymous with ideology. . . . the ideology of technology can be felt in the ways that scientific discourses tell the body how it should act, feel, and live the life that destiny allots to it. The body is subject to the effects of a rhetoric of technical reason.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus (120) 20130915n 0 -5+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus.html
Perhaps sequence of finite proceedings closer to protocol operation than cruder depiction of spiraling circle jumping. (120) In short, it operates
by the linear and temporal succession of finite proceedings, rather than by the simultaneity of circles in unlimited expansion.
(148) All methods for the transcendentalization of language, all methods for endowing language with universals, from Russellâs logic to Chomskyâs grammar, have fallen into the worst kind of abstraction, in the sense that they validate a level that is both too abstract and not abstract enough. Regimes of signs are not based on language, and language alone does not constitute an abstract machine, whether structural or generative. The opposite is the case. It is language that is based on regimes of signs, and regimes of signs on abstract machines, diagrammatic functions, and machinic assemblages that go beyond any system of semiology, linguistics, or logic.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus (239) 20130915y 4 -9+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus.html
Pack mode like Wittgenstein family resemblance and Latour litany? (239) What we are saying is that every animal is fundamentally a band, a pack. That it has pack modes, rather than characteristics, even if further distinctions within these modes are called for.
(240) We must distinguish three kinds of animals.
(241-242) Bands, human or animal, proliferate by contagion, epidemics, battlefields, and catastrophes. . . . The Universe does not function by filiation. All we are saying is that animals are packs, and that packs form, develop, and are transformed by contagion.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus (298) 20130515 0 -5+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus.html
Add programming to examples of lines of flight with music and painting (Harper). (298) Lines of flight as perspective lines, far from being made to represent depth, themselves invent the possibility of such a representation which occupies them only for an instant, at a given moment. . . . Is painting, in each of its acts of creation, engaged in a becoming as intense as that of music?

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus (352-353) 20130521 0 -19+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus.html
An unexpected, refreshing conception of game theories comparing chess and Go to illustrate striated and smooth, polis and nomos; compare to types of cybernetics presented by Hayles. (352-353) Let us take a limited example and compare the war machine and the State apparatus in the context of the theory of games. Let us take chess and Go, from the standpoint of the game pieces, the relations between the pieces and the space involved. Chess is a game of State, or of the court: the emperor of China played it. Chess pieces are coded; they have an internal nature and intrinsic properties from which their movements, situations, and confrontations derive. . . . Go pieces, in contrast, are pellets, disks, simple arithmetic units, and have only an anonymous, collective, or third-person function: It makes a move. It could be a man, a woman, a louse, an elephant. Go pieces are elements of a nonsubjectified machine assemblage with no intrinsic properties, only situational ones. . . . But what is proper to Go is war without battle lines, with neither confrontation nor retreat, without battles even: pure strategy, whereas chess is a semiology. . . . The smooth space of Go, as against the striated space of chess. The
nomos of Go against the State of chess, nomos against polis.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (12) 20130915a 0 -1+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Periodization theory for concepts is sequence encyclopedia, pedagogy, and commercial professional training. (12) If the three ages of the concept are the encyclopedia, pedagogy, and commercial professional training, only the second can safeguard us from falling from the heights of the first into the disaster of the third an absolute disaster for thought whatever its benefits might be, of course, from the viewpoint of universal capitalism.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (20) 20130915b 0 -5+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Concepts combination of internally inseparable components, processual. (20) Third, each concept will therefore be considered as the point of coincidence, condensation, or accumulation of its own components. . . . They are processual, modular.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (28-29) 20130915c 0 -7+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
From first example of Cartesian concepts, propose philosophers who do not create are inspired only by ressentiment, flip side of shallow capitalist content creators who usurped the concept. (28-29) To criticize is only to establish that a concept vanishes when it is thrust into a new milieu, losing some of its components, or acquiring others that transform it. But those who criticize without creating, those who are content to defend the vanished concept without being able to give it the forces it needs to return to life, are the plague of philosophy. All these debates and communicators are inspired by
ressentiment. . . . In fact, Socrates constantly made all discussion impossible, both in the short form of the contest of questions and answers an in the long form of a rivalry between discourses.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (36) 20130915d 0 -1+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Plane is operating environment, concepts machine phenomena. (36) Concepts are concrete assemblages, like the configurations of a machine, but the plane is the abstract machine of which these assemblages are the working parts.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (48) 20130915h 0 -2+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Subject as habit in third example. (48) Empiricism knows only events and other people and is therefore a great creator of concepts. Its force begins from the moment it defines the subject: a
habitus, a habit, nothing but a habit in a field of immanence, the habit of saying I.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (48-49) 20130915i 0 -3+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Spinoza is the optimal thinker as Christ of philosophers showing possibility of the impossible. (48-49) Spinoza is the vertigo of immanence from which so many philosophers try in vain to escape. Will we ever be mature enough for a Spinozist inspiration? It happened once with Bergson: the beginning of
Matter and Memory marks out a plane that slices through the chaos.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (51) 20130915j 0 -5+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Openness of planes of immanence to diffract especially their creators. (51) In the end, does not every great philosopher lay out a new plane of immanence, introduce a new substance of being and draw up a new image of thought, so that there could not be two great philosophers of the same plane? . . . That is why every plane is not only interleaved but holed, letting through the fogs that surround it, and in which the philosopher who laid it out is in danger of being the first to lose himself.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (59-60) 20130915m 0 -7+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Compare elevation of Spinoza as Christ of philosophers to elevation of Socrates by Heidegger. (59-60) We will say that
THE plane of immanence is, at the same time, that which must be thought and that which cannot be thought. It is the nonthought within thought. It is the base of all planes, immanent to every thinkable plane that does not succeed in thinking it. . . . Perhaps this is the supreme act of philosophy: not so much to think THE plane of immanence as to show that it is there, unthought in every plane, and to think it in this way as the outside and inside of thought, as the not external and the not-internal inside that which cannot be thought and yet must be thought, which was thought once, as Christ was incarnated once, in order to show, that one time, the possibility of the impossible.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (60-61) 20130915n 0 -9+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Fifth example of idiot as conceptual persona transforming from Christian to Russian context. (60-61) Although Descartesâs cogito is created as a concept, it has presuppositions. . . . In the present case it is the Idiot: it is the Idiot who says I and sets up the cogito but who also has the subjective presuppositions or lays out the plane. . . . The idiot is a conceptual persona.

2 2 4 (+) [-7+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (71) 20130915o 0 -1+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Surfer the new conceptual persona for thinker that was once Cartesian (Berry); enumerates juridical, existential features. (71) And if today our sports are completely changing, if the old energy-producing activities are giving way to exercises that, on the contrary, insert themselves on existing energetic networks, this is not just a change in the type but yet other dynamic features that enter a thought that slides with new substances of being, with wave or snow, and turn the thinker into a sort of
surfer as conceptual persona: we renounce then the energetic value of the sporting type in order to pick out the pure dynamic difference expressed in a new conceptual persona.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (72) 20130915q 0 -5+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Existential feature with specificity like stocking-suspender gizmo invented by Kant. (72) And there are
existential features: Nietzsche said that philosophy invents modes of existence or possibilities of life. . . . It will be argued that most philosophersâ lives are very bourgeois: but is not Kantâs stocking-suspender a vital anecdote appropriate to the system of Reason?

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (76-77) 20130915r 0 -4+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Sixth example enumerates philosophical trinity of laying out, inventing, creating as diagrammatic, personalistic, intensive featuers; coadaptation as taste. (76-77) Philosophy presents three elements, each of which fits with the other two but must be considered for itself:
the prephilosophical plane it must lay out (immanence), the persona or personae it must invent and bring to life (insistence), and the philosophical concepts it must create (consistency). Laying out, inventing, and creating constitute the philosophical trinity diagrammatic, personalistic, and intensive features.
(77) Since none of these elements are deduced from the others, there must be coadaptation of the three. The philosophical faculty of coadaptation, which also regulates the creation of concepts, is called

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (87-88) 20130915s 0 -5+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
International market. (87-88) Rather than establish themselves in the pores of the empires, they are steeped in a new component; they develop a particular mode of deterritorialization that proceeds by immanence; they form a
milieu of immanence. . . . We constantly rediscover these three Greek features: immanence, friendship, and opinion.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (89) 20130915u 0 -9+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Thinking through figures that are paradigmatic, projective, hierarchical, referential. (89) Thinking here implies a projection of the transcendent on the plane of immanence. . . . It is only from this point of view that Chinese hexagrams, Hindu mandalas, Jewish sephiroth, Islamic imaginals, and Christian icons can be considered together:
thinking through figures. . . . In short, the figure is essentially paradigmatic, projective, hierarchical, and referential.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (90-91) 20130915v 0 -10+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Neighborhood rule. (90-91) The conceptâs only rule is internal or external neighborhood. . . . What concept should be put alongside a former concept, and what components should be put in each? These are the questions of the creation of concepts. . . . The concept is not paradigmatic but
syntagmatic; not projective but connective; not hierarchical but linking; not referential but consistent.

2 2 4 (+) [-5+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (91-92) 20130915x 0 -24+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Beautifully put version of McLuhan and Kittler on role of media in human experience, evolving paradigms of perceptibility to reach three figures of objectality, subject, intersubjectivity. (91-92) Must we conclude from this that there is a radical opposition between figures and concepts? . . . And yet disturbing affinities appear on what seems to be a common plane of immanence. . . . All that can be said is that figures tend toward concepts to the point of drawing infinitely near to them. From the fifteenth to the seventheenth century, Christianity made the
impresa the envelope of a concetto, but the concetto has not yet acquired consistency and depends upon the way in which it is figured or even dissimulated. . . . Problems begin only afterward, when the atheism of the concept has been attained. . . . The three figures of philosophy are objectality of contemplation, subject of reflection, and intersubjectivity of communication.
(93) The birth of philosophy required an
encounter between the Greek milieu and the plane of immanence of thought. . . . The encounter between friend and thought was needed. In short, philosophy does have a principle, but it is a synthetic and contingent principle an encounter, a conjunction.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (104) 20130916f 0 -5+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Eighth example examines national philosophical preferences, habits constituting concepts: French landowners cultivating cogito, Germans seeking absolute foundations in reconquering Greek plane, English nomadizing. (104) The French are like landowners whose source of income is the cogito. They are always reterritorialized on consciousness. Germany, on the other hand, does not give up the absolute: it makes use of consciousness but as a means of deterritorialization. It wants to reconquer the Greek plane of immanence, the unknown earth that it now feels as its own
barbarism, its own anarchy abandoned to the nomads since the disappearance of the Greeks.
(105-106) The English nomadize over the old Greek earth, broken up, fractalized, and extended to the entire universe.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (106-107) 20130916g 0 -1+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
There is only the market is universal in capitalism; philosophy and thought shift from Greek friendship, including feeling of shame. (106-107) If there is no universal democratic State, despite German philosophyâs dream of foundation, it is because the market is the only thing that is universal in capitalism.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (108-109) 20130916h 0 -26+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Seduction of interfaces; too much communication, not enough creation, resistance to the present, for example of Heidegger losing his path in smooth spaces of Nazism; becoming animal, stranger. (108-109) We do not lack communication. On the contrary, we have too much of it. We lack creation.
We lack resistance to the present. . . . The Heidegger affair has complicated matters: a great philosopher actually had to be reterritorialized on Nazism for the strangest commentaries to meet up, sometimes calling his philosophy into question and sometimes absolving it through such complicated and convoluted arguments that we are still in the dark. . . . Heidegger lost his way along the paths of the reterritorializations because they are paths without directive signs or barriers. . . . It is a question of becoming. The Thinker is not acephalic, aphasic, but becomes so. . . . We think and write for animals themselves. We become animal so that the animal also becomes something else. . . . This is the constitutive relationship of philosophy with nonphilosophy.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (111-113) 20130916j 0 -15+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Ninth example of two ways of considering event by Peguy, history and diagnosis of becomings. (111-113) In a great work of philosophy,
Peguy explains that there are two ways of considering the event. One consists in going over the course of the event, in recording its effectuation in history, its conditioning and deterioration in history. But the other consists in reassembling the event, installing oneself in it as in a becoming, becoming young again and aging in it, both at the same time, going through all its components or singularities. . . . Again, is this not what Foucault called the Actual? . . . We must distinguish not only the share that belongs to the past and the one that belongs to the present but, more profoundly, the share that belongs to the present and that belonging to the actual. . . . The diagnosis of becomings in every passing present is what Nietzsche assigned to the philosopher as physician, physician of civilization, or inventor of new immanent modes of existence.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (123) 20130619 0 -3+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Apply endoreference exoreference distinction of bodies and things to networks. (123) The difference between body and state of affairs (or thing) pertains to the individuation of the body, which proceeds by a cascade of actualizations. With bodies, the relationship between independent variables becomes fully worked out, even if it means providing itself with a potential or power that renews its individuation. Particularly when the body is a living being, which proceeds by differentiation and no longer by extension or addition, a new type of variable arises, internal variables determining specifically biological functions in relation to internal milieus (endoreference) but also entering into probabilistic functions with external variables of the outside milieu (exoreference).

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (203) 20130916k 0 -7+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
Media as opinion is like the quantification leaving machine cognition to pushing it around. (203) It is as if the
struggle against chaos does not take place without an affinity with the enemy, because another struggle develops and takes on more importance the struggles against opinion, which claims to protect us from chaos itself.
(204) Art indeed struggles with chaos, but it does so in order to bring forth a vision that illuminates it for an instant, a Sensation.
(206-207) Art takes a bit of chaos in a frame in order to form a composed chaos that becomes sensory, or from which it extracts a chaoid sensation as variety; but science takes a bit of chaos in a system of coordinates and forms a referenced chaos that becomes Nature, and from which it extracts an aleatory function and chaoid variables. . . . Creation is the aesthetic varieties or scientific variables that emerge on a plane that is able to crosscut chaotic variability.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK floridi-philosophy_and_computing (95) 20130919y 0 -7+ progress/2012/12/notes_for_floridi-philosophy_and_computing.html
Biological perspective of fright reaction. (95) The flowering of a world of learning through the long period from Francis Baconâs motto
plus ultra to Kantâs illuministic replay sapere aude, had brought about Platoâs revenge. New knowledge could obviously be found; centuries of successful accumulation prove it unequivocally. Yet the new world represented by the human encyclopedia had become as uncontrollable and impenetrable as the natural one, and a more sophisticated version of Menoâs paradox could now be formulated. . . . Knowledge, as history and culture, is a strictly human business.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (150) 20130919p 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Constituting totally useful time, time-table as program; connect to Castells timeless time. (150) One began to count in quarter hours, minutes, in seconds. . . . But an attempt is also made to assure the quality of the time used; constant supervision, the pressure of supervisors, the elimination of anything that might disturb or distract; it is a question of constituting a
totally useful time.
(151-152) What the ordinance of 1766 defines is not a time-table the general framework for an activity; it is rather a collective and obligatory rhythm, imposed from the outside; it is a â
programâ; it assures the elaboration of the act itself; it controls its development and its stages from the inside. We have passed from a form of injunction that measured or punctuated gestures to a web that constrains them or sustains them throughout their entire succession.
(153) Thus disciplinary power appears to have the function not so much of deduction as of synthesis, not so much of exploitation of the product as of coercive link with the apparatus of production.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (167) 20120624 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Discipline creates modern individuality as cellular, organic, genetic, and combinatory, using techniques of drawing up tables, prescribing movements, imposing exercises, and arranging tactics. (167) To sum up, it might be said that discipline creates out of the bodies it controls four types of individuality, or rather an individuality that is endowed with four characteristics: it is cellular (by the play of spatial distribution), it is organic (by the coding of activities), it is genetic (by the accumulation of time), it is combinatory (by the composition of forces). And, in doing so, it operates four great techniques: it draws up tables; it prescribes movements; it imposes exercises; lastly, in order to obtain the combination of forces, it arranges âtacticsâ. Tactics, the art of constructing, with located bodies, coded activities and trained aptitudes, mechanisms in which the product of the various forces is increased by their calculated combination are no doubt the highest form of disciplinary practice.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (217) 20130921d 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Subjectivity imbricated in the panoptic machine arousing quote we are much less Greeks than we believe. (217) it is not that the beautiful totality of the individual is amputated, repressed, altered by our social order, it is rather that the individual is carefully fabricated in it, according to a whole technique of forces and bodies. We are much less Greeks than we believe. We are neither in the amphitheater, nor on the stage, but in the panoptic machine, invested by its effects of power, which we bring to ourselves since we are part of its mechanism.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (227-228) 20121130 0 -14+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Panopticism does not yield the totalizing view that is implied in the gaze of the liberal humanist subject, but rather contextual, situated, instrumental, so there really is no big brother watching, only distributed technological unconscious (Hayles). (227-228) What is now imposed on penal justice as its point of application, its âusefulâ object, will no longer be the body of the guilty man set up against the body of the king; nor will it be the juridical subject of an ideal contract; it will be the disciplinary individual. . . . The ideal point of penality today would be an indefinite discipline: an interrogation without end. . . . The public execution was the logical culmination of a procedure governed by the Inquisition. The practice of placing individuals under âobservationâ is a natural extension of a justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination procedures. . . . Is it surprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals, which all resemble prisons?

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK foucault-discipline_and_punish (300) 20130921q 1 -11+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_foucault-discipline_and_punish.html
Fulfills dream of living writing, dream of information, artificial intelligence in the form of performativity of pedagogical curriculum and professional networks. (300) The carceral, with its far-reaching networks, allows the recruitment of major âdelinquentsâ. . . . There was a sort of disciplinary âtrainingâ, continuous and compelling, that had something of the
pedagogical curriculum and something of the professional network. Careers emerged from it, as secure, as predictable, as those of public life: assistance associations, residential apprenticeships, penal colonies, disciplinary battalions, prisons, hospitals, almshouses.
(301) The carceral network does not cast the unassimilable into a confused hell; there is no outside. . . . It saves everything, including what it punishes.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (254) 20140524f 0 -12+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Incorporate sense of procedural rhetoric as general problem solving skill and component of lifelong learning, again consonant with projective city; first step is to come to terms with computers so PCs become tools instead of threats. (254) More than ever, an education that emphasizes general problem-solving skills will be important. . . . The premium that society pays for skills is going to climb, so my advice is to get a good formal education and then keep on learning. Acquire new interests and skills throughout your life.
(255) A first step will be to come to terms with computers. . . . The more experience people have with PCs, the better they understand what they can and canât do. Then PCs become tools instead of threats.

2 2 4 (+) [-5+]mCQK haraway-simians_cyborgs_women (43-44) 20130923 0 -6+ progress/2009/04/notes_for_haraway-simians_cyborgs_women.html
The opening quotation from Richard Dawkins suggests that human individuality is no longer the center of human being: the genes are center, and we are their survival machines. (43-44) So science is part of the struggle over the nature of our lives. . . . I would like to explore biology as an aspect of the reproduction of capitalist social relations, dealing with the imperative of biological reproduction.
(43 table 1) The nature of analysis is technological functionalism, and ideological appeals are to alleviation of stress and other signs of human obsolescence.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK haraway-simians_cyborgs_women (45) 20130923b 0 -6+ progress/2009/04/notes_for_haraway-simians_cyborgs_women.html
We must be interested in this task or reappropriating knowledge, Haraway commands, because Marx said so. (45) As Marx showed for the science of wealth, our reappropriation of knowledge is a revolutionary reappropriation of a means by which we produce and reproduce our lives. We must be interested in this task.
(45) it examines them [Yerkes and Wilson] as representing important formations, so as to give an idea where to continue a critical reading of classical biology in the process of formulating another biology.
(46) Yerkes worked to establish the utility of primates for interpreting the place of human beings in scientifically managed corporate capitalism - called nature.
(47) But a constant dimension of primate studies has been the naturalization of human history; that is, making human nature the raw material rather than the product of history. Engineering is the guiding logic of life science in the twentieth century.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK haraway-simians_cyborgs_women (192) 20130923l 0 -1+ progress/2009/04/notes_for_haraway-simians_cyborgs_women.html
Generative doubt contemplating what can the master subject not perceive due to the distortions of its unreflective disembodiment. (192) I prefer to call this generative doubt the opening of non-isomorphic subjects, agents, and territories of stories unimaginable from the vantage point of the cyclopian, self-satiated eye of the master subject.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (22-23) 20140814e 0 -13+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Foucault traces passage from disciplinary society to society of control. (22-23) First of all, Foucaultâs work allows us to recognize a historical, epochal passage in social forms from disciplinary society to the society of control. . . . Disciplinary power rules in effect by structuring the parameters and limits of thoughts and practice, sanctioning and prescribing normal and/or deviant behaviors. . . . We should understand the society of control, in contrast, as that society (which develops at the far edge of modernity and opens toward the postmodern) in which mechanisms of command become ever more democratic, ever more immanent of the social field, distributed throughout the brains and bodies of the citizens. The behaviors of social integration and exclusion proper to rule are thus increasingly interiorized within the subjects themselves. Power is now exercised through machines that directly organize the brains (in communication systems, information networks, etc.) and bodies (in welfare systems, monitored activities, etc.) toward a state of autonomous alienation from the sense of life and the desire for creativity.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (23-24) 20140814f 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
New paradigm of power is biopolitical, integral to social life. (23-24) Second, Foucaultâs work allows us to recognize the biopolitical nature of the new paradigm of power. Biopower is a form of power that regulates social life from its interior, following it, interpreting it, absorbing it, and rearticulating it. Power can achieve an effective command over the entire life of the population only when it becomes an integral, vital function that every individual embraces and reactivates of his or her own accord.
(24) Power is thus expressed as a control that extends throughout the depths of the consciousnesses and bodies of the population and at the same time across the entirety of social relations.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (25) 20140814g 0 -15+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Real subsumption reveals paradox of power, milieu of event, right becomes procedure; analysis must focus on productive dimension of biopower. (25) The analysis of the real subsumption, when this is understood as investing not only the economic or only the cultural dimensions of society but rather the social
bios itself, and when it is attentive to the modalities of disciplinarity and/or control, disrupts the linear and totalitarian figure of capitalist development. . . . What Foucault constructed implicitly (and Deleuze and Guattari made explicit) is therefore the paradox of power that, while it unifies and envelops within itself every element of social life (thus losing its capacity effectively to mediate different social forces), at that very moment reveals a new context, a new milieu of maximum plurality and uncontainable singularization a milieu of the event.
(26) On the contrary, the rule of law continues to play a central role in the context of the contemporary passage: right remains effective and (precisely by means of the state of exception and police techniques) becomes procedure. . . . Throughout the unbounded global spaces, to the depths of the biopolitical world, and confronting an unforeseeable temporality these are the determinations on which the new supranational right must be defined.
(26-27) From this point of view, the biopolitical context of the new paradigm is completely central to our analysis. . . . Our analysis must focus its attention rather on the
productive dimension of biopower.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (27-28) 20140814h 0 -9+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Foucault failed to escape structuralist epistemology to grasp real dynamics of biopolitical production. (27-28) Foucault thus attempted to bring the problem of social reproduction and all the elements of the so-called superstructure back to within the material, fundamental structure and define this terrain not only in economic terms but also in cultural, corporeal, and subjective ones. . . . It does not seem, however, that Foucault even when he powerfully grasped the biopolitical horizon of society and defined it as a field of immanence ever succeeded in pulling his thought away from that structuralist epistemology that guided his research from the beginning. . . . What Foucault fails to grasp finally are the real dynamics of production in biopolitical society.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (28) 20140814i 0 -9+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Deleuze and Guattari poststructuralist biopower conception in social machines, but superficially articulated by ungraspable event. (28) By contrast, Deleuze and Guattari present us with a properly poststructuralist understanding of biopower that renews materialist thought and ground itself solidly in the question of the production of social beings. . . . The constant functioning of social machines in their various apparatuses and assemblages produces the world along with the subjects and objects that constitute it. . . . Deleuze and Guattari discover the productivity of social reproduction (creative production, production of values, social relations, affects, becomings), but manage to articulate it only superficially and ephemerally, as a chaotic, indeterminate horizon marked by the ungraspable event.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (28-29) 20140814j 0 -12+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Marxian general intellect subject of Italian research focusing on transformation of productive labor and subjectivity toward knowledge, communication, language; note primacy of language like Hayles discursive subject. (28-29) We can better grasp the relationship between social production and biopower in the work of a group of contemporary Italian Marxist authors who recognize the biopolitical dimension in terms of the new nature of productive labor and in its living development in society, using terms such as mass intellectuality, immaterial labor, and the Marxian concept of general intellect. These analyses set off from two coordinated research projects. The first consists in the analysis of the recent transformation of productive labor and its tendency to become increasingly immaterial. . . . The second, and consequent, research project developed by this school consists in the analysis of the immediately social and communicative dimension of living labor in contemporary capitalist society, and thus poses insistently the problem of the new figures of subjectivity, in both their exploitation and their revolutionary potential. . . . After a new theory of value, then, a new theory of subjectivity must be formulated that operates primarily through knowledge, communication, and language.
(29) When they reinsert production into the biopolitical context, they present it almost exclusively on the horizon of language and communication.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (30) 20140814k 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Go farther by foregrounding the dividual body in bioproduction. (30) Our task, then, is to build on these partially successful attempts to recognize the potential of biopolitical production. . . . This body becomes structure not be negating the originary productive forces that animates it but by recognizing it; it becomes language (both scientific language and social language) because it is a multitude of singular and determinate bodies that seek relation. It is thus both production and reproduction, structure and superstructure, because it is life in the fullest sense and politics in the proper sense.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (31-32) 20140814l 0 -15+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Transnational corporations key constituent of biopolitical world, especially from monetary perspective. (31-32) The huge transnational corporations construct the fundamental connective fabric of the biopolitical world in certain important respects. . . . The activities of corporations are no longer defined by the imposition of abstract command and the organization of simple theft and unequal exchange. Rather, they directly structure and articulate territories and populations. . . . The transnational corporations directly distribute labor power over various markets, functionally allocate resources, and organize hierarchically the various sectors of world production.
(32) The most complete figure of this world is presented from the monetary perspective. . . . Production and reproduction are dressed in monetary clothing.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (32) 20140814m 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Transnational corporate powers produce agential subjectivities, producers. (32) The great industrial and financial powers thus produce not only commodities but also subjectivities. They produce agentic subjectivities within the biopolitical context: they produce needs, social relations, bodies, and minds which is to say, they produce producers.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (32-33) 20140814n 0 -13+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Immanent power channels the imaginary within the communicative machine; mediation absorbed as integral functioning of control society. (32-33) The development of communications networks has an organic relationship to the emergence of the new world order it is, in other words, effect and cause, product and producer. Communication not only expresses but also organizes the movement of globalization. . . . In other words, the imaginary is guided and channeled within the communicative machine. What the theories of power of modernity were forced to consider transcendent, that is, external to productive and social relations, is here formed inside, immanent to the productive and social relations. Mediation is absorbed within the productive machine. The political synthesis of social space is fixed in the space of communication. . . . The communications industries integrate the imaginary and the symbolic within the biopolitical fabric, not merely putting them at the service of power but actually integrating them into its very functioning.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (33) 20140814o 0 -13+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Communications industries legitimate the imperial machine by producing its own image of authority; with autopoietic machine, master narratives not eliminated but produced to validate its own power. (33) The legitimation of the imperial machine is born at least in part of the communications industries, that is, of the transformation of the new mode of production into a machine. It is a subject that produces its own image of authority.
(33-34) If communication is one of the hegemonic sectors of production and acts over the entire biopolitical field, then we must consider communication and the biopolitical context coexistent. This takes us well beyond the old terrain as Jurgen Habermas described it, for example. . . . The machine is self-validating, autopoietic that is, systemic. . . . Contrary to the way many postmodernist accounts would have it, however, the imperial machine, far from eliminating master narratives, actually produces and reproduces them (ideological master narratives in particular) in order to validate and celebrate its own power. In this coincidence of production through language, the linguistic production of reality, and the language of self-validation resides a fundamental key to understanding the effectiveness, validity, and legitimation of imperial right.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (34) 20140814p 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Intervention internalized and universalized as exercise of legitimate force. (34) This new framework of legitimacy includes new forms and new articulations of
the exercise of legitimate force.
(35) In effect, intervention has been internalized and universalized. . . . The enemies that Empire opposes today may present more of an ideological threat than a military challenge, but nonetheless the power of Empire exercised through force and all the deployments that guarantee its effectiveness are already very advanced technologically and solidly consolidated politically.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (35-36) 20140814q 0 -10+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Moral as well as military intervention by news media, religious organizations, and especially NGOs; continual intervention reflects normative operation of Empire as permanent exception and police action. (35-36) What we are calling moral intervention is practiced today by a variety of bodies, including the news media and religious organizations, but the most important may be some of the so-called non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which, precisely because they are not run directly by governments, are assumed to act on the basis of ethical or moral imperatives. . . . These NGOs conduct just wars without arms, without violence, without borders. Like the Dominicans in the late medieval period and the Jesuits at the dawn of modernity, these groups strive to identify universal needs and defend human rights. Through their language and their action they first define the enemy as privation (in the hope of preventing serious damage) and then recognize the enemy as sin.
(38) This kind of continual intervention, then, which is both moral and military, is really the logical form of the exercise of force that follows from a paradigm of legitimation based on a state of permanent exception and police action. Interventions are always exceptional even though they arise continually; they take the form of police actions because they are aimed at maintaining an internal order. In this way intervention is an effective mechanism that through police deployments contributes directly to the construction of the moral, normative, and institutional order of Empire.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (39) 20140814r 0 -11+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Virtual sovereignty machine built to control the marginal events. (39) Other royal prerogatives such as carrying out justice and imposing taxes also have the same kind of liminal existence. . . . It would be difficult to say which is more important to Empire, the center or the margins. . . . We could even say that the process itself is virtual and that its power resides in the power of the virtual.
(39) Our claim, rather, is that we are dealing here with a special kind of sovereignty a discontinuous form of sovereignty that should be considered liminal or marginal insofar as it acts in the final instance, a sovereignty that locates its only point of reference in the definitive absoluteness of the power that it can exercise. Empire thus appears in the form of a very high tech machine: it is virtual, built to control the marginal event, and organized to dominate and when necessary intervene in the breakdowns of the system (in line with the most advanced technologies of robotic production).

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (41) 20140814t 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Rhizomatic, protocol established in depths of social production rather than juridical order; economic production and political constitution coincide. (41) Perhaps, finally, this cannot be represented by a juridical order, but it nonetheless is an order, an order defined by its virtuality, its dynamism, and its functional inconclusiveness. The fundamental norm of legitimation will thus be established in the depths of the machine, at the heart of social production. . . . In Empire and its regime of biopower, economic production and political constitution tend increasingly to coincide.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (42) 20140814u 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Construction of Empire good in itself but not for itself. (42) Flirting with Hegel, one could say that the construction of Empire is good
in itself but not for itself.
(43) Although Empire may have played a role in putting an end to colonialism and imperialism, it nonetheless constructs its own relationships of power based on exploitation that are in many respects more brutal than those it destroyed. The end of the dialectic of modernity has not resulted in the end of the dialectic of exploitation. Today nearly all of humanity is to some degree absorbed within or subordinated to the networks of capitalist exploitation. We see now an ever more extreme separation of a small minority that controls enormous wealth from multitudes that live in poverty at the limit of powerlessness.
(43) We claim that Empire is better in the same way that Marx insists that capitalism is better than the forms of society and modes of production that came before it.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (45-46) 20140814v 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Leftist strategy based on locality flawed; must focus on specific regime of global relations and potentials for liberation within it. (45-46) This Leftist strategy of resistance to globalization and defense of locality is also damaging because in many cases what appear as local identities are not autonomous or self-determining but actually feed into and support the development of the capitalist imperial machine. . . . The enemy, rather, is a specific regime of global relations that we call Empire. More important, this strategy of defending the local is damaging because it obscures and even negates the real alternatives and potentials for liberation that exist
within Empire.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (47) 20141111 0 -12+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Critical and ethico-political methodologies meant to be immanent and nondialectical. (47) This is when the ontological drama begins, when the curtain goes up on a scene in which the development of Empire becomes its own critique and its process of construction becomes the process of its overturning. . . . We are not proposing the umpteenth version of the inevitable passage through purgatory (here in the guise of the new imperial machine) in order to offer a glimmer of hope for radiant futures. We are not repeating the schema of an ideal teleology that justifies any passage in the name of a promised end. On the contrary, our reasoning here is based on two methodological approaches that are intended to be nondialectical and absolutely immanent: the first is critical and deconstructive, aiming to subvert the hegemonic languages and social structures and thereby reveal an alternative ontological basis that resides in the creative and productive practices of the multitude; and second is constructive and ethico-political, seeking to lead the processes of the production of subjectivity toward the constitution of an effective social, political alternative, a new constituent power.
(48) Our deconstruction of this spectacle cannot be textual alone, but must seek continually to focus its powers on the nature of events and the real determinations of the imperial processes in motion today. . . . In other words, the deconstruction of the
historia rerum gestarum, of the spectral reign of globalized capitalism, reveals the possibility of alternative social organizations.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (47) 20141111a 4 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Focus on creative practices of multitude over dialectical plateaus. (47) We are not proposing the umpteenth version of the inevitable passage through purgatory (here in the guise of the new imperial machine) in order to offer a glimmer of hope for radiant futures. We are not repeating the schema of an ideal teleology that justifies any passage in the name of a promised end. On the contrary, our reasoning here is based on two methodological approaches that are intended to be nondialectical and absolutely immanent: the first is critical and deconstructive, aiming to subvert the hegemonic languages and social structures and thereby reveal an alternative ontological basis that resides in the creative and productive practices of the multitude; and second is constructive and ethico-political, seeking to lead the processes of the production of subjectivity toward the constitution of an effective social, political alternative, a new constituent power.
(48) Our deconstruction of this spectacle cannot be textual alone, but must seek continually to focus its powers on the nature of events and the real determinations of the imperial processes in motion today.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (48-49) 20141111b 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Real ontological referent of philosophy is participatory, not retrospectively celebrating what it automatically brought about; could interpret as transcendence of literary subjectivity. (48-49) What appears here is not a new rationality but a new scenario of different rational acts a horizon of activities, resistances, wills, and desires that refuse the hegemonic order, propose lines of flight, and forge alternative constitutive itineraries. This real substance, open to critique, revised by the ethico-political approach, represents the real ontological referent of philosophy, or really the field proper to a philosophy of liberation. . . . Philosophy is not the owl of Minerva that takes flight after history has been realized in order to celebrate its happy ending; rather, philosophy is subjective proposition, desire, and praxis that are applied to the event.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (52-53) 20140814w 0 -11+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Change in composition of proletariat from industrial working class male factory worker. (52-53) We need to recognize that the very subject of labor and revolt has changed profoundly. The composition of the proletariat has transformed and thus our understanding of it must too. . . . In a previous era the category of the proletariat centered on and was at time effectively subsumed under the
industrial working class, whose paradigmatic figure was the male mass factory worker. . . . Today that working class has all but disappeared from view. It has not ceased to exist, but it has been displaced from its privileged position in the capitalist economy and its hegemonic position in the class composition of the proletariat.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (149) 20141022h 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Postmodernist discourses of globalization appeal to winners, fundamentalist rejection of world market appeals to losers. (149) From this perspective, then, insofar as the Iranian revolution was a powerful rejection of the world market, we might think of it as the first postmodernist revolution.
(150) Simplifying a great deal, one could argue that postmodernist discourses appeal primarily to the winners in the processes of globalization and fundamentalist discourses to the losers. In other words, the current global tendencies toward increased mobility, indeterminacy, and hybridity are experienced by some as a kind of liberation but by others as an exacerbation of their suffering.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (151) 20141022k 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Marketing and organization management closest to postmodern theories; emphasis on mobility, flexibility, and difference leading toward dividual transformation. (151) Marketing has perhaps the clearest relation to postmodern theories, and one could even say that the capitalist marketing strategies have long been postmodernist, avant la lettre.
(153) What is essential for postmodern management is that organizations be mobile, flexible, and able to deal with difference. Here postmodernist theories pave the way for the transformation of the internal structures of capitalist organizations.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (153) 20141022l 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Diversity management reflects cultural transformation within organizations. (153) The culture within these organizations has also adopted the precepts of postmodernist thinking. . . . The task of the boss, subsequently, is to organize these energies and differences in the interest of profit.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (154) 20141022m 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Constant process of hierarchization at heart of global politics of difference signaled by postmodernist theories. (154) The global politics of difference established by the world market is defined not by free play and equality, but by the imposition of new hierarchies, or really by a constant process of hierarchization. Postmodernist and postcolonialist theories (and fundamentalisms in a very different way) are really sentinels that signal this passage in course, and in this regard are indispensable.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (154) 20141022n 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Postmodern political discourse limited to US intelligentsia; hybridity and mobility enjoyed by elites but contribute to suffering for the masses. (154) As a political discourse, postmodernism has a certain currency in Europe, Jana, and Latin America, but its primary site of application is within an elite segment of the U.S. intelligentsia.
(154-155) Certainly from the standpoint of many around the world, hybridity, mobility, and difference do not immediately appear as liberatory in themselves. Huge populations see mobility as an aspect of their suffering because they are displaced at an increasing speed in dire circumstances.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (155) 20141022o 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Epistemological challenge to Enlightenment loses liberatory aura when transposed to truth commissions in the rest of the world. (155) The postmodernist epistemological challenge to the Enlightenment its attack on master narratives and its critique of truth also loses its liberatory aura when transposed outside the elite intellectual strata of Europe and North America. Consider, for example, the mandate of the Truth Commission formed at the end of the civil war in El Salvador, or the similar institutions that have been established in the post-dictatorial and post-authoritarian regimes of Latin America ans South Africa.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (156) 20141022q 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
The poor as nonlocalizable common name of pure difference of the living multitude, strangely missed by postmodern authors; hated by Marx for lacking discipline to construct socialism. (156)
The only non-localizable common name of pure difference in all eras is that of the poor. The poor is destitute, excluded, repressed, exploited and yet living! It is the common denominator of life, the foundation of the multitude. It is strange, but also illuminating, that postmodernist authors seldom adopt this figure in their theorizing.
The dominant stream of the Marxist tradition, however, has always hated the poor, precisely for their being free as birds, for being immune to the discipline of the factory and the discipline necessary for the construction of socialism.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (197-198) 20141125f 0 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Exporting crisis of institutions and imperial society of control to subordinated countries like a software virus. (197-198) Whereas in the process of modernization the most powerful countries export institutional forms to the subordinated ones, in the present process of postmodernization,
what is exported is the general crisis of the institutions. The Empireâs institutional structure is like a software program that carries a virus along with it, so that it is continually modulating and corrupting the institutional forms around it. The imperial society of control is tententially everywhere the order of the day.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (198) 20141125g 0 -9+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Inclusive, differential and managerial moments in apparatus of imperial command summarize post-postmodern dividual subjectivity. (198) In this first moment, then, the Empire is a machine for universal integration, an open mouth with infinite appetite, inviting all to come peacefully within its domain.
(199) The second moment of imperial control, its differential moment, involves the affirmation of differences accepted within the imperial realm. . . . They are nonconflictual differences, the kind of differences we might set aside when necessary.
(199) The differential moment of imperial control must be followed by the management and hierarchization of these differences in a general economy of command. Whereas colonial power sought to fix pure, separate identities, Empire thrives on circuits of movement and mixture. The colonial apparatus was a kind of mold that forged fixed, distinct castings, but the imperial society of control functions through modulation, [quoting Deleuze] like a self-deforming cast that changes continually, from one instant to the next, or like a sieve whose pattern changes from one point to the next.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (198) 20141125h 6 -3+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Deleuze sieve of modulated control. (198)
(199) The differential moment of imperial control must be followed by the management and hierarchization of these differences in a general economy of command. Whereas colonial power sought to fix pure, separate identities, Empire thrives on circuits of movement and mixture. The colonial apparatus was a kind of mold that forged fixed, distinct castings, but the imperial society of control functions through modulation, [quoting Deleuze] like a self-deforming cast that changes continually, from one instant to the next, or like a sieve whose pattern changes from one point to the next.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (200) 20141125i 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Real power of Empire in contingency, mobility, flexibility to recognize, incorporate, differentiate, and manage differences. (200) Contingency, mobility, and flexibility are Empireâs real power. The imperial solution will not be to negate or attenuate these differences, but rather to affirm them and arrange them in an effective apparatus of command.
(201) Divide and conquer is thus not really the correct formulation of imperial strategy. More often than not, the Empire does not create divisions but rather recognizes existing or potential differences, celebrates them, and manages them within a general economy of command. The triple imperative of Empire is incorporate, differentiate, manage.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (201) 20141125j 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Corruption as general process of decomposition without moral overtones; imperial rule functions in ontological vacuum by breaking down. (201) We intend the concept rather to refer to a more general process of decomposition or mutation with none of the moral overtones, drawing on an ancient usage that has been largely lost.
(202) To say that imperial sovereignty is defined by corruption means, on the one hand, that Empire is impure or hybrid and, on the other, that imperial rule functions by breaking down. . . . Imperial power is founded on the rupture of every determinate ontological relationship. Corruption is simply the sign of the absence of any ontology. In the ontological vacuum, corruption becomes necessary, objective.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (209) 20141023d 0 -7+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
No determinate place for dialectic of production and domination; universality of human creativity has global embodiment. (209) The dialectic between productive forces and the system of domination no longer has a
determinate place. The very qualities of labor power (difference, measure, and determination) can no longer be grasped, and similarly, exploitation can no longer be localized and quantified.
(210) The universality of human creativity, the synthesis of freedom, desire, and living labor, is what takes place in the non-place of the postmodern relations of production. Empire is the non-place of world production where labor is exploited. By contrast, and with no possible homology with Empire, here we find again the revolutionary formalism of modern republicanism. This is still a formalism because it is without place, but it is a potent formalism now that it is recognized not as abstracted from the individual and collective subjects but as the general power that constitutes their bodies and minds. The non-place has a brain, heart, torso, and limbs, globally.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (210-211) 20141023e 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Problem for political philosophy is how to determine enemy against which to rebel. (210-211) The first question of political philosophy today is not if or even why there will be resistance and rebellion, but rather how to determine the enemy against which to rebel. . . . We suffer exploitation, alienation, and command as enemies, but we do not know where to locate the production of oppression.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (211-212) 20141023f 0 -9+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Being-against in every place, evacuation of the places of power; desertion replaces sabotage. (211-212) If there is no longer a place that can be recognized as outside, we must be against in every place. This being against becomes the essential key to every active political position in the world, ever desire that is effective perhaps of democracy itself. The first anti-fascist partisans in Europe, armed deserted confronting their traitorous governments, we aptly called against-men. Today the generalized being-against of the multitude must recognize imperial sovereignty as the enemy and discover the adequate means to subvert its power.
(212) Here we see once again the republican principle in the very first instance: desertion, exodus, and nomadism. Whereas in the disciplinary era sabotage was the fundamental notion of resistance, in the era of imperial control it may be desertion. Whereas being-against in modernity often meant a direct and/or dialectical opposition of forces, in postmodernity being-against might well be most effective in an oblique or diagonal stance. Battles against the Empire might be won through subtraction and defection. This desertion does not have a place; it is the evacuation of the places of power.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (213) 20141023g 0 -8+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Specter of migration, desertion powerful form of class struggle but still spontaneous, often resulting in rootless poverty and misery; need new global vision organizing desire as well as destructive capabilities. (213) A specter haunts the world and it is the specter of migration. . . . Desertion and exodus are a powerful form of class struggle within and against imperial postmodernity. This mobility, however, still constitutes a spontaneous level of struggle, and, as we noted earlier, it most often leads today to a new rootless condition of poverty and misery.
(214) We need a force capable of not only organizing the destructive capacities of the multitude, but also constituting through the desires of the multitude an alternative. The counter-Empire must also be a new global vision, a new way of living in the world.

2 2 4 (+) [-6+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (217-218) 20141111d 0 -4+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Passage to deconstructive phase of critical thought by Heidegger, Adorno, Derrida adequate for exiting modernity but cyborg technologies introduced by Haraway offer better place for continuing it. (217-218) With this passage the deconstructive phase of critical thought, which from Heidegger and Adorno to Derrida provided a powerful instrument for the exit from modernity, has lost its effectiveness. It is now a closed parenthesis and leaves us faced with a new task: constructive, in the non-place, a new place; constructing ontologically new determinations of the human, of living a powerful artificiality of being. Donna Harawayâs cyborg fable, which resides at the ambiguous boundary between human, animal, and machine, introduces us today, much more effectively than deconstruction, to these new terrains of possibility but we should remember that this is a fable and nothing more. The force that must instead drive forward theoretical practice to actualize these terrains of potential metamorphosis is still (and ever more intensely) the common experience of the new productive practices and the concentration of productive labor on the plastic and fluid terrain of the new communicative, biological, and mechanical technologies.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (247-248) 20141031f 0 -6+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Objective of global factory-society through infusion of disciplinary modernized the rest of the world, which even leaders of socialist states endorsed; remember Marxism hated the poor. (247-248) From the standpoint of capital, the dream of this model was that eventually every worker in the world, sufficiently disciplined, would be interchangeable in the global productive process a global factory-society and a global Fordism. . . . The real substance of the effort, the real take-off toward modernity, which was in fact achieved, was the spread of the disciplinary regime throughout the social spheres of production and reproduction.
(248) The leaders of the socialist states agreed in substance on this disciplinary project.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (249) 20141031g 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Processes of liberation resulted in new production of subjectivity beyond modernization in the multitude; primary tasks is getting out of modernity. (249) The revolutionary processes of liberation determined by the multitude actually pushed beyond the ideology of modernization, and in the process revealed an enormous new production of subjectivity.
(250) The struggle of subaltern populations for their liberation remained an explosive and uncontainable mixture.
(251) The struggles for liberation, in the very moment when they were situated and subordinated in the world market, recognized insufficient and tragic keystone of modern sovereignty. Exploitation and domination could no longer be imposed in their modern forms. As these enormous new subjective forces emerged from colonialization and reached modernity, they recognized that
the primary task is not getting into but getting out of modernity.

2 2 4 (+) [-4+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (253) 20141031h 0 -5+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
New disciplinary regime constructs desire by workers for escape from its grip; emergence of transversal mobility, rhizomatic lines of flight among disciplined labor power. (253) When the new disciplinary regime constructs the tendency toward a global market of labor power, it constructs also the possibility of its antithesis. It constructs the desire to escape the disciplinary regime and tendentially an undisciplined multitude of workers who want to be free.
(253) The constitution of a global market organized along a disciplinary model is traversed by tensions that open mobility in every direction; it is a transversal mobility that is rhizomatic rather than arborescent. Our interest here is not only in giving a phenomenological description of the existing situation, but also in recognizing the possibilities inherent in that situation. The new transversal mobility of disciplined labor power is significant because it indicates a real and powerful search for freedom and the formation of new, nomadic desires that cannot be contained and controlled within the disciplinary regime.

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Capitalist regimes must reform and restructure to organize entire world market, having destabilized economic and political geographies. (254) Economic geography and political geography both are destabilized in such a way that the boundaries among the various zones are themselves fluid and mobile. As a result, the entire world market tends to be the only coherent domain for the effective application of capitalist management and command.
(254) At this point the capitalist regimes have to undergo a process of reform and restructuring in order to ensure their capacity to organize the world market.

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Processes of real subsumption depend on transformation of subjectivity through internalized discipline, not just invisible hand, but now uncontrollable. (255) At a certain point, as capitalist expansion reaches its limit, the processes of formal subsumption can no longer play the central role. The processes of the
real subsumption of labor under capital do not rely on the outside and do not involve the same processes of expansion. . . . In other words, the realization of the world market and the general equalization or at least management of rates of profit on a world scale cannot be the result simply of financial or monetary factors but must come about through a transformation of social and productive relations. Discipline is the central mechanism of this transformation. When a new social reality is formed, integrating both the development of capita and the proletarianization of the population into a single process, the political form of command must itself be modified and articulated in a manner and on a scale adequate to this process, a global quasi-state of the disciplinary regime.
(256) The movements of desiring subjectivities forced the development to go forward and proclaimed that there was no turning back. In response to these movements in both the dominant and the subordinated countries, a new form of control had to be posed in order to establish command over what was no longer controllable in disciplinary terms.

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Proletariat the general figure of social labor, though English experience should not be generalized; in postmodernity accumulation of immaterial social wealth alters object of proletarian labor, and social labor produces life itself. (258) In postmodernity the social wealth accumulated is increasingly immaterial; it involves social relations, communication systems, information, and affective networks. Correspondingly, social labor is increasingly more immaterial; it simultaneously produces and reproduces directly all aspects of social life. As the proletariat is becoming the universal figure of labor, the object of proletarian labor is becoming equally universal. Social labor produces life itself.

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Reactive technological transformation changing composition of proletariat, ecological struggle over mode of life, toward immaterial labor; relate to development of control society dividual. (268) At the same time, then, a second path had to come into play, one that would involve a technological transformation aimed no longer only at repression but rather at
changing the very composition of the proletariat, and thus integrating, dominating, and profiting from its new practices and forms. . . . The history of capitalist forms is always necessarily a reactive history: left to its own devices capital would never abandon a regime of profit. . . . The proletariat actually invents the social and productive forms that capital will be forced to adopt in the future.
(269) U.S. hegemony was actually sustained by the antagonistic power of the U.S. proletariat.
(269) In other words, capital had to confront and respond to
the new production of subjectivity of the proletariat. This new production of subjectivity reached (beyond the struggle over welfare, which we have already mentioned) what might be called an ecological struggle, a struggle over the mode of life, that was eventually expressed in the developments of immaterial labor.

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Ecological consciousness over struggle over nature as everything outside the capitalist relation; yet capitalist remains healthy. (270) Everything outside the capitalist relation be it human, animal, vegetable, or mineral was seen from the perspective of capital and its expansion as nature. The critique of capitalist imperialism thus expressed an ecological consciousness ecological precisely insofar as it recognized the real limits of nature and the catastrophic consequences of its destruction.
(270) Well, as we write this book and the twentieth century draws to a close, capitalism is miraculously healthy, its accumulating more robust than ever. . . . There are three ways we might approach this mystery of capitalâs continuing health.

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Machine-made nature and culture the reactive adaption to intensive expansion that keeps capitalism healthy; all of nature subject to capital through real subsumption under postmodern accumulation. (272) Capital no longer looks outside but rather inside its domain, and its expansion is thus intensive rather than extensive. This passage centers on a qualitative leap in the technological organization of capital. Previous stages of the industrial revolution introduced machine-made consumer goods and then machine-made machines, but now we find ourselves confronted with machine-made raw materials and foodstuffs in short, machine-made nature and machine-made culture. . . . Through the processes of modern technological transformation, all of nature has become capital, or at least has become subject to capital. Whereas modern accumulation is based on the formal subsumption of the noncapitalist environment, postmodern accumulation relies on the real subsumption of the capitalist terrain itself. . . . In the next section well will confront directly the real processes of postmodernization, or the informatization of production.

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Disciplinary regime no longer contains needs and desires of the young; Nietzschean transvaluation of values toward more flexible dynamic of creativity and immaterial forms of production. (274) The mass refusal of the disciplinary regime, which took a variety of forms, was not only a negative expression but also a moment of creation, what Nietzsche calls a transvaluation of values.
(274) The movements valued instead a more flexible dynamic of creativity and what might be considered more immaterial forms of production.

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Production of new subjectivity through relationship between proletariat and autonomous production; new configurations of capital required to govern immaterial, cooperative, communicative, affective composition of labor power. (275) A regime of production, and above all a regime of the production of subjectivity, was being destroyed and another invented by the enormous accumulation of struggles.
(276) The restructuring of production, from Fordism to post-Fordism, from modernization to postmodernization, was anticipated by the rise of a new subjectivity. . . . Capital did not need to invent a new paradigm (even if it were capable of doing so) because the truly creative moment had already taken place. Capitalâs problem was rather to dominate a new composition that had already been produced autonomously and defined within a new relationship to nature and labor, a relationship of autonomous production.
(276) The only configurations of capital able to thrive in the new world will be those that adapt to and govern the new immaterial, cooperative, communicative, and affective composition of labor power.

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Structural incapacity of Soviet system to transcend disciplinary governability; resistance to bureaucratic dictatorship similar to rebellions in capitalist countries. (276-277) Our thesis, which we share with many scholars of the Soviet world, is that the system went into crisis and fell apart because of its structural incapacity to go beyond the model of disciplinary governability, with respect to both its mode of production, which was Fordist and Taylorist, and its from of political command, which was Keynesian-socialist and thus simply modernizing internally and imperialst externally.
(278) Resistance to the bureaucratic dictatorship is what drove the crisis. The Soviet proletariatâs refusal of work was in fact the very same method of struggle that the proletariat in the capitalist countries deployed, forcing their governments into a cycle of crisis, reform, and restructuring.
(279) The Soviet machine turned in on itself and ground to a halt, without the fuel that only new productive subjectivities can produce.

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Economic postmodernization or informatization the third paradigm following agriculture and industrialization. (280) Economic
modernization involves the passage from the first paradigm to the second, from the dominance of agriculture to that of industry. Modernization means industrialization. We might call the passage from the second paradigm to the third, from the domination of industry to that of services and information, a process of economic postmodernization, or better, informatization.

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Process of modernization has come to an end, indicated by migration to service jobs in dominant capitalist countries that highlight role of knowledge, information, affect, communication. (285) The processes of becoming human and the nature of the human itself were fundamentally transformed in the passage defined by modernization.
(285) In our times, however,
modernization has come to an end. . . . Whereas the process of modernization was indicated by a migration of labor from agriculture and mining (the primary sector) to industry (the secondary), the process of postmodernization or informatization has been demonstrated through the migration from industry to service jobs (the tertiary), a shift that has taken place in the dominant capitalist countries, and particularly in the United States, since the early 1970s. Services cover a wide range of activities from health care, education, and finance to transportation, entertainment, and advertising. The jobs for the most part are highly mobile and involve flexible skills. More important, they are characterized in general by the central role played by knowledge, information, affect, and communication. In this sense many call the postindustrial economy an informational economy.

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Castells and Aoyama informatization paths toward service economy and info-industrial models. (286) In effect, as industries are transformed, the division between manufacturing and services is becoming blurred.
(286) On the basis of the change of employment statistics in the G-7 countries since 1970, Manuel Castells and Yuko Aoyama have discerned two basic models or paths of informatization. . . . The first path tends toward a
service economy model and is led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. This model involves a rapid decline in industrial jobs and a corresponding rise in service-sector jobs. In particular, the financial services that manage capital come to dominate the other service sectors. In the second model, the info-industrial model, typified by Japan and Germany, industrial employment declines more slowly than it does in the first model, and, more important, the process of informatization is closely integrated into and serves to reinforce the strength of existing industrial production.

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Everything dominated by informational economy; no development stages but rather lines of global hierarchy of production. (287-288) Today all economic activity tends to come under the dominance of the informational economy and to be qualitatively transformed by it. The geographical differences in the global economy are not signs of the co-presence of different stages of development but lines of the new global hierarchy of production.

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Toyotist model alters communication between factory and market, inverting muted to rapid feedback loop. (289-290) A first aspect of this transformation is recognized by many in terms of the change in factory labor using the auto industry as a central point of reference from the Fordist model to the Toyotist model. The primary structural change between these models involves the system of communication between the production and the consumption of commodities, that is, the passage of information between the factory and the market. The Fordist model constructed a relatively mute relationship between production and consumption.
(290) Toyotism is based on an inversion of the Fordist structure of communication between production and consumption. Ideally, according to this model, production planning will communicate with markets constantly and immediately.

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Need Levi anthropology of cyberspace for informatization postmodernization mode of human machine existence. (289) Just as modernization did in a previous era, postmodernization or informatization today marks a new mode of becoming human. Where the production of soul is concerned, as Musil would say, one really ought to replace the traditional techniques of industrial machines with the cybernetic intelligence of information and communication technologies. We must invent what Pierre Levy calls an anthropology of cyberspace.

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Anthropology of cyberspace is recognition of Toyotist, computer mediated model to human thought and action. (291) We even learned (with the help of Muybridgeâs photos, for example) to recognize human activity in general as mechanical. Today we increasingly think like computers, while communication technologies and their model of interaction are becoming more and more central to laboring activities. One novel aspect of the computer is that it can continually modify its own operation through its use. . . . The anthropology of cyberspace is really a recognition of the new human condition.

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Reich symbolic-analytical services divides workforce into high and low skill informational activities, from strategic brokering activities to routine symbol manipulation. (291-292) Robert Reich calls the kind of immaterial labor involved in computer and communication work symbolic-analytical services tasks that involve problem-solving, problem-identifying, and strategic brokering activities. This type of labor claims the highest value, and thus Reich identifies it as the key to competition in the new global economy. He recognizes, however, that the growth of these knowledge-based jobs of creative symbolic manipulation implies a corresponding growth of low-value and low-skill jobs of routine symbol manipulation, such as data entry and word processing.

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Computer proposed as universal tool, and labor tends toward abstract labor. (292) The computer proposes itself, in contrast, as the universal tool, or rather as the central tool, through which all activities might pass. Through the computerization of production, then, labor tends toward the position of abstract labor.

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Affective labor the other face of immaterial labor, producing social networks, communities, biopower. (292) The other face of immaterial labor is the
affective labor of human contact and interaction.
(293) Affective labor is better understood by beginning from what feminist analyses of womenâs work have called labor in the bodily mode. Caring labor is certainly immersed in the corporeal, the somatic, but the affects it produces are nonetheless immaterial. What affective labor produces are social networks, forms of community, biopower.

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Cooperation immanent to laboring activity itself, suggesting elementary communism built into immaterial labor. (294) In other words, the cooperative aspect of immaterial labor is not imposed or organized from the outside, as it was in previous forms of labor, but rather, cooperation is completely immanent to the laboring activity itself. . . . Brains and bodies still need others to produce value, but the others they need are not necessarily provided by capital and its capacities to orchestrate production. Today productivity, wealth, and the creation of social surpluses take the form of cooperative interactivity through linguistic, communicational, and affective networks. In the expression of its own creative energies, immaterial labor thus seems to provide the potential for a kind of spontaneous and elementary communism.

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Assembly line replaced by network as organizational model. (295) In the passage to the informational economy, the assembly line has been replaced by
the network as the organizational model of production, transforming the forms of cooperation and communication within each productive site and among productive sites. . . . In effect, the network of laboring cooperation requires no territorial or physical center.

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