CRITICAL PROGRAMMING: Toward A Philosophy Of Computing

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation


Chapter 2 Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg

2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, Heideggers America, inventing the posthuman

2.2 cybernetics, embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and methodology

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, philosophy of technology

3.2 social construction of technology, ensoniment, histories of computing networking and software, psycho-social studies of computer programmers

3.3 software studies, game studies, code space, critical code studies

3.4 platform studies, diachrony in synchrony, technogenesis and synaptogenesis, cyborg revisited

Chapter 4 Philosophical programmers

4.1 system engineers pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists

4.2 application developers beyond hard mastery and bricolage, auto-ethnographers of coding places

Chapter 5 Critical programming studies

5.1 working code places

5.2 programming philosophers

5.3 symposia, ensoniment

5.4 tapoc, flossification

5.5 pmrek, machine embodiment

Chapter 6 Conclusion

6.1 recommendations

6.2 future directions

Works Cited

Undefined Notes

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Packet switching that has become dominant network practice arose in ARPANET and other early networks from margins to center. (7)

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Contested origins of packet switching include independent invention by Baran and Davies in US and England. (8)

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Adoption of packet switching dependent on social fit as much as technical criteria. (8)

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The movie Dr Strangelove highlighted vulnerability of existing communication channels. (9)

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Rand role in computer science research positioned it to develop military network communications. (10)

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Baran envisioned multiplexed, distributed communications using multiple formats and media. (11)

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Store and forward switching; see analysis of telegraph operations by Hayles. (11)

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Adaptive routing allows distributed nodes to make use of their extra links. (13)

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Examining other state of the art messaging systems like ATT AUTOVON to tease out innovations of Baran ideas, in particular local intelligent routing of an all digital system using redundant components with lower quality communications links. (13-14)

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Packet switching method explained. (17-18)

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Baran more interested in building a distributed network for flexible transmission of bursty data, which called for time division multiplexing, than employing packet switching for its own sake. (18)

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Baran presented and published his work, though academic computer scientists not focused on survivability. (21)

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Wilson in UK eager to enact economic and technological regime via Minitech. (22)

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Davies priority was interactivity and user friendliness. (23)

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Time sharing model addressed mismatch between human and computer paces of action. (24)

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Independent development in both UK and US, time sharing fomented excitement for interactive computing business models. (25-26)

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Davies awareness of inadequate data communications for interactive computing led to ideas of packet switching. (26-27)

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Packet switching the communications equivalent of time sharing, achieving fairness in access. (27)

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Davies wanted to commercialize packet switching under Wilson economic revitalization plan, proposing national network offering numerous civilian services. (28)

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Unable to gain support, Davies developed in house experimental network at National Physical Laboratory. (29)

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Design focused on interface for providing remote resources to business people with identical access procedures as local resources, a concept ahead of its time. (31)

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Davies Mark I had only local impact. (33)

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Conversational Computing on the South Bank generated public debate and user activism. (35)

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IPTO [Information Processing Techniques Office] project office of ARPA funded establishment of computer science as a discipline in the US, and created research centers at universities whose connection the ARPANET intended. (36)

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Roberts adopted some of NPL packet switching design, then encountered Baran book on distributed communications leading to routing revelation. (37)

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Computer technologies become policy instruments in US and UK, though the US government was less inclined to manage domestic computer industry than UK. (40)

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Packet switching seen as superior technique only after success of highly visible examples. (41)

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Licklider inspiration for ARPANET as logical extension of time sharing. (43)

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Unique technical and managerial strategies by Roberts. (47)

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Packet switching vetted by success of ARPANET. (47)

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Message protocol proposed to address variety of computers to be connected. (48)

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Resistance by PIs who did not want to lose control over computing resources. (50)

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Layered, decentralized, collegial management. (51)

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Layered system has technical and social implications; connect to diachrony in synchrony. (51)

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Division of labor plan by principal investigator Clark led to subnet of IMP minicomputers. (52)

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Protocol stack model. (53)

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Network itself provided new methods of coordination, though still an old boy network. (54)

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Basic infrastructure of time sharing hosts, packet switching IMPs, and leased lines; contract from IMPs to BBN, other contracts awarded less formally. (56-57)

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Hope that Engelbart NLS at SRI would provide network information center. (59)

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Network Working Group supported UCLA PhD students Crocker, Cert, Postel under Kleinrock. (59)

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Surprising reliability through acknowledgments and checksums using digital rather than analog system. (61)

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Routing the most difficult switching task, which was distributed so each IMP independently and adaptively decided where to send packets, making the system more robust, but also prone to unexpected interactions. (61-62)

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Enforcement of distinctions between network layers became way to manage social relations and reduce technical complexity. (62-63)

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Remote monitoring and control and automatic recovery as key components of ideal distributed network. (63)

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Terminal IMP opened the network to users without ARPANET hosts. (64)

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NCC leader McKenzie promoted vision of ARPANET as computer utility, foreshadowing integration of computing and telecommunications systems; NCC managerial reinforcement of layering. (65)

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Host and application layers precursor to TCP/IP. (67)

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Core applications were telnet, ftp, and later, email; common formats for representing files and terminals addressed compatibility issues among different types of host machines. (68-69)

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National social networks develped through workshops and retreats. (69)

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BBN force by ARPA to make IMP source code freely available. (70-71)

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Disagreements between BBN and more theoretical groups, but in general the perceived joint effort argued to be unique in computer science at the time. (71)

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Roberts entrusted creating host protocols to relatively inexperienced researchers of the Network Working Group, which developed Requests for Comments as means of disseminating technical proposals to promote informal communication and sharing of ideas; informal evolution of formal standards though RFCs and NWG meetings. (73)

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ARPA managers shielded research projects from often conflicting national politics while presenting pragmatic and security reasons to Congress for supporting projects. (75)

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Computer scientists perceived ARPA as offering large degree of intellectual freedom. (77)

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Connecting a host to the subnet the primary obstacle, but public interest in networking also needed to be increased, inspiring ICCC. (78)

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ICCC demo featured numerous interesting uses of networked applications and remote communications, a turning point in use of the ARPANET spanning commercial services and training a generation of American computer scientists in its techniques. (79)

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Predictions by APRA about users benefits were wrong, so its success needs explained rather than taken for granted, focusing on active users who played a role in its development; go beyond simple view of consumers amassing after a technology has been delivered to the market. (83)

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Consider Turkle critique of virtual communities against heroic struggle to create new ways of interacting. (84)

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Challenge of using early ARPANET, contrary to ease of access and use taken for granted today with the Internet, transformed by virtual communities built by experiments building features like sharing information, support, recreation in the network environment. (84)

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Reliance on local knowledge led to development of online documentation, system announcements, email support that spread virtual community and became our habitual practices of interactivity. (89)

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Ironic that TIP users wanted features of synchronous batch terminal designed for batch processing. (91)

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ANTS terminal and peripheral interface was too difficult to debug and maintain. (92)

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MIT turned its IMP into hub for a LAN, supporting many unplanned uses of ARPANET devised by its users, increasing its perceived value. (93-94)

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Failure of organized lobbying by USING. (95)

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Datacomputer as early specialized network resource meant to dominate future of computing; Lanier siren server the model that succeeded. (98)

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Unexpected advantages of networked computing by giving researchers access to other machines, programming languages, and services. (99)

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Information sharing and enhanced collaboration noted by computer scientists as key benefits of networking, transforming how science was done; did their anonymous transfers and software theft become cultural norm? (100)

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Ideal of resource sharing declined, and distributed computing never materialized; did need for administration of distributed computing resources lead to siren servers? (104)

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Social value of email practiced within ARPA and DoD. (107-108)

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Email a surprise success because network built for providing computer access shifting to connecting people. (109)

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Users did not collaborate like model promoted by SRI NIC, using mostly email and file transfer due to their simplicity compared to NLS developed by Engelbart. (109)

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User centered design through participation of non-expert users promoted by Lukasik such as adding features to mail readers since email was the most popular non-expert use. (109-110)

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Mailing lists credited for creating and maintaining ARPANET user virtual community; compare to recent criticisms of using same term as locally congregating physical personal communities, as computer programming language is also noted as an ambiguous equivocation with human natural languages. (110)

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Virtual communities provided new substantiation of humans forming communities through shared interests without respect to bodily proximity. (110)

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Email use and participation in virtual communities altered common perception of ARPANET as communications system more than computing system, that is, a place for running programs; here computing descended into background both as internalizing interface use, evolved behavior Thrift attributes to coaction of technical unconscious with human endeavor. (111)

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In seduction, sovereign otherness of the Other can lead to our death since we may be baring our phallus to be loved. (173-174)

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In the final chapter of his Orality and Literacy Ong ponders the relationship between writing and human communication in the "technologizing of the word" by opposing the poles of âprimary orality,â in which real-time speech acts constitute the sole means of extended information exchange, and the âmediaâ pipelines that have come under so much criticism in our century. The former occurs in the interpersonal environment where immediate feedback between speaker and audience is the norm; the latter, as McLuhan puts it, ".statisics.." Situated in between we find the âvirtualâ characteristic of the printed word in which author and reader never really meet but nevetheless bear some fundamental relationship setting the parameters of the exchange, but even direct speech requires some hypothetical perspectivizing:

To speak, I have to be somehow already in communication with the mind I am to adress before I start speaking. I can be in touch perhaps through past relationships, by an exchange of glances, by and understanding with a third person who has brought me and my interlocutor together. . . .Human communication is never one-way. Always, it not only calls for response but is shaped in its very form and content by anticipated response.

That is not to say that I am sure how the other will respond to what I say. But I have to be able to conjeture a possible range of responses at least in some vague way. I have to be somehow inside the mind of the other in advance in order to enter with my message, and her or she must be instide my mind. . . . Communication is intersubjective. The media model is not. There is no adequate model in the physical universe for this operation of consciousness, which is distinctively human and which signals the capacity of human begins to form true communities wherein person shares with person interiorly, intersubjectively.(177)

All of this is quite obvious to anyone reflecting upon it. Psychoanalysts and those attempting to develop artificial intelligences may oppose Ongâs anthrocentrism, which is directly tied to his conviction that true inter-intra-subjective communication occurs regularly in human groups. I will explore this prejudice later when I weave Lacan into the tapestry. The next stage in the argument, however, simply involves considering what happens when we move beyond direct speech to virtual systems such as writing: without real-time sensual awareness staying "in touch" with the interlocutor becomes difficult. Instead we drift towards the âmediaâ model in which (caricatured) "my mind is a box. I take a unit of âinformationâ out of it, encode the unit, and put in into one end of the pipe. From the other end of the pipe the âinformationâ proceeds to the other end, where someone decodes it and puts it in his or her own box-like container called a mind."(Ong, 176) The pipe serves as a medium between the two participants (a topic Plato brings up in the speech of DI). Of course the encoding and transmission do not rest wholly upon the whim of the author: sHe always addresses some other, even if only hirself (in notes and diaries).

For a writer any real recipient is normally absent (if a recipient is accidentally present, the inscribing of the message itself proceeds as though the person were somehow absent otherwise, why write?). The fictionalizing of readers is what makes writing so difficult. The process is complex and fraught with uncertainties. I have to know the tradition the intertextuality, if you wish in which I am working so that I can create for real readers ficitonal roles that they are able and willing to play.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 19950125 19950125 0 -70+ journal_1995.html

in logic we use a lot of stock examples when we teach you how to make that critical transition from nl to our fs, the kind you might put into a computer.

* = and, but, et, also, too .. keep regurgitatin the little codes Iâve given you and you never think for yourself .. passing the tests of thinking, like a Turing test

give you the space to study reality so that itâs your choice, what you decide to analyze, so that itâs your choice what youâre going to analyze and then it will be, finally, a reasoned, decisive argument on your part - at least as you pass it onto the rest of the class for consideration - it will be your decision for those critical translations from natural language to the abstract are made.

If Iâm going to do anything .. itâs giving you an endless stream of examples .. my thoughts, my analyses .. which means that you should think about my examples and my imperfections .. maybe I get lost in my own beautiful thoughts .. thatâs what we philosophers value .. what F called sublimation

Record of what I thought about and wrote on the board in Olscamp 211 before class on Tuesday .. then class begins (7962)

JAN.25 1995 JUMP to Callenâs seminar .. criticisms D&G make

*** goto notes and fill in both at once: that means linking NOTES to this file ***



8891 go back to my diagram, my Oedipal history .. in one sense this seminar is my master signifier .. jouissance .. at least at this point in my life ..

Dear John, I love you.

--The Pope--

someone added while I was out

0000 to Gedeonâs lab session yesterday .. I was going to read to you from the Transparency of Evil .. I found the RC which means I can turn off the camera----

we have our function generator. First thing you have to do is make sure there are zero DC volts out. Because it has a DC offset as well as an amplitude .. make sure Ov on OS out. Then turn up amplitude until you have {that} .. we should be seeing on CH2 is the sign wave, and on the other channel the result of the clipping action (CH1) .. when youâre measuring make sure you measure DC so you have a reference. If I turn it to AC thereâs a capacitor in the OS which blocks the DC component and everything comes out on the same line where the trace would go: no displacement up, no displacement below a ground reference. So you take these measurements with switch on DC-coupled, not AC-coupled.

Everybody remember what an offset voltage is? My AC will ride it.

JUMP () to close up of our Scope (0056) usage to view both inputs, at low frequencies, with CHOP rather than ALT, which would flicker at low frequencies .. Settings of 1V/div and 2ms/div gives us 6Vp-p at 200Hz .. adding energy stored into capacitor to the Vout during the +/-? part of the cycle

JUMP (87) Fredâs class on symbolaia and koinonemata .. a business contract where thereâs some sort of transaction .. the modern term âsymbolâ derives ultimately from this Greek word symbolia which is I believe so called because a visual sign of the contract takes place .. (I speak off the top of my head = almost free association)

symbolaia probably more tangible .. visible tokens

k as just acts of communication .. youâre right to fix on this because itâs one of the key concepts from the R .. a community, having something in common .

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When what used to excite you does not, like you ve used up all your allowance of experiences.. (The Fall, Step Sideways )

Oh I wish I could write you a melody so plain
That would hold you dear lady from going insane
That would cool you and ease you and cease the pain
Of all your useless and pointless knowledge! (Bob Dylan, Tombstone Blues )

** I think I patched a version of this up before Deleuze!

August, 1881
Up, abysmal thought, out of my depth! ..And once you are awake, you shall remain awake eternally. It is not my way to awaken great-grandmothers from their sleep to bid them sleep on! (TSZ, The Convalescent )

In the third part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra, in the section The Convalescent, we witness the staging of the birth of Overman sustained, if not contained, by the consciousness of a particular thought. Zarathustra himself has not yet incorporated the thought in its full measure: he is still possessed by the spirit of gravity and revenge. Immediately the curtain drops; words cannot be found with which to represent this thought of thoughts. So he becomes catatonic rather than lose the thought, an eerie forshadowing of Nietzsche s own demise, if we believe history. Upon returning again to normal reality, Zarathustra tells his animals that he was sickened by the disgusting idea that the last man recurs eternally that is the knowledge that choked him. Yet the animals bid him not to go on speaking; it is better that he sing, and in order to do that, fashion a new lyre first. So Zarathustra returns to his soulful meditation, where, in turn, the being that speaks addresses its other (soul, spirit, unconscious), and annihilates itself by bidding that other to reveal the mystery of the thought of thoughts with new songs to it; even now you are glowing and dreaming and drinking thirstily from all deep and resounding wells of comfort: even now your melancholy is resting in the happiness of future songs.

The story is familiar: TSZ is the most personal of N s published writings, but admittedly only a vestibule of the planned main work. [***] Consequently, you can affix the heading Incipit tragoedia, of the final section of the first version of The Gay Science, which would become Zarathustra s prologue, to Nietzsche himself. Almost as if, sensing the futility of trying to communicate to his contemporaries, he settled for screaming into the future madman, buffoon, tragi-comic figure to be born posthumously in beings better suited to the task at hand. For what purpose? To teach the thought of eternal recurrence; that it might become the thought of future beings, and not become lost.

Could Nietzsche have imagined the world the dying Heidegger left? The sorts of lyres, and the manner in which various artists were singing those future songs of Zarathustra s revelries? For we must not forget that Jim Morrison, among others, derived his primary inspiration from reading Nietzsche. And, like Nietzsche, creating a strange new electrical musical poetry: break on through to the other side. It would still be a decade before the proliferation of microcomputers would transform the very manner in which philosophers genuine philosophers, if you do not want to admit that The Doors qualify in the universities produced their texts and conducted their research. Others would argue that the musical and cinematagraphic experimention inspired by Nietzschean writing far exceeds the paper-bound productions in academia. Only a year later, however, it was to Michael Heim s astonishment that, in 1977, the various editions of Being and Time were being analyzed by computers for their textual discrepancies.

The Present
Now as the world impatiently awaits the release of Windows 95 , and every domain of human existence is in the process of being renamed with the prefix cyber- (cyberpunk, cybersage, cyberwar ..), the philosophical question bursts forth: so, has the age of Overman finally arrived? I will present this question in two contrasting forms, that of the Nietzsche lectures Heidegger, and that of the late 60âs Anti-Oedipus Deleuze:

What is needed is a form of mankind that is from top to bottom equal to the unique fundamental essence of modern technology and its metaphysical truth; that is to say, that it lets itself be entirely dominated by the essence of technology precisely in order to steer and deploy individual technological processes and possibilities. (IV,117)

[H]e made thought into a machine of war a battering ram into a nomadic force. And even if the journey is a motionless one, even if it occurs on the spot, imperceptible, unexpected, and subterranean, we must ask ourselves, Who are our nomads today, our real Nietzscheans? ( Nomad Thought ,149)

While the Zarathustra mythos hardly calls up images of an urban, technological society driven by the promise of newer and better living appliances, and the accompanying armies of ant-like workers either planning and engineering these machines of world domination, or mindlessly pulling their levers and pushing their buttons, Heidegger derived exactly that scene from his interpretation of the unthought in Nieztzsche s philosophy from the unconscious metaphysics of the self-proclaimed antimetaphysician. On the one hand, most human beings number among the last men, and constitute the herd of laborers and consumers, all organs of a vast state, and in their minds content to be dominated by the prevailing values. Overman, on the other hand, undertakes the supreme task of setting hirself upon hir own course, inspired by a particular thought that never rests. That course, as Heidegger read Nietzsche, is a perfection of the Cartesian ego that sets before itself representations (beings) in the manner calculated to be most suited for whatever the project is underway in the preservation and enhancement of the being qua will to power. Selection and breeding; reprogramming-educating with the thought of the eternal return. The development of a type. Unlike the Dwarf who stands indecisively before the gate of the Moment, brought to a standstill by by a pseudo-cogitation that produces only learned commentaries, the one becoming-Overman leaps, bites off the head of this black snake of the knoweldge which chokes. A laughter erupts, of something no longer human, reactive, petty, weak. To what end? Of course, even in the midst of the Zarathustrian fantasy landscape blows the cold wind from the future, commanding resolutely a task before which each individual worker understands hir life to be a sacrificial offering:

Could you create a god? Then do not speak to me of any gods. But you could well create the overman. Perhaps not you yourselves, my brothers. But into fathers and fore-fathers of the overman you could re-create yourselves: and let this be your best creation. (TPZ, On the Blessed Isles )

We learn that Overman is the name for the being who no longer wallows in indecision before the gateway of the Moment; sHe leaps over the Dwarf and all it represents, that mode of human being guided by revenge, weighed down by the spirit of gravity, and unable do anything but wallow in the mire and write out its pathetic commentary and travelogues of this tragedy of interioriy , as Deleuze calls it. On the contrary, such a new creature is pure will to power, perhaps no longer conscious in the manner of we who stand between last man and Overman; for in contrast to the modern movement of elevating the rationale of the famous homo est animal rationale, Nietzsche s program, it seems, elevates both.

Here valuation and valuative thought first come to themselves, not simply in the way than an instinctive act also knows and casually observes itself, but rather in such a way that this consciousness becomes an essential moment and a driving force in the whole of behavior. What we describe with the ambiguous name instinct now comes to be not merely something of which we were formerly unconscious but now know; consciousness, psychological reckoning, and calculation now become instinct proper. (IV,49-50)

Hence we have the blond beast. Yet has all of that ferocity and evil been bred only to become the sublimated pecking of Telecomputer Man before hir keyboard and monitor? Or are the characters such as the jedi knights of Star Wars more appropriate images? [If we were to blend into this analysis the central themes of Anti-Oedipus and the postmoderns, then such a question would have to work itsway through the narcissistic ideals of late capitalist society..]

Just what sort of rationality Overman might possess serves as an anchor throughout the long journey of the Nietzsche lectures, but the view of the whole becomes quite muddled. On the one hand, Heidegger emphasizes the affective component of this way of being; the first volume is called Will to Power as Art and tries to make sense of Nietzsche s views on the physiology of art, rapture, and Dionysian frenzy. On the other hand, as the lectures progress Heidegger discovers at the core of Nietzsche s thought the Cartesian subiectum, and the emphasis shifts towards the concerns of a calculus of values, reading truth as estimability of an attainable use. (III,53) The first volume s discussion of rapture, which seems to care little for conserving energy or computing values, falls away. Where the issue of art and creation does remain, it must cater to the aim of creating Overman, and necessarily comply once more to determining the highest (i.e. most useful) values (beings) of the moment, as stepping stones onto the next level, which in the end merely repeats the will to power s cycle of overcoming itself.

Every valuation in the essential sense must not only bring its possibilities to bear in order to be understood at all, it must at the same time develop a breed of men who can bring a new attitude to the new valuation, in order that they may bear it into the future. New requirements and prerequisites must be bred. (I,27)

Heidegger made it his task to uncover the inner mechanism that made the coming-to-be of a Nietzsche inevitable, the consequence of the long history of Western metaphysical thinking. Heidegger even had the audacity to give the Overman hir task:

If one can speak of aim here at all, then the aim is the aimlessness of man s absolute dominance over the earth. ..The absolute determination of Nietzsche s thought about the Overman lies precisely in the fact that he recognizes the essential indeterminateness of absolute power, although he does not express it in this fashion. Absolute power is pure overpowering as such, absolute supersedence, superiority, and command the singular, the most high. (IV,82)

Having expunged the former highest values by taking away the possibilty of making any assessment of the meaning of beings as a whole, all that is left is Overman and hir environment, the planet. Prior to Overman the task was the challenging forth from the nature of man Overman hirself, who is pure wil to power. So besides the goal-less activity of will to power s continual overpowering itself, obviously what s left for Overman to command into standing-reserve is the environment, a home to be continually transformed and improved. Flush toilets in the philosophy department, self-propelled lawnmowers, microwave ovens, and so on. For we assume Overman still suffers on account of being a body . In the midst of all this improvement, what is Overman preparing to finally do? Heidegger alludes to the thrust into outer space, but at the time of his Nietzsche lectures migration from the planet was really not on the national agenda; so instead, the reign of active nihilism continues to reject each plan that comes to the fore. As Deleuze says, a process of auto-destruction purifies the reactive forces that still prevail as our mode of being (consciousness); we are still children.

Still the question remains: where do we stand today? Heidegger claimed that the purpose of his Nietzsche lectures was to determine where we stand today in the intellectual history of the West; stand within the moment that the history of Being has opened up for our age. ..To grasp here means consciously to experience what has been named in its essence and so to recognize in what moment of the hidden history of the West we stand ; to recognize whether we do stand in it, or are falling, or alreadly lie prostrate in it, or whether we neither surmise the one nor are touched by the other two, but merely indulge in the illusions of common opinion and the daily round, floundering in utter dissatisfaction with ourselves. ..Thoughtful knowing is in itself comportment, which is sustained in being not by some particular being but by Being.(10)

Use just once and destroy is the refrain of the age, where nihilism completely encircles thinking so that metaphysics itself looses its grip on that beyond of beings that Heidegger always invokes Being.

The authenticity of nihilism historically takes the form of inauthenticity, which accomplishes the omission of the default by omitting this very omission. What with its unqualified affirmation of beings as such, it does not and cannot get involved with whatever might concern Being itself. The full essence of nihilism is the original unity of its authenticity and inauthenticity.

..The omission of the default of Being as such appears in the shape of an explanation of Being as value. Reduced to a value, Being is derived from the being as a condition for it as such.

Nihilism that there is nothing to Being itself always means precisely this for metaphysical thought: there is nothing to the being as such. The very path into the experience of the essence of nihilism is therefore barred to metaphysics. ..Being itself stays away in the very priority of the question about the being as such. (IV,220)
Thoughtful knowing reveals the following: we are all Overman to some degree.

The Overman, the absolute rule of pure power, is the meaning (the aim) of what alone has being; namely, the earth. .. Overman is not meant to be a mere amplification of prior man, but the most unequivocally singular form of human existence that, as absolute will to power, is brought to power in every man to some degree and that thereby grants him his membership in being as a whole. ..The Overman simply leaves the man of traditional values behind, overtakes him, and transfers the justification for all laws and the positing of all values to the empowering of power. (IV,9)

Heidegger will not venture into psychological conjectures concerning the apparently schizophrenic nature of the person who has latched onto the thought of eternal recurrence. This term is the real stumbling block in Nietzsche studies, I think. Heidegger did quite well explicating WTP, but he seems to shy away from a confrontation with ERS.

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Visual Hallucination

visual hallucination <---> mistake in reading <--> optical illusion

The sense of this non-biunivocal relation, if you can believe such a heretical usage of language could come under the heading of philosophy, invites your interpretive apparatus to divide its heretofore molar stream of consciousness , which has hopefully formed in the course of this reading, along two parallel tracks. If you have been faithfully symbolizing, for the sake of record-keeping and whatever other accounting maneuvers your bureaucratic super-ego demands, the progression of your reading in units whose wffs can themselves be symbolized as atomic formulas in a tensed logic, allowing an ordering (a list of wffs) meaning or corresponding-to or (..)-you-call-[it] what I have called the logical time of the reading to appear should we desire its presence (in a separate window, perhaps). Dividing it along two parallel paths: we mean that, as you continue your study, you think simultaneously these two possibilities, whenever you detect that something strange has happened with respect to your phenomenological field:

POSSIBLE(mistake in reading) ------- PHI

/ |

--------perception--- t+1

to \ |

POSSIBLE(visual hallucination) ------- PHI

Why bother with this clarifying the deontic necessity of this distinction, when you may be able to produce a correct interpretation on the fly? Well, if we remain true to Freud, who believed that any such error signalled the surfacing of the competition of two intentions, and to Deleuze/Nietzsche, who have taught us to look for the revolutionary force, and finally to Heidegger, who warned us against falling back upon [FRENCH=se rabat sur] the readily available bridges of one-track thinking, then what would have automatically been tagged as a mistake in reading can be considered also (kai) as what, for the lack of a conceptual definition, we could call a haunting. All this happes so quickly (near the 60 Hz threshold, rather than near the average time lag before which a mistake in speaking is noticed or passed over indefinitely) that only with the aid of machines crafted for this particular purpose might they be noticed, and an alarm sounded for the users and/or the point of departure recorded for submission to later analysis.

[BM image of (..

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In terms of niche markets I wish to operate in the philosophy of computing taken from a classical approach. Ancient computing is presently associated only with calculation tools. Our own modern experience has demonstrated that general purpose computing exists that has very little to do with mathematical calculations. On the macro level there is a host of high-level applications and programming interfaces; on the micro level, we must substantially extend the notion of "mathematical" if we are to include (..). I would like to posit that apart from shared foundations in mathematical logic, and the hysteresis of their original design purposes, modern electronic computing technology has more in common with writing than it does with numerical calculation. When viewed in this manner, it is much easier to draw connections between ancient and modern computing activities. The previous proposition is questionable, and it may be safer to say the trend is toward writing. In that case we are clearly in the same domain as Phaedrus.

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My interest is in the philosophy of computing taken from the perspective of ancient philosophy and applied to the modern technological environment. In a nutshell, read Plato and learn how electronic computers work from the ground up.


1) The philosophy of computing proceeds today by default.

The philosophy of computing proceeds today by default. An immense corporate infrastructure [radiates] a philosophy of computing alongside and in general indifference to the body of academic publications on the subject. The megalomaniacal projects of certain world-historical figures like Bill Gates in his Road Ahead pay homage to no canon of literature at all, but rather are powered by the momentum of their authorâs success in the business world. Mr. Gatesâ and otherâs unexamined biases and beliefs constitute the "descriptive default." (That is, what will become evident through future analysis of âhistoryâ.)

The philosophical justification argues that computing can be <Greek-word pharmakon> from premises <Heraclitus><Xenophon>. The next two parts of the MIT Thesis are <definition><implementation>, each having their own sub-parts.

2) It is obligatory for us to revisit the general concept of computing.

Typical elaborations of the general concept of computing, where they are present, begin with the work of Babbage, von Neumann, Turing and draw a connection with modern machinery. If computing has any metaphysics or "general concept" it then tens to derive from the machinery itself, the computer languages, and the worlds they permit to exist. This constitutes a "normative default." (It is my understanding of Heideggerian terms that this would be the famous "ontic" in place of the more proper "ontological.") Our philosophical work is better served by concepts deeply rooted within our intellectual history than as if computing sprang from the minds of these recent although now mythical figures (including Bill Gates).

3) This activity must extend into practice

It is possible that the obligation to act devolves upon those possessing comprehensive understanding of computing in general, for only they can sense this default and therefore the urgency of the threat of its encompassing dominion. Consequent of this ongoing analysis, we must embrace appropriate technologies in philosophical and everyday work. Employing the putatively "highest" technologies we can afford may not be optimal practice once wed to philosophical pursuits, for now we understand true costs (not just time/money but "soul"). Following this plan (TAPOC) may require radical retooling and retraining.

We cannot understand the general concept of computing without certain associated concepts-scaffolding-such as "automaton," the thing computing. Only recently has the automaton been anything but human, the human being computing with various instruments. These instruments include internal things like ideas and speech as well as external things like calculi. The ephemeralizing design practice of building larger and larger scale systems to replace multitudinous sub-levels occurs both in the human qua computer and also in the external things. Today most computing design concerns multiplying the leverage of autonomous external systems. The human element of computing is for the most part ignored. The task appears twofold-to comprehensively understand the external technologies and also the intellectual and spiritual participation in computing activity. The default prevails to the extent that these dual aspects are not carefully considered together.

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Suppose the present crisis in technology education in America is a symptom of the default. Whether the default as operationally defined does in fact prevail is a testable hypothesis. Equally important, and potentially "able to be pursued as a parallel task", is to address the default. Can you imagine traveling around researching the hypothesis and also pursuing the second task? Why are philosophy and computing apparently incompatible? Both are time-consuming. Without an easily-accessible intellectual tradition, philosophical study of computing becomes a sequence of time-consuming, fruitless attempts, dispelling interest. Computing technology is itself time-consuming but also ineluctably compelling. Its "state of the art" bristles with impossible demands. The rift between foundational philosophy and computing can only widen as technology continues to progress.

The âhyponetâ is created in part to support TAPOC should it reach world-historical magnitude. Fuller may have imagined the leveraging power of the Internet; however, in his day he was limited to the traditional media of speaking and writing, and only beginning to employ television.

[email subject: CAP 2001 Bork]
John Bork
College of Technology, Bowling Green State University
Student Track
Proposal Abstract
Presentation Title: Toward a Philosophy of Computing

The crisis and the default. Consider the present Information Technology staffing crisis in the United States. Why has there been such a failure in supplying the IT workforce with new recruits? Can this be linked to problems at heart of the metaphysics of computing? IT work is frustrating, often repetitive, and spiritually vacuous. While philosophical topics pertaining to various aspects of computing abound today, there is a metaphysical wilderness at the heart of computing technology itself. On the one hand, without connection to an accessible intellectual tradition, there can be no rigorous philosophical study of computing by technologists. There is little reason to delve this deep when the state of the art is in such an excited frenzy. Outside of academic philosophy there are, at best, books written by megalomaniacs and computer technologists waxing philosophical, such as Bill Gatesâ The Road Ahead and the The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musing on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary by Eric S. Raymond. On the other hand, traditional academic philosophy is not prepared to confront computing technology at the level of an expert participant rather than a critic (or, worse, a would-be system architect devoid of a real technical skill set). The quintessential practical mental discipline is itself time-consuming and ineluctably compelling, posing an apparently endless program of study in order to gain a comprehensive perspective. Its "state of the art" bristles with impossible demands that seem incompatible with the already busy agendas set for philosophical research. Therefore the rift between foundational philosophy and computing technology can only widen as the latter continues to progress. The present crisis in technology education in America may be a symptom that we are, with respect to computing, philosophically "in default."

Ancient computing revisited. I try to offer a way towards the philosophical background that is currently in default by entering the wilderness of ancient literature. Let us consider computing in general once again. Electronic technology arose only recently, and it is taken for granted that its metaphysical groundwork is also a recent production. This metaphysics, where articulated, is associated with the work of modern computingâs canonical progenitors (Babbage, von Neumann, Turing, and so on). We forget that computing had existed long before the advent of autonomous machinery as a strictly human activity. Yet most philosophical inquiries into computing begin with Enlightenment-era metaphysics based purely on mathematical logic and physical science. My hypothesis, in contrast to this prejudice, is that a long tradition linking ancient and modern computing activity lies virtually unexamined. In particular Platoâs Phaedrus should be revisited as an essential resource to the philosophy of computing. Once we learn to read this work with an eye for discerning the ancient experience of computing, the case can be made to explore other long-neglected works by Greek and Roman authors. One part of the project, therefore, is to revisit "ancient computing" in order to place our modern technological environment into a manageable perspective. The second part, and the real challenge as I see it, is integrating this experience into technical skills development.

Hacking electronic pinball machines. Something needs to be said about practical activity for those who are not content with scholarly communication but feel compelled to participate directly in the philosophy of computing. The state of the art has grown so complex, so large, that the learning curve for entry-level hacking is extremely difficult, and its early results are impractical. Prepackaged simulations are not interesting, and there is little sense in doing what has already been done. Exploring the Internet is qualitatively different from programming the Apple // computer. The recent "open source" movement, centered around the Linux operating system, is an area of furious activity and an environment that seems hospitable. However, because it operates at or near the "state of the art," the barriers to its entry are substantial. Simpler introductory teaching examples that are both comprehensive and practical need to be developed. I therefore suggest the enrollment slump in technology occupations among Americans can be addressed by reinvigorating interest in basic electronic computing technology. My own life experience has drawn me to believe that hacking electronic pinball machines and other arcade games as a hobby may embody the appropriate general computing concepts discovered through a study of ancient and modern texts, and also satisfy the condition of being useful, enjoyable, and of manageable complexity. The intrinsic value of such a hobby allows the proposal to be disconnected from the philosophical arena and appeal to a wider audience. Will families will find the study enjoyable and useful? Are the critical thinking skills developed through contemplating and operating upon these complex albeit somewhat defunct systems transferable to future occupations? Perhaps promoting philosophy and computing as an integrated hobby and discipline will force a revolution within the IT industry as people are acculturated with the expectation for intellectually and spiritually satisfying work.

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At Vanâs finally. Presentation was a success although only a few in audience. Jim Moor showed interest, if only because he liked playing pinball. [Well, that was one of the points, wasnât it, that HEPM had intrinsic appeal and can be disconnected from the philosophical!] Close this chapter and consider the next major task (MIT).. Daveâs criticisms of my TDP should come first.

Vanâs old statement about only the the king and the kingâs son understanding was false; the GP also understood.

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Computer-Mediated Education: from Platoâs Phaedrus to Linux

If you can force yourself to think as a person from antiquity, Platoâs Phaedrus is all about computing. During a key part of the dialog, when Socrates tells a story about the invention of writing, he associates writing (ta grammata) with a number of similar activities, including arithmetic, logic, geometry, astronomy, and the games of dice and checkers[ (<reference>)]. We can hypothesize that the rationale for gathering these together is grounded in some fundamental characteristics they share in common. These include a rule-based representation of objects and the relations between them, and formulaic manipulations of symbolized conditions to arrive at conclusions concerning them. They are designed to influence the outcome of other processes and queries, often far removed from the arena in which these manipulations occur. These properties describe the domain of computation. [Reached by assuming Socratesâ method of integration and division unconsciously applies to that set of activities since he does not name the main concept directly, unless it is meant to be dialectics.]

[If you know the text, it appears to contain a verbatim transcription of a competitorâs published work. One could argue, therefore, that it documents ancient software piracy. This is not, however, the reason why I consider Phaedrus to be a primary resource for the philosophy of computing. ] If this hypothesis is accepted, Phaedrus should be treated as a primary resource in the philosophy of computing because it contains a number of bold assertions about writing, and, consequently, computing in general. Towards the end of the work it is stated that writing is a drug. If you equivocate writing, from this ancient perspective, with computing as we define it today, then you are led to ponder computing as a drug. This characterization is not so outrageous as it may seem. One of the primary features of computing is that it achieves its goals through the use of deterministic, mechanical procedures, which in their ideal form behave with a certainty and consistency mirroring physical laws. Indeed, it is for this reason that electronic computing equipment works so well, being constructed so as to leverage the deterministic qualities of its constituent forms and materials. Furthermore, just as a small dose of a chemical drug can have enormous effects, so also can even the most simple and smallest unit of computing, literally a single bit. Moreover, understanding of how (or even why) computations happen is not a necessary condition for their occurrence, nor even a likely epiphenomenon. Compare these two features to the action of a drug. Both are used for the sake of generating a desired effect, and their efficacy is disconnected from their usersâ knowledge or ignorance of how they actually work. Socrates makes a similar comparison between rhetoric and medicine in the Phaedrus, and places great emphasis on whether the rhetorician and the physician know, practice and teach more than the mere preliminaries of their respective arts. Like the introduction of a drug to the art of healing, the addition of the technique of writing to rhetoric, which is shown to be no minor supplement due to the evidence of the great pains that orators and legislators take to leave behind fine written productions, complicates the basic concern for revealing rather than concealing the details and inner workings of the art. Writing, which employs "external marks" to recreate speech in place of mental heuristics, can cause forgetfulness in the minds of its users because they fail to practice their memory. They become dependent instead upon the reliability of whatever external symbols are needed being ready at hand, not to mention their proper delivery. The introduction of writing, a type of computing, as "an elixir for memory," into education, which becomes computer-mediated education, can threaten the very foundation of educational objectives if it is not thoughtfully applied. It is a dangerous drug indeed.

The following analysis will show that, when it comes to computer-mediated education, we are at risk of falling into the same trap that writing posed for previous generations when it was the innovative, new technology. What is especially alarming about this conclusion is that our newly discovered, pathological comportment toward electronic computers is necessarily exacerbated by its interaction with our life-long habituation to that older type of computing equipment known as literacy. Amazingly, there is evidence that thinkers pondered similar issues in antiquity. Unfortunately, their prescriptions have been largely ignored. The goal of my work is to reveal the meaning of the "philosophy of computing" presented in Platoâs Phaedrus, and to apply its lessons to our contemporary situation. There are two parts to this: first, a warning about the dangers inherent in computing activities in general, and second, through an awareness of them, a model for best practicing these arts. The argument will be applied to the current real and ideological division between "closed source" and "open source" design philosophies, epitomized by the Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. It is in this arena that the fate of computer software development and how it is revealed to and used by consumers is being determined. Computers mediate nearly every activity today, and to the extent that computers mediate education, our mental life is at stake. Through careless application, we can be ruined. Yet the promise is held out that through wise application, we can be brought closer to the divine.

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What is the difference between "correctly arriving by accident" and "arriving by plan"? If it is not significant, then there is no reason to plan (think). Thatâs a pretty weighty statement. Along with it there are a number of other instantiations of the third order form <not><necessary>phi<operator>phiâ. They are all over the place, for they give structure to thought.

Granted there are some as-good-as-natural addictions (air, water, caffeine, writing, etc.), would you rather be addicted to some Microsoft product, or Linux?

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A "kernel <verb>" design flaw is like the power management disabling âmain memoryâ (i.e., the CDROM) causing all processes to be blocked or preempted while the kernel waits for the CDROM to be available. Disable apm support in the BIOS and OS. It may be sufficient to disable "hard drive inactive poweroff." While this is a matter of logical correctness, and is equivalent to the notion of starvation, preemptions are multiple transitory periods of starvation, and are more likely to accelerate the wear on parts to cause failures in the future. "Kernel busting" episodes denote unacceptable performance.

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We certainly expect to be convinced by an account stating that there are two quick points to make about computing: we go back to Cicero and Diogenes Laertius.

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Epistemologically knowledge, research and instrumentation converge. Does this have anything to do with computing?

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The philosophy of computing, taken as a recent development tied to the proliferation of electronic machinery, has predominantly <verb> within the <noun> of western capitalism. Included under this rubric is the calculative thinking that bends favor towards purchasing solutions. What is not recognized is that the problems themselves are more and more being put forward by the very mechanisms that supply the solutions. On another track, Bill Gates recently compared FOSS to communism. Philosophy hitherto has been the struggle of natural automata to control each other. A computational epistemology has evolved, with contemplative imagination the only refuge from logical necessity. Taking the computational turn philosophy can and should direct its influence also to the control of artificial automata, in order to free natural automata from its unreasonable ethic, which Nietzsche demonstrated and Heidegger explained leads to maddening futility.

There is the basic (discrete) process control and multiple levels of supervisory control. Typically the latter operate at significantly lower frequencies than the former, especially when the process being controlled is a microcomputer-based control unit. For example, the process controlling hardware via memory-mapped parallel digit input and output ports, executing hundreds of times per second, may itself be controlled by a supervisory process executing ten times per second, and this program itself is controlled by a supervisory program that executes once every hundred seconds or longer. That is the model I envision for the next iteration of the testbed. The highest level supervisory control determines whether the game program is run with real-time enhancements. Maybe it always runs as the root user so that access to the Linux 2.6 kernel device node can be restricted. Had been bookmakrs for CAP proposal and thesis pooker replaced with standardized daily journal timestamp.

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The date is still done unusually, which is a depravity of style when I am pretending to be Quintilian. This is the Od(..)s in Socrates who did some of the things described by Diogenes Laertius. Beware megalomania; it is reserved for Bill Gates, who will grow tired of being chief software architect, and one day want to be a philosopher. Division of time into six activities: software change or maintenance for the first, the second, and the third systems. Two hours are left for being their (managementsâ) slave. Some days no time may be charged to a system. [The audio play list is slowly making order out of chaos.]

Statistics for qualitative data like workqueue delay come after thoroughly developing analysis of quantitative data pertaining to each of the qualitative data categories (classes, sets, types, divisions, partitions, sections, and so on and so on). The iterative method applies to statistics, like most other empirical portions of the thesis product (methods, apparatus, computer programs, etc.). The textbook recommends Chi-squared test of a contingency table to Compare two or more populations (Keller & Warrack, 2000, p. 561). More careful reading makes it sound like this is not the test I want. Satisfaction of real time requirements is compared for games with workqueue delays of two, three, and four milliseconds. This strategy plays off the notion that surrounding orders of magnitude delineate the extreme cases, ensuring the soundness of the results achieved for the middle population, three millisecond process cycle time games. With variable workqueue delay notice criterion of less than four skipped activations no longer valid for determining whether appreciable lamp flicker. A new appendix (D) for software manuals (MySQL and PHP).

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Never forget control originated as a clerical rather than mechanical technology.

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To avoid patent infringement claims use 2.0 x 10x+2 and 2.0 x 10x year old reverse engineering methodologies and patents. From the text of Plato and Xenophon strictly follow the Socratic method, arriving at the typical closed-loop process model. Use the flowcharting symbols familiar to technologists. The texts include ought we not to consider first whether that which we wish to learn and to teach is a simple or multiform thing, and if simple, then to inquire what power it has of acting or being acted upon in relation to other things, and if multiform, then to number the forms; and see first in the case of one of them, and then in the case of all of them, what is that power of acting or being acted upon which makes each and all of them to be what they are? (Plato, 270C-270D) and Xenophon, which recommends the use of free and homemade, implying recycling of COTS items in the process. Researching the expired Bally patents creates knowledge; recycling increases Life-Cycle Savings. Next show the list of things to host on Sourceforge. These are the workqueue process, the supervisory testbed game control program, the analysis script, et cetera.

Floridiâs formal definition of cyberspace is embarrassingly not well formed, failing to properly use parentheses and operators, which would not compile were it a computer program. Is this a slight of hand to intentionally try to fool the reader, a dumb mistake, or a clue into Floridiâs unthought, to use an old, gnomic formula?

Is the workqueue process cycle affected by the user program accessing the character device file? Its execution footprint is known from the RDTSC timestamps, and this could be correlated to process cycle abnormalities.

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Recast Mitchamâs matrix for computation rather than information.

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Itâs a long story. You have to remember everything through this damned laptop (book in antiquity) so certain ethical principles emerge. Maner claims to see places where there are no reasonable analogies making everything a member of the antiquity class, further demanding an independent department of computer ethics. Have Walt Maner say, Iâm Walt Maner, and I approve of this message like those annoying political campaign ads on television. The idealized <Greek words> of Platoâs Phaedrus depicted by Socrates only now becoming possible with ECT is already overdetermined by the world made by previous states of the art, that is, printing, television, and so on. What if Socrates was Alcibiades, or a companion of Alcibiades, and did not die in prison as Plato relates in one of his works I do not study closely, for I am a classical scholar who studies Platoâs Phaedrus. I am talking to the creaking metaphysical carcasses of your lifelong thoughts as they intersect my own. Not a pleasant image, making an analogy between books and ECT. Classical professional philosophy sullenly ponders my carrying the arts of speaking and writing into ECT. Ironically some have argued that Heidegger sensed the previous overdetermination of human thinking by the book form of thinking, describing human thought as swallowed by written script. The first laboratory exercise is to include the method and results of preparing a GNU/Linux system capable of talking TCP/IP over serial, Ethernet, or some other hardware interface. The DCN lecture should include a review of serial communications because it is used to access the router before accessing it via the very TCP/IP network it sustains. The next lecture is about TCP/IP and should include the famous OSI framework or whatever it is and the complicated business about network classes and netmasks, that is, IPv4. Making those Austrian girls speak English in the lab is an ethical question for philosophers of teaching; an ethical question for ECT is answered by the system created in this laboratory exercise with something as simple as HTML refresh. So we will talk about DCN and TCP/IP. Then we will talk about routing. For each step of the course everyone must be on board at a passing level for the class to continue. Therefore, we may not get much further than configuring Cisco routers and the basics of streaming media, in which Internet technology competes with book technology.

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Use of this free, open source operating system has grown dramatically in the past five years to the point that it is found in most corporate and institutional environments alongside the more familiar Microsoft products. Therefore, our students with Linux skills will have an advantage over their peers when entering the workplace. Furthermore, it is licensed so that anybody can use it, copy it, and study its source code, making it an ideal platform for a learning environment. The response so far has been enthusiastic, in part because the students can freely install Linux on their own computers and take the laboratory investigations home with them. I believe this kind of activity fosters self-initiative, creative problem solving, and a comprehensive understanding of complex technologies--all traits that are very important for technology professionals in the workplace. Place the switch where the projector sits for the default subnet. Learn to use CIDR netmasks by having a separate subnet for student workstations. Goals for the lab include using CIDR netmasks, setting routes to specific hosts, analyzing FTP and HTTP TCP segments via ethereal, and configuring httpd (Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol Server). This puts the students one week behind my own work with respect to DCN. They will learn why FTP is deprecated and how the Internet as primarily HTTP works. It seems from tonightâs experiments that running an email server is more complicated, requiring many additional pieces like a DNS that resolves hosts on the local network. The default nameserver, the router, does not seem to work, for instance, when trying to ping scanner or ibmt23 . At BGSU the DHCP server seems to assign the hostnames, since that is how I configured Fedora. Return to the idea of using a wireless network between the classroom and the lab, putting the access point on the private network. Save email for network administration lab where students work in teams to do different functions, some on email, some on DHCP, some on DNS, etc.

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Install firestarter on your local host system retrieved from [IP or get DNS working] via TFTP taking screenshots of defaults you modify in the configuration âwizardâ. Set a rule to accept incoming TFTP and start a TFTP service on your localhost. Assign router ethernet 0 addresses based on lab groups. Use gated on the GNU/Linux workstations to interact with the routers initially via cross over cable (manual assignment of workstation IP via ifconfig) and later on the subnets from Lab 5. After break only the lab Dell workstations without the special interface card can be used to run Linux, though KNOPPIX should be tried on them before giving up. Then in the working machines put a second Ethernet interface so that another group can use it via VNC. Make sure firestarter is configured to allow VNC activity. Use Ethereal to find out exactly what it is on the localhost loopback device since it will initially be dropped by the firewall. Store a copy of your router IOS image and startup configuration on the new private network host equivalent of the TFTP server previously accessed. Or use a cross over cable and a Linux workstation, except those marked as unusable with Linux.

In a fascinating book [The Art of Living: Socratic Reflections all the fucking way to Focault or somebody] Alexander Nehamas circumvents Nietzscheâs metaphysics by reinterpreting Socratesâ ironic final words at his execution about owing a cock to Asclepius by affirming every in their own way the value of following his example. And deliver to business long term Linux strategies. Introduce the art of computer programming to philosophers, and deliver (as in project deliverables) philosophical insight into Information Technology Training strategies with respect to Linux and the Open Source Option, if this title is available. Does the lack of a hit in Google conclusively demonstrate the availability of the aforementioned intellectual property in cyberspace? Register its domain name along with pmrek (PMREK) and trademark the latter if it is available (if itâs not, drop the whole plan!).

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Bad Bots: Implications for Internet use and law enforcement

In a recent event I experienced, IP source addresses traced to workstations in the laboratory used by my class were accused of sending âphishing emailsâ. Pistol-wielding campus police accompanied a university information officer and a technician who opened the computer cases and removed the hard drives from two of the ten lab workstations that are used weekly by a number of classes. Blank replacements were provided, but despite protests from faculty, important course data could not be copied from the seized units in a timely fashion. As a number of days passed with no communications from Information Technology Services, class exercises went poorly without the missing data, despite the best efforts of the instructors to rebuild the special workstation configurations. Finally at the end of the week the Chief Information Officer sent emails reminding us of their right to confiscate equipment and our obligation to make back ups of crucial data. Case closed.

It is time to reevaluate the moral status of one of the most prevalent perpetrators of cybercrime, softbots, which are artificial agents that are often the source of illegal TCP/IP streams causing malicious harm to information systems and human users. Wikipedia defines a bot as an automatic process interacting with wikipedia over the WWW. Bots live on computers connected to cyberspace, in TCP/IP communications networks. There are useful programs that run autonomously performing useful tasks like checking for spelling errors in articles. These have been carefully integrated into the operating environment to execute without further human intervention. However, the other kind of bot with which we are now familiar is a nefarious process that runs without the permission or even the knowledge of any users, often associated with sending bulk email messages and installing software that spies on the users (spyware). The emergence of programs that surreptiously install themselves through everyday computer use, exacerbated by risky web surfing habits and lax monitoring by site administrators, create new, unique ethical problems. Law enforcement lags behind, reacting to bad bots as if they were moral agents amenable to legal prosecution. The act of sending an email or otherwise enticing an unsuspecting user to divulge personal information to a third party is illegal; there are plenty of other illicit online behaviors that can be instigated by a rogue process on nearly every type of computing platform. They all are TCP/IP streams whose source is the IP address of the offending device, which may or may not be the physical location where the softbot itself exist as a running process. Most softbots are not intentionally installed by malicious human users, but propagate through the Internet hidden on compromised web pages as unsuspecting browsers pick them up. They come into being through clever procedures that exploit flaws in the program code of browsers, media players, and other operating system software. The mechanics of a buffer overflow exploit will be articulated to illustrate this. A bot network is a collection of thousands or hundreds of thousands of these compromised systems that can be used to launch distributed, denial of service attacks, massive spam mailings, pornography, worms, and viruses. There are shocking statistics on the percentage of compromised web sites visited by the general public. Furthermore, malicious programmers are leveraging zero day exploits to further spread the infestation as soon as vulnerabilities are discovered in operating systems, web browsers, database engines, and other popular software.

I argue that the threat of bad bots is masked by our beliefs about computing and moral responsibility. Since we are not ready to attribute responsibility to computer programs, but look instead for human, moral agents to blame for mishaps, our law enforcement, as well as our everyday computing practices, lag behind the state of the art. Attribution of causal and liability responsibility can be made to softbots despite their lack of or spite of role and capacity responsibility. Furthermore, the assumption that computer technology is ethically neutral blinds us from the vicious, rapacious mechanisms that may lie beneath the seeming controlled order of the desktop user interface waiting to take advantage of our trust, steal our keystrokes, and damage our online reputation.

In the all too common situation I experienced, discrete artificial agents (softbots, malware, spyware) were suspected of committing the crime of sending malicious messages, yet the equipment was treated like evidence in a serious crime committed by moral agents subject to prosecution. The hard drives containing essential course materials were locked away to await forensic analysis. The response to the instructorsâ pleas for law enforcement to provide a copy of the drive, minus the offensive material, was denied in favor of following current best practices for mitigating the legal exposure of the university. I am arguing that this suboptimal response is due to institutional inertia resulting from the policy vacuum created by advances in electronic computing technology. What is new on the ethical front is not merely the possibility but the probability that cybercrime may be committed by a rich artificial agent acting autonomously. Computer users and system administrators must adjust their behavior to this fact. A number of best practices will be presented. Law enforcement must also adjust its behavior to act in a way that minimizes substantial harm to bystanders when dealing with suspected softbot activity. Otherwise, the net outcome of the incident is the university information officers depriving faculty and students the use of computing resources, doing harm to the overall mission of the university.

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The free, open source option is a fundamental concept for the philosophy of computing. My aim is to present it as an ethic, a way of living. As a practical ethic it offers an alternative to the build versus buy decision procedure for the analysis of technical problems. As a social ethic it solves the problem of alienated labor under capitalism. [The alienation faced by software developers who do not own their creations, nor even review or reveal due to nondisclosure agreements, is even worse than that faced by the author who loses control of published material.] My final argument is an epistemological foundation of the free, open source option. It is built from the Socratic "know thyself" ethic and von Neumannâs implicit extension of it. Imagine we were asked to give a scientific explanation of cyberspace as internetworked binary, stored program computers. From the position of a single observer, even with infinitely fast cognition, the electrical activity that is the Internet [cyberspace, computing] is as incomprehensible as the activity of the human body perceived from a single nerve or blood vessel, cell, or strand of DNA. This comprehension is improved by adding points of observation; however, it is only in the former case of electronic computing machinery that complete technical knowledge is possible by people today, the sort required to build a duplicate apparatus that would exhibit the exact same phenomena. [Let this thought be guided by metaphysics and methodologies from the philosophy of technology, including the essay about Dewey, but do not stray from the original argument.] In addition to the reduced complexity of binary systems, only in the former are design documents and source code readily available. Thus it is also easier to give a scientific explanation of our modern cyberspace than that of printed material, since the latter includes human beings in its computational apparatus. As media are the extensions of human being, understanding them serves the Socratic inquiry.

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The truth is that Carl Mitchamâs Thinking Through Technology is over ten years old--yet I want to use it as a sign post to linger near for months, not minutes, demonstrating flaws in this kind of metaphor (unless Heidegger meant to build a hut near the sign post and study it for months)--and had I been prepared as an undergraduate, I would not have labored without direction through my twenties and thirties. Therefore, one purpose of creating the American Socrates myth is to accelerate others arriving at a location where Mitcham would have been timely. The same goes for Heim, whose call for a "cybersage" technologist philosopher also went out over ten years ago. I believe it was Nietzsche who criticized American philosophy as valuing acceleration of knowledge repetition for want of any creative inspiration of its own. I do not want merely to blog; each entry should be carefully constructed in part from the result of the journal software computations to minimize disdain for the past when it is looked back upon in years to come. American Socrates will be remembered as the first philosopher to use electronic computers to not merely edit but actually compose philosophical production intended for consumption by both natural and artificial automata.

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I seek to create a new kind of philosophy that combines writing and software, that is oriented towards computing machinery in addition to human beings. It will respond to the challenge raised over two thousand years ago in Platoâs Phaedrus, to create the word which is written with intelligence in the mind of the leaner, which is able to defend itself and knows to whom it should speak, and before whom to be silent (276B, Fowler translation). I was first drawn to the formal study of texts and technology as a graduate student in philosophy in the mid-1990s while trying to articulate the details of reading of Platoâs Symposium as meditations on the ethics of virtual reality. With some guidance from my faculty advisor I explored Heidegger, postmodern theorists, Havelock, McLuhan, Ong, Heim, and others to draw out this thesis. However, I foundered because I did not really know what I was talking about, trying to connect reflections upon the nature of writing in antiquity to modern studies of Electric Writing, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Furthermore, the state of the art at that time did not make virtual reality as imagined by authors and filmmakers feasible to implement. It was Michael Heimâs article Heidegger and McLuhan: The Computer as Component that admonished me to become a cybersage. To that end I set for myself the task of understanding how computers work from the ground up, and becoming a skilled software developer, in order to be able to think and act correctly about the nature of computer technology. The goal was realized through further undergraduate and then graduate studies, during which time I worked as a professional technologist and software engineer. In 2005 I completed a Master of Industrial Technology, and a thesis titled Reverse Engineering a Microcomputer-based Control Unit. In 2006 I taught a junior-level undergraduate course in TCP/IP networking that I described as how the Internet works. Over the years I have developed a number of original programs in C, C++, Perl, and PHP to offload many of the organization tasks of common to academic work. To keep up with the philosophy of computing I have attended many of the North American meetings of the International Association for Computing and Philosophy; this summer I gave a presentation on The Free, Open Source Option as Ethic. Now I feel it is time to return to the scholarly study of texts, and that is why I am drawn to the UCF Texts and Technology program. I am looking for a program that is open to exploring the philosophical connection between ancient and modern communication technologies, to make sense of what Plato meant by living writing, Nietzsche by a musical Socrates, and Heidegger by the language machine to name a few gnomic formulas. I envision a work product that combines scholarship and software, not just printed pages but interactive digital media creations that implement free, open source system designs with the purpose of augmenting human intelligence through collaborative interaction with computing machinery.

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Add this to the material for the Ong assignment: Simon in 1977 "What computers mean for man and society" identified a third information revolution where the first was writing, the second printed books.

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Finally upgraded to Fedora Core 9 in order to use Firefox 3 to try the Zotero extension, as well as some research on RSS but I canât find much on Live Bookmarks, which is a default. The dual displays no longer work. The T&T website declares, The curriculum emphasizes theory and practice in new media supplemented by historical grounding in pre-digital media studies. .. Areas of research and production include digital editing, Web design, multimedia production, distributed education, entertainment, publishing, information architecture, and visualization. My place will be the missing âsoftware developmentâ in this list. Englebartâs Type C activity is a miscellaneous relationship to Ongâs argument. What if it is orality, literacy, virtual reality? Then my argument can iterate from Ongâs. But what is Ongâs core argument? Through synchronic and diachronic <verb> <preposition> [PHI=culture(orality,literacy,electronic)] .. see, itâs so easy: Ong stumbles, uses poor grammar, slips on âelectronic cultureâ because it is not parallel to orality and literacy. The correct statement would be .. oh wait, he does say it correctly .. but maybe still the parallelism between orality, literacy, and electronics (not electricity as Heim equivocates) breaks down somewhat, just as Heidegger fails to sense the industrial manufacturing nature of his beloved printed books .. Heim equivocates on Electric Langauge but all are susceptible to the criticism that something will soon replace electrons [as the capital] yet exhibit the same behavior, not to be confused with the next great step as from speech to visual [representation of speech, "programming of speech" is better description of the behavior now available to us with electronics to use as a metaphor] .. Ong might not have imagined autonomous virtual reality machinery, so his fantasies about the electronic treatment of print and speech has a bias yet to be articulated.

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The problem I have with concept mapping is writing on paper or the board two dimensional diagrams (concept maps) because what I imagine is layered, more than two dimensions (Cartesian x-y graph). Former analog channel twenty one Megahertz (21 MHz - or derive from the audience; this is the trace action record symptom representation idea substance substrate matter phenomenon of the poller software) is at the lower end of the UHF range used for the new digital signals. Blake Scott bites at the reference to Spinuzziâs differentiation of official and unofficial innovations, but I am not sure what to make of his question (quoted below in its own paragraph)

Does the claim that user-centered technology is here depend on which users and technologies you re talking about?

whether to take it as an invitation to return to the discussion of the free, open source option and electronic computer technology. The narrative of my performance review document is compared against the distribution of time against projects. I can write software that incorporates the logic (logical systems) I can imagine. These logical systems can exist in written texts. For instance, ones in which operators operate upon operators - third order logic. The em dash is equivalent to the id est operator. These logical systems can exist in virtual realities (running computer software). At the same time as Blake Scottâs question is raised (and for some reason his single quote appears as a trademark designator (superscript capital TM ) I ask my own question by showing the changes to the PHP source code that controls when the display changes based on how many interactors have responded. This goes beyond audience analysis to a coproductive audience - interactors - that we are accustomed to hearing about in accounts of electronic literature.

/* 20090120 this ridiculous code is used to allow the control of $responses_for_transition[0] and perhaps [1] */
/* to govern the display, whether the distribution of responses will be displayed. By default, */
/* the first threshold is two (2) responses, and the second is one fewer than the $possible_responses */

It is sloppy code, embarrassing to show. But if you are going to acknowledge computer software in the study of texts and technology, a conclusion of my paper for the introduction course, then you are going to cross into places where PHP code is displayed. I would add value of to the comment.

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The public and private journals should differ, but information may be lost as the former functions as reminders whereas the latter reveals the signified of the signifier (sign) replacing them in the former. Put the last revision containing real names in the private directory.

[working code CSS]
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ svn info svn://localhost/journal/journal3.html
Path: journal3.html
Name: journal3.html
URL: svn://localhost/journal/journal3.html
Repository Root: svn://localhost
Repository UUID: e6ad72bf-778f-4f0e-afee-ac483b005d7f
Revision: 592
Node Kind: file
Last Changed Author: jbork
Last Changed Rev: 592
Last Changed Date: 2009-09-15 00:01:36 -0400 (Tue, 15 Sep 2009)
jbork@sokrates:~/journal$ mkdir -p 2009/09
jbork@sokrates:~/journal$ cd 2009/09/
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ svn help co
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ svn export svn://localhost/journal@591
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ cp journal/journal3.html .
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ rm -fr journal
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ vi journal3.html
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ svn export svn://localhost/journal@590
jbork@sokrates:~/journal/2009/09$ cp -a journal/journal3.html .
[working code CSS]

Is this example of Subversion usage digital literacy? It includes the test of whether the correct version was checked out, and the tuned reiteration of the previous steps, discovering that the copy operation does preserve the original timestamp from when the file was committed into the version control system (another type of language machine). Of course it is, but why is this expression of it important? What does it mean to say that hundreds, ten thousands read my texts, writings, GPL licensed source code and FDL licensed diagrams, when referring to pinball machines instead of humans? I have my example of digital literacy for Applen, now I have to find the sources to work to it âbackwards fromâ (a concept familiar to software developers, digital literates as readers and writers). This is where you can fall down into the rabbit hole, into the individual programs (Sourceforge projects all licensed in GPL and FDL parts) that are galaxies of meaning consistent, valid, sound, operative, (virtual) world creating, controlling in themselves and other FOSS such as GNU and Linux. Being digitally literature is alluding to correctly FOSS, free open source software, Linux kernel, operating system, GNUs not Unix, and so on, with the same confidence that we do our use of basic mathematics, in which we partake of computing along with when using texts made of written languages instances. Those pinball machines that work, that is, play, are playable, read the text correctly. The profundity of the text lies in the complexity and beauty of the game machine, and the story told to humans of American Socrates, a myth. Those who follow the text without reading it will check out the wrong version, the first that replaces proper names with symbols name1, name2, and so on. This is easily coded on the output side, too, using search and replace GNU system programs. A point for digital literacy is epistemological transparency, about which I have already written. Imagine Applen website assignment generated by custom FOSS programs including journal and poller projects, with a hypothetical connection to the pmrek project with this discussion of readership. This is a shell script example for critical software studies. I also want to look at some embedded in C, C++, Perl, and PHP comments. Begin with the question, how many of you would consider yourself a kernel level hacker? How about (how many of you would consider yourself) an interpreter and builder of discreet circuit boards including some integrated circuits?

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October 6, 2009

What is funny ironic is that you are not ready to live with me yet because you just got started living alone for a number of years as I did and still do.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20100119 TAPOC_20100119 0 -14+ journal_2010.html
The basic question is why do you look in the code. One day it will be considered verb to have to use adjective products all day at work, if we go after the at play time via psychopathology of everyday computer usage. Or software usage. Non coerced (work) play time (otium) is analyzed via the psychopathologies of everyday computer usage. Those with a decade of software engineering experience no doubt have been influenced by the software they have used over those years. They are easy to analyze economically and not having to appeal to odd case psychological studies, personal narratives, to explain why they are the way that they are. Like Freud pretending to wet his pants like my happy old logic teacher; their examples are simple equations maximizing profit or so other cheerful variable. Actually it is pretty wild. The trick of the VRPRESS is to add an external removable static RAM interface to what was earlier typing at a word processor and even earlier, much earlier, printed in books. Actually it is more likely that computer software has been running from antiquity than many accounts by individuals precious to western intellectual history. Every computer is embodied. They are difficult to think about, but they are knowable. For example, an electronic pinball machine playfield connected to a pmrek host in a TCP/IPv4 network. Previous exercises recovered from various sources to almost get the pinball machine working and public source code updated.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20100203 20100203 0 -384+ journal_2010.html
The normal thing is not to do this as Sonic Youth demonstrates having known in the composition of particular songs. This knowledge will become public domain in one hundred, that is, ten to the ten times not power, time units. What is better, a simulation of pinball or a real game of pinball? The not ready at hand ness of the instantaneous availability of an electronic pinball machine powered by alternating current through copper wires oscillates with the possible worlds made possible by the possible knowledge of a design engineer writing software to make the simulation program. The programmer experience is the new border with reality for philosophy, along with phenomenology, existentialism, and good old symbolic logic, mathematics, literature, and so on. This is a really long Sonic Youth song of course, storing lots of data. For instance, having reached the point of where it is sure for an extra ball to be won playing automatically just by the current score, it may be quite different in a three ball game instead of five. In Strikes and Spares, it is all over on ball three if you do not have three or four hundred thousand already. What is better, simulation or the real thing?

jbork@sokrates:~/public_html/progress/2010/02$ cd ~/audio/playlists/

jbork@sokrates:~/audio/playlists$ ls -ltr | tail -n 4

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 90328 2010-01-22 21:09 playlist_playmusic_20100122.m3u

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 89018 2010-01-23 19:04 playlist_playmusic_20100123.m3u

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 88850 2010-01-24 16:30 playlist_playmusic_20100124.m3u

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 88446 2010-02-03 21:59 playlist_playmusic_20100203.m3u

This merges with the other world on the computer in the other room. Copy the contents of the file transmitted from the other computer in the other room via rsync via gedit and paste here.

February 2, 2010

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/Videos$ sudo umount /media/hammer1tb

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/Videos$ /sbin/ifconfig eth0

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0d:60:2b:eb:ae

inet6 addr: fe80::20d:60ff:fe2b:ebae/64 Scope:Link


RX packets:292073 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:214840 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:250598746 (250.5 MB) TX bytes:14750042 (14.7 MB)

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/Videos$ sudo /sbin/ifconfig eth0 netmask up

[sudo] password for jbork:

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/Videos$ ping

PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.91 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.462 ms


--- ping statistics ---

2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms

rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.462/2.190/3.919/1.729 ms

We know we can get to the wireless router whose default connection information was just highlighted with a marker and taped over. The next time I am captured by the DHCP server on the wireless router after resetting it to its advertised factory defaults.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ /sbin/ifconfig eth0

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0d:60:2b:eb:ae

inet addr: Bcast: Mask:

inet6 addr: fe80::20d:60ff:fe2b:ebae/64 Scope:Link


RX packets:292130 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:214984 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:250606252 (250.6 MB) TX bytes:14771113 (14.7 MB)

See the difference? Now I know that ping will work.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ ping

PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.00 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.463 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.460 ms


--- ping statistics ---

3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2000ms

rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.460/0.643/1.006/0.256 ms

And then I can go after it with the HTTP browser Firefox. This tells us what needs to be known about the network; that is, you cannot get into it through an IP address without first a local nameserver query.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ cat /etc/resolv.conf

# Generated by NetworkManager





There are two network paths, for the and the subnets with a netmask, the famous Class C of Internet yore.

At this point it is just a matter of turning on a packet sniffer like tcpdump via the wrapper program now called wireshark formerly something that can be asked as a homework or quiz question in a history of the Internet or cyberspace or philosophy of ECM, Internet, cyberspace as varying degrees of ambiguity in âenactive technical specificationâ class. This can also be a new kind of project planning methodology encapsulated in human minds and software jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ nslookup



Non-authoritative answer:



What the hell kind of address is this?

Ping next. But look at which subnet this response came from. The 0, not the 1.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ ping

PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=127 time=1.10 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=127 time=1.05 ms

64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=127 time=1.04 ms

How is it that this server is visible? Can it be through the wireless connection?

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ /sbin/ifconfig wlan0

wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0f:b5:fe:c8:25

inet addr: Bcast: Mask:

inet6 addr: fe80::20f:b5ff:fefe:c825/64 Scope:Link


RX packets:551386 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:291751 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:805421597 (805.4 MB) TX bytes:21321891 (21.3 MB)

Interrupt:21 Memory:d0100000-d0110000

Ironically both the wired and wireless interfaces have been assigned a host number of 101 but on different class C subnets ( netmask). Notice what has changed.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ cat /etc/resolv.conf

# Generated by NetworkManager


Now the default nameserver is Guess what the lookup will do now. I am not impressed with your behavior and the program in the netgear wireless router does not get to live. Maybe the pinball machine does, gets to (live). What is the body of this necessarily living software like on the planet (human planet earth)?

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ bin

No command âbinâ found, did you mean:

Command âbibâ from package âsixpack-bibtexâ (universe)

Command âbipâ from package âbipâ (universe)

Command âwinâ from package âwilyâ (universe)

Command âtinâ from package âtinâ (universe)

Command âbingâ from package âbingâ (universe)

Command âbinsâ from package âbinsâ (universe)

bin: command not found

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ alias bin=âPATH=$PATH:~/binâ

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ bin


The files would have been shown if the previous command in the history had been shown, and you can change that with a hypertext link in the text, and they would tell about the evolution of the setup script.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ ls -ltr ~/bin

total 28

-rwx------ 1 jbork jbork 36 2010-01-19 12:37

-rwx------ 1 jbork jbork 102 2010-01-19 12:37

-rwxr-xr-x 1 jbork jbork 2796 2010-01-22 11:04

-rwxr-xr-jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ ls -ltr | tail -n 4

drwxr-xr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 2010-01-26 23:13 Videos

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 7140 2010-02-03 21:54 notes_20100203.txt~

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 7140 2010-02-03 22:02 notes_20100203.txt

drwxr-xr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 2010-02-03 22:02 bin

x 1 jbork jbork 6595 2010-01-22 22:24 playlist2usb

-rwxr-xr-x 1 jbork jbork 2830 2010-01-25 22:30

-rwxr-xr-x 1 jbork jbork 3592 2010-01-27 21:16

The most recent version was saved and most likely used on the twenty seventh day of the first month of the tenth year of the twenty first century after a zero unit. We are focusing on the high speed happenings at the end of the twentieth century. This is a little strange but advisable if not necessary.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ cp ~/bin/ ~/bin/

See how it makes possible the execution environment (albeit via sudo).



That is, we know the starting script can be something like this that excludes non root execution (use this word instead of access):

if [ `id -u` -ne 0 ]; then


exit 1


Reconnect to the wlan after powering off the unusable alien device.

Start oscillating with the other world in the other room with the other computer.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ ls -ltr | tail -n 4

drwxr-xr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 2010-01-26 23:13 Videos

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 7140 2010-02-03 21:54 notes_20100203.txt~

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 7140 2010-02-03 22:02 notes_20100203.txt

drwxr-xr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 2010-02-03 22:02 bin

It would have just saved a journal HTML file.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ . ~/.alias

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ bin

It is kind of convoluted, as Gallagher says, not entirely unlike.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ sudo ~/bin/

It does not make relying on the alias because the default sudo environment does not include the aliases of the non-root user that called it.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ rsync notes_20100203.txt

Here we go! Okay, one more time to get the output of the logotropos command.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ rsync -uv notes_20100203.txt

jbork@âs password:


sent 705 bytes received 103 bytes 179.56 bytes/sec

total size is 8279 speedup is 10.25

Now it is done.

jbork@âs password:

[jbork@pmrek jbork]$ cd src/pmrek

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ ls -ltr

total 5600

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 18398 Sep 12 2007 testbed_performance.php

-rwxrwxr-x 1 jbork jbork 2158 Sep 12 2007 start_testbed

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 1770 Sep 12 2007 README.txt

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 4577 Sep 12 2007 pmrek.sql

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 4733 Sep 12 2007 pmrek.php

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 1331 Sep 12 2007 pmrek_bash_profile

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 472 Sep 12 2007 index.php

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 454 Jul 31 2008 pmrek.mod.c

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 49256 Jul 31 2008 pmrek.mod.o

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 90276 Aug 2 2008 pmrek-0.52.tgz

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 11867 Apr 10 2009 strikes_and_spares.h.v1

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 23021 Apr 10 2009 pmrek.h.v1

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 91515 Apr 25 2009 pmrek-0.53.tgz

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 92832 May 23 2009 pmrek-0.54.tgz

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 23021 May 23 2009 pmrek.h.v2

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 102074 May 25 2009 pmrek-0.55.tgz

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 16347 Aug 1 18:49 strikes_and_spares.h.v2

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 136530 Aug 1 20:02 testbed.cpp.v2

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Aug 18 01:15 analyze_testbed_output_20090818_011531.html

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Aug 18 01:28 analyze_testbed_output_20090818_012805.html

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Aug 18 01:36 analyze_testbed_output_20090818_013645.html

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Aug 18 19:54 analyze_testbed_output_20090818_195422.html

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Aug 18 20:00 analyze_testbed_output_20090818_195945.html

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 312 Sep 3 22:01 index.html

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 3336 Sep 3 22:01 cpg_summary.php

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 18500 Sep 3 22:01 COPYING.txt

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 42159 Sep 3 22:01 common_functions.php

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Sep 16 13:19 analyze_testbed_output_20090916_131924.html

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 0 Sep 17 18:09 analyze_testbed_output_20090917_180928.html

drwxrwxr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 Sep 27 16:40 test

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 44529 Sep 27 16:40 user_pmrek.cpp

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 10530 Sep 27 16:40 mata_hari.h

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 10888 Sep 27 16:40 evel_knievel.cpp

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 1185 Oct 24 17:56 Makefile

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 1998077 Oct 24 18:03 pmrek-0.57.tgz

-rwxr-xr-x 1 jbork jbork 5653 Oct 24 19:13 helper_scripts

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 22066 Jan 7 22:54 pmrek.h

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 59882 Jan 7 22:54 pmrek.c

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 112604 Jan 7 22:55 pmrek.o

-r--r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 18306 Jan 7 22:55 strikes_and_spares.h

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 160992 Jan 7 22:55 pmrek.ko

-rwxrwxr-x 1 jbork jbork 68056 Jan 7 22:56 user_pmrek.exe

-rw-rw-r-- 1 jbork jbork 2000016 Jan 7 23:50 pmrek-0.58.tgz

drwxrwxr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 Jan 8 03:13 RCS

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 36689 Jan 8 03:18 strikes_and_spares.cpp

-rwxrwxr-x 1 jbork jbork 195458 Jan 8 03:18 testbed.exe

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 95110 Jan 8 03:26 testbed.cpp

-rwxr-xr-x 1 jbork jbork 5603 Jan 27 23:31

drwxrwxr-x 2 jbork jbork 4096 Jan 27 23:32 data

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ ci testbed.cpp strikes_and_spares.cpp

RCS/,v <--

enter description, terminated with single â.â or end of file:

NOTE: This is NOT the log message!

>> 20100203

>> .

initial revision: 1.1


RCS/testbed.cpp,v <-- testbed.cpp

new revision: 1.5; previous revision: 1.4

enter log message, terminated with single â.â or end of file:

>> 20100203

>> .


RCS/strikes_and_spares.cpp,v <-- strikes_and_spares.cpp

new revision: 1.6; previous revision: 1.5

reuse log message of previous file? [yn](y): y


[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ ls -ltr

The next round has me sitting here trying to remember how to start the pinball game program. The kernel module needs to be installed. Leave the pinball machine and go back to the computer trying to send a file to the computer in the other room.

Connection to closed.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~$ rsync -uv notes_20100203.txt

jbork@âs password:


sent 4351 bytes received 109 bytes 810.91 bytes/sec

total size is 12621 speedup is 2.83

Need to copy a file to the pinball machine that was worked on virtually, imaginarily, as if, on the other room computer last time.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ rsync -uv ~/notes_20100203.txt

jbork@âs password:


sent 693 bytes received 145 bytes 239.43 bytes/sec

total size is 13139 speedup is 15.68

A slight refinement. Then the necessary work based on this realization like a victory lap.

jbork@jbork-desktop:~/src/pmrek$ scp

This is strange, and stops me in my tracks.

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ ci

RCS/,v <--

ci: RCS/,v: no lock set by jbork

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ cp

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ co

This fixes the RCS problem, and diff assures us nothing changed or was lost. This mistake shows the way to the usage.

[jbork@pmrek pmrek]$ ./

not executing modprobe pmrek (not kernel module installed)

executing insmod pmrek.ko (not kernel module installed)

Note: you will have to enter password for sudo operation


pmrek kernel module installed

starting postprocessor background process

arg: --postprocessor



Usage: testbed.exe [output file] - requires minimum 25 rows x 80 columns terminal

exit status 1

testbed run time failure

It also reveals that the script was not run by the root user but rather has an imbedded sudo.

Punish the reader by changing size to indicate this came from the other system but try to be nice and remove the HTML breaks autoinserted into the text via translation from the native word processor format to HTML. The line breaks become BRs (capital B capital R lowercase s).

Forget body image and body schema for a moment. What are the cyberspace equivalents of megaentity, synaesthenia, synaptogenesis, phylogenetic selection, deep versus hyper attention, ontogenic mechanisms of adaptation, and other key interdisciplinary terms Hayles uses? Later extension of Hayles (note this is not to be intended as possessive because the following word is a verb not a noun) answers the question latent in her work how do these feedback loops operate in nonhuman systems? Hayles does not spend much time at all discussing the source code of any of the examples of EL in this book. Shaped by a preference from studying human nature, her musings on what feelings/body and ratiocination/mind may be in nonhuman systems trace the same boundaries of fantasy as do those surrounding her postulate that nonhuman intelligences exist in Memmottâs many representations of it. Hayles regards software as possessing a magic power to create ânonhuman intelligencesâ in scare quotes but does not give much advice or many examples on or of software engineering. What does it mean to think with software? This is something PHI are good at but humans do not think they are good at, an unknown known, at the cyborg interface (intersection of human and non human intelligences as megaentities or is it just a single megaentity nonhuman intelligence?). Note that in the last sentence the em dash was oddly rendered by the journal software (it looked funny in the browser, but the browser did what is was told to do because the journal software ultimately generated the HTML that was viewed). I am presenting a series of exercises that develop a sense of machine embodiment by long habituation with the inner workings of cyberspace as the more formal definition outlined above (or next if the formal definition is in a previous journal entry, and journal entries are displayed in reverse chronological order instead of earlier in this journal entry or a previous journal entry in chronological order; these possible readings are the consequences of allowing order to be important or wrongly interpreted). Time to propose limits of simulation guided by preference for multipurposive action such that pmrek is exemplary or quintessential for learning how computers work from the ground up and performing many philosophical investigations operator cyberspace. The normal thing is not to abide in virtual realities while the body still works. The rough conditioning environment of the architecture of Arakawa and Gins does the same work as exercise routines because other extant architecture is too easy on the body, allowing it to degenerate over decades of continued atrophy. Imagine using the coin switches to select players, whose names are displayed with the latest âalarmâ window that also advertises/announces pinball missing. By default identity is tied to USB removable mass storage devices that exist as SCSI devices to the Linux kernel and can be manipulated via GNU operating system software. This is a precise way of saying what we are doing with computers to foster understanding of likely machine embodiment. The argument can be stated simply. If cyberspace consists of human and non human components, then human and nonhuman intelligences can operate in cyberspace, even if at various times the one is sustained in the operation (life) of the other, for example relying on the decoding of digital files or human voices to produce sound. Interdisciplinary terms range over human and nonhuman activities, and therefore ontologies. Asking from a phenomenological, hermeneutic position that an other side of cyberspace version of each key term applied to the human side of cyberspace yields questions like what is machine megaentity, synaesthenia, synaptogenesis, phylogenetic selection, deep versus hyper attention, ontogenic mechanisms of adaptation, and other key interdisciplinary terms Hayles uses? The first one Hayles at least alludes to, megaentity, is our demystified, non-soul-implying (Hayles likes the work imbricate) embodied mind equivalent in machinic, nonhuman cyberspace. It operates in sustained, very high frequency repetitive action sequences to enact not only what we think of as computing, and to which in human experience we equate rationality, but also and more importantly instrumentation, controllers, and other devices whose natures are more like that of the human body than the mind when differentiated in an exclusive disjunction, binary, Cartesian fashion. Once these terms have been interpreted for ECM, the body image body schema distinction can be utilized to hint at the design insights for creating it. (Remember, what you are reading is not doable for another one hundred years unless you become an outlaw like American Socrates.) Thus Hayles claims literature can be understood as a semiotic technology designed to create - or more precisely, activate - feedback loops that dynamically and recursively unite feelings with ratiocination, body with mind (134) and then apply the same analysis to what she calls the technological nonconscious. She helps describe machine embodiment by insisting that distributed cognition implies distributed agency but again delves little into what it is like, focusing on the effects of electronic literature on humans.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20100302 20100302 0 -26+ journal_2010.html
It is possible that strange behavior on the new laptop booted from the Ubuntu USB iso made by usb-creator GPL FOSS is the result of bad blocks in the aging SDRAM USB device.

# Copyright (C) 2009 Canonical Ltd.
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <>.
import dbus
import gobject
import dbus.service
import logging
from dbus.mainloop.glib import DbusGMainLoop
from usbcreator.misc import *

This is evident from the source code and is a time that it is appropriate to examine source code directly and discover what is written onto it by the FOSS usb-creator and a given iso file. It would be nice to save keystrokes by programming it to change pasted line feeds into not breaks or paragraphs but another HTML language structure element viewable in the HTML source code via the browser window (following Friedberg for all hyperlinks operator the word window) whose human readable display is single spaced. Imagine we had to symbolize this, for all x hyperlinks operaror the X the word window.

jbork@sokrates:~$ less /usr/share/usb-creator/usb-creator-helper
jbork@sokrates:~$ sudo apt-get install gparted
jbork@sokrates:~$ sudo /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdc
jbork@sokrates:~$ sudo /sbin/mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdc2

We can find it by looking forward in the file at later source code references, which may in turn require specific sets of possible revisions throughout the life of the software infused text. This gets us the new laptop setup and the US SDRAM device preparation. Is the âindiscrepancyâ between The Association for Computers in the Humanities (ACH) and ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTERS AND THE HUMANITIES planned, or did âauthorsâ (coders, writers, preparers, publishers, and so on) of the [ (as HTTP âURLâ) or Association for Computers and the Humanities (as HTML title) website or more likely [ Allied Digital Humanities Organizations (ADHO) or more likely The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations at ] simply make a mistake?

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20101126 20101126 0 -45+ journal_2010.html
And of course on another computer youâll want to save this, forgetting Brahms in the database listing. Automobiles are the game programming of a reverse engineering age. I really intend to call my dissertation TAPOC, and the story writes itself examining what has been written by processing the journal files using our software we have written. Thatâs what I want right here; now the images go in. Who on my committee is going to speak for Turkle? Why outsource the philosophy of computing to texts and technology? I keep forgetting to add Mayer (perhaps up to this version and finally being remembered and done). I remember what day I put notes into my journal for that. The system kills the user shell because a user process was causing a dangerous webserver request that put the system at risk by violating apache webserver PHP execution parameters; it settles down with five days back; ten crashes it. I got to blow off my parents and friends to do this to get it done. That fact that being interpreted trumps Apple two Applesoft BASIC as a programming language and platform in which creativity can be expressed: when this happens, it also shapes the creator as does default computing technologies. Turkle has the seeds of Stallman and fails to see significance of other computing platforms evolving in the mid 1980s onwards. Turkle appears to rehash her original ideas from interviewing Logo programmers wondering how young they should start but not questioning that Logo is the best early programming language when compared to BASIC. The next thing I need to do is make sure an image from that day is not already being used before I copy in a scan of the cover of the book in an Internet search of early twenty-first century TCP/IP internetworked electronic computing machinery. This is the gap I want to explore, the inner history of programming computers. Make the book titles in the table appear as one inch units on a twenty inch screen: this addresses twenty years max. Go looking for old notes on Freiberger and Swaine Fire in the Valley using the GNU find system utility.

[working code css]
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *urkle* ! -name *.svn*
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *urkle* ! -name *.svn* -exec echo {} \;
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *urkle* ! -name *.svn* -exec echo {} \; -print
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *urkle* ! -name *.svn* -print -exec echo {} \; -print
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *html ! -name *.svn* -exec grep Valley {} \; -print
<TITLE>Freiberger and Swaine Fire in the Valley the Making of the Personal Computer second ed.</TITLE>
[working code css]

Listening to an old playlist that includes an NPR story about being all connected all the time, Hamletâs Blackberry by William Powers. The first find failed to filter until I added the initial asterisk to the exclusion criterion. While building the desired find a search pointing to Wikipedia presents as a second a fun philosophical topic: POSIX protection from infinite output. But I am looking for how to execute an echo of the file name and a grep of the contents of that file like the greps and greph internal not free not open source not GPL utilities I currently use at Toptech Systems and many other programmers share a similar function in other collective organizations employing programmers who first starting programming in the mid 1980s. This population is within the scope of my project. The simple solution is to include the print option. It is almost the same except the order of arguments in the find command is different. It starts crashing again so the threshold is reduced to four days back. The other thing Turkle does not fully articulate is the creative advantage of a sustained, well-learned and practiced combination of platform and code base.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20101207 20101207 0 -29+ journal_2010.html
To put the GPL thing here is to put the assignment here is to repeat from a previous version a range of line-feed delimited lines. It is to copy from a previous SQL source code file to which I applied a version of the GPL 2. I have to coolest game in my head; I am imagining the coolest computer programs. Allow this to be a programming style related to bricoleur hacker style. Turkleâs concept needs to be inflected by another programming type that puts together working systems using whatever means necessary even those bordering on full validity. I donât think it is adequate to differentiate between hard and soft mastery styles to guess who would persevere to write programs that bordered on crappy sometimes to get the job done. You can imagine both types doing it, or is it true that a hard master will not attempt something if a clear and distinct, aesthetically pleasing, technically correct way of coding it cannot be readily conceived.


(source code)

Typing these lines effects (causes efficiently) that which is described here, a programming change that can be embodied in a revision control system source code repository of previous running states of the system using previous versions of the custom software I am writing actively and have for the past few decades of human time noting today my hard drive at work had been operating for 2.7 years (so many hours). Introduce the distinction compiled and interpreted to hard and soft mastery and a grid develops in our computing idea imagining minds.


Here is the table. Time to add CSS as part of object-oriented style, a third type of category in programming style dimension. Too confusing for the research journal. How to continue the conversation is to express SQL statement results as analysis input upon revision control system as language machine continues work of Turkle, Kittler, Manovich. These images are from yesterdayâs work I misnamed them when I renamed from original files without timestamps built into file names. This is what I now see (tachistoscope, video player, virtual reality generator, control system, language machine). Obviously what is missing is the encoding of dimensions relevant to the determination of programming style categories. Do this in a shell script batch file calling the system command mysql. Give the interpreter a hint that you want to display source code style.

select * from ProgrammingInterview.InterviewDataObject where InterviewNumber=1 order by DimensionNumber, InstanceEnumeration
select max(InterviewNumber) from ProgrammingInterview.InterviewDataObject
SELECT concat(CategoryNumber, â. â, Text) FROM InterviewDataObject where DimensionNumber=2 order by CategoryNumber
SELECT distinct concat(CategoryNumber, â. â, Text) FROM DimensionCategory where DimensionNumber=2 order by CategoryNumber

Here is a sample statement to display the ordered information about the first interview. Once the interview data has been entered into the electronic database, it can be manipulated [high speed equals ad infinitum]. It is easy to compute things like the lowest and highest interview numbers in the study database (MySQL database ProgrammingInterview). How do I collect the thought that interpreted languages are sloppier and facilitate learning programming by allowing run time errors versus all-or-nothing compiling? Apple Pascal and T/S 1000 are examples of compiled languages, a fact that can be encoded along with the interview data for analysis. PHP is in the middle in the sense that you have to enable webserver error logging to see what went wrong in the interpreter doing the equivalent of a compilation to deliver a valid result.

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Having no obvious way to indent paragraphs dooms the editor in Texts and Technology Work Area by This leads me to consider learning to use (program with) the former blogger now Blogger APIs at I am not crashing the operating system by creating a kernel panic. Meanwhile some user program is causing an exception to be thrown in a process whose cancellation by the operating system occurs by killing all processes owned by the user whose program violated an operating system real-time constraint. So I reason from witnesses many times now Firefox apparently causing the operating system to crash, when in fact either Firefox is processing too much data or the webserver is panicing because this user request is potentially hanging the entire operating system while the PHP thread executing a normal ELF binary compiled C/C++ program. When you are in this state you want to analyze everything, annotate everything, point out every detail and go down every digression. It was what Socrates feared was the limitation of his method of thinking, what I call a reverse engineering algorithm, that can be applied to anything including electronic circuits. It is done. The dissertation prospectus is on line web accessible in a public blog tied to the year and month in the blog virtual filesystem: It is amusing and pertinent to add to the prospectus, despite the awkwardness of having to edit both the local word processor file and the blog posting.

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For American Socrates the holy hand grenade is now the junk from hundreds of carburetors or stale original liquid. Extend the journal rules to execute daily scripts, ultra dangerous and not for children to program. Stick with things emanating from Papert and my dissertation. For a token enhancement reverse the minus and plus sign hyperlinks.

i = (int)(difftime(mktime(&current_tm), mktime(&previous_tm))/86400.0);
/* 20050113 why return zero? wonât work when timestamps are the same */
return (i <= threshold)? 1:0;

My hunt in the code to verify or flag as another bug the continuity threshold crossing month boundaries, as from the sixth back to the twenty-ninth of last month which is untestable right now due to the session terminating problem with large values for this program argument variable value finds that it is probably already done through use of reducing everything to seconds âsince the UNIX epochâ. By trusting the efficacy of the GNU difftime system program, we are relieved of having to compute it.

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Continuing the journal modifications to suppress repeating display of images for non-main-journal-based journal entries in the create_xml function.

list<struct Journal::source_file_info *>::iterator determine_source_file(struct journal_entry *);
list<struct Journal::source_file_info *>::iterator Journal::determine_source_file(struct journal_entry * jptr)
list<struct Journal::source_file_info *>::reverse_iterator determine_source_file(struct journal_entry *);
int Journal::create_xml(list<struct journal_entry *>::reverse_iterator rjitr, FILE * fptr, int options, int continuity_threshold, int recursion_level=0, int offset=0)
rlitr = determine_source_file(jptr);

if(rlitr != this->source_file_list->rend() && (*rlitr)->main_file == false)

in_main_journal = false;

A lot of work for a minor improvement to the presentation. Oops, have to go through the list backwards. Better to start with the boolean true for in main journal in case the new function fails. This will maintain the current display result. The desired effect is achieved. A new bug appears, the repetition of the current timestamp entries.

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Early machines lacked the capabilities of adequately providing on line help; modern machines still do not approach the efficacy of printed manuals. My research considers hybrid approaches for learning programming combining old and new computers, old and new printed texts, and new on line help (texts). The stories of how people learned programming with printed manuals remains untold, though accounts of how key people created personal computers, and accounts of the personal style of well known programmers, abound. It is worth looking at the OLPC website for its position on programming. The wiki presents the topic without any introduction as a sequence of programming languages in a curious ordering: Pascal, C, Assembly, ActionScript, JavaScript, shell scripting, Logo, Squeak, Python, and Processing. The entry concludes with a question that my research is begging to address: I guess the laptops could come bundled with language1 and language2 and language3 if they all fit in. But to be useful, the laptops need come be accompanied with something else. The language interpreter/compiler is, of course, not enough. What do we need to put in there to make the use of the language educational? ( Consider this the state of the art and combine it with critical positions exemplified by Brin and Bogost. Take into account McKee and the general problem of designing tutorials and manuals for introducing personal computer platforms and their programming languages. My intuition favors a combination of simple platform and on line help. Consider the interesting prospect of the new Commodore 64 that allows simultaneous operation of the old system and state of the art on line help.

My major paper will concern the challenges of creating effective print and online software documentation for novices learning computer programming. Many critics of the state of computer programming today blame the complexity and lack of openness of current systems for the diminished interest among children to learn programming (Brin). Some recommend revisiting obsolete platforms from the 1980s to introduce the basics of computer technology and programming (Bogost). None, however, cast it as a documentation problem. The natural inclination is to assume that online, interactive help systems and tutorials present a superior learning environment to any printed materials available to novice users decades ago. If documentation is problematic, it is because it is poorly designed, not because it is only available in online formats. Long before Internet delivery of online help became the norm, John B. McKee presented a number of reasons why print manuals still have a future. It is interesting to look back on his predictions from 1985. However, I argue that a more fruitful approach to the problem comes from the perspectives of texts and technology theorists, in particular N. Katherine Haylesâ concept of Media Specific Analysis.

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This is how it begins: basic programming styles differentiated by preference for interpreted or compiled languages.

Its reflection would be in another formula, another section, sentence, page, argument, story, narrative, dataset, lines of program source code interpreted by an interpreting language, which probably happens in a program running a compiled language, such as remote modules and procedure calls as another narrative in a story focusing around PHI, the name of the missing but potential bookmark naming this action subject place lexia area of text, area of image, area of object code, machine code. The languages go into infinity of computer programming languages that are either compiled or interpreted. Humans favor interpreted who want to be able to read through all the code at once to understand and use it wisely or at all. The original students of Lacan are nothing in number compared to the students of these pmrek, poller and other FOSS (I name my own space by the FOSS I create). When the copyrights expire on all the books I have read I can use them freely in FOSS. As a philosopher I am going to take over the concept FOSS to speak about [these pmrek, poller and other FOSS]. I can temporarily invoke character hyperlinks to signify where legein and noein, text and image, are equivalent entities. This is the boundary of third order logic, a concept I will also promote in conference presentations. Turkle only identifies two programming styles, bricoleur and its rigid opposite compiled (you only have two programming styles and you have to allocate one to everything as a function of its). When I say it is like the DL of software comments it is philosophy complaining like the collective Greek language Cicero. Cicero turned it into a computing playground to cycle his own ideas (subvocalized Latin language). Humans interpreters actually higher level compilers at lower levels of the language into the platform architecture operating system supporting such FOSS. This is like going through the trouble of manually creating via HTML Help Workshop the files that are compiled by the compiler to make the compiled HTML help file typically with dot chm extension.

This is how it begins: basic programming styles differentiated by preference for interpreted or compiled languages, after being reached by the language interpreter as HTML reader an interpreted language ultimately compiled or used as data output input. The Greeks and Latins did not have incandescent light bulbs or audio systems whose wattage is dissipated as heat in the overall entropic area of space through which human bodies move, navigate, read, write, think, compute, equate, equivocate, include in a sentence. That is how it begins, from considering interpreted and compiled as style poles (strange attractors Zizek would say) in the age of electronic computing (TCP/IP internetworked computing machinery). In what kinds of learning environments would people be learning programming now? Territorializing upon pinball machines establishes my niche market.

-rw-r--r-- 1 jbork jbork 6732513280 2011-04-17 17:25 negativland-our_favorite_things.iso

Imagine starting with a sorted list of audio files applicable to a sorted list of pmrek log files for every long games, not or series of games. Also at a certain point in the history of the journals OpenOffice HTML styles are explicitly set (programmed) to display source code in a very small Courier font.

Learning programming tasks challenge creating effective software documentation. This is where Jones research final paper starts. Really take it far by adding concurrent (simultaneous, noein, many all at once) Theora (ogv) file in the audio texts and technology work. Early microcomputers before pervasive internetworking also only had print documentation. Is print obsolete? Consider what John B. McKee suggested in at 198x . . . help media includes print and online froms for which Haylesâ MSA methodology can be applied. Relax with AI movie. My research will inquire whether print should be deprecated and how to best create online help for learning programming.
Provisional title is "Print versus Online Help: What is Best for Learning Programming?" Learning programming tasks challenge creating effective software documentation[ because there has to be a perfect mapping isomorphism between what is read in print and online help systems. Here is the boarder of provisional text on both the virtual and print page displays. It is blue text lexia character and image surrounded by black. Learning programming tasks vary considerably, they are ambiguous, and require special consideration when deploying language machines performing the function of help documentation, including procedures and tutorials. Play Negativland video and Roger Waters audio will be a problem posed this fall with Grajeda if I need another restricted elective. Lay the two files against each other and provide an offset to being the same as the pmrek log file of a very long game, as long as the song (audio file played). Quantification of the many contexts under which programming is learned makes it hard to write task oriented documentation because of the resulting large number of situated environments.] They are ambiguous, and require special consideration when deploying help media[ documentation (media)], including procedures and tutorials.[Really take it far by adding concurrent (simultaneous, noein, many all at once) Theora (ogv) file in the audio texts and technology work.[10]] Even the question of whether to design print or online help systems depends on how programming is being learned. Today online documentation is pervasive in learning programming. It may be questioned whether print manuals like the famous Applesoft Tutorial shipped with the Apple II series, or the highly praised, multivolume Inside Macintosh have a place in software help media libraries today. The question was genuine in 1986 when John B. McKee presented "Computer User Manuals in Print: Do They Have a Future?" at SIGDOC â85. Early microcomputers before pervasive internetworking lacked online help, so print material was mandatory, but its growth was witnessed in CBT systems and disk-based tutorials. Freely available examples of powerful, well-developed programming tutorials for many different languages abound on the Internet. McKee correctly predicts that print manuals would thrive in the years to come, even they ceased being bundled with new computers. However, he wrote too early to address the appropriateness of creating print documentation as an intentional design decision in the midst of rich new Internet media environments.[20] There may be sound reasons to keep old computer manuals circulating, if the machines themselves still are. Many vintage units continue to operate, and there are virtual replacements [simulators and emulators] like the soon to be released Ubuntu GNU Linux based Commodore 64. The technology scholar Ian Bogost, who wrote Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System with Nick Montfort in 2009, posted "Pascal Spoken Here: Learning about Learning Programming from the Apple II" on his blog. Bogost reasons that learning programming today on old Apple II computers may "recuperate a situation in which a computer doles out its secrets in small, digestible bites rather than all at once through the tsunami of Google results" (2010). Referencing an Apple Computer advertisement printed in 1979, he writes of those machines, "Straight out of the box, anyone could make the computer do something. And then, soon enough, anyone with a little patience and interest could make the computer do anything it was capable of" (Bogost, 2010). David Brin carries on a similar argument in "Why Johnny canât code," lamenting the absence of a simple, built-in programming environments like BASIC in computers today, so he can "give my son a chance to sample some of the wizardry standing behind the curtain, before he became lost in the avatar-filled and glossy-rendered streets of Oz" (2006). [His sentiment is echoed again and again (references).] This makes Apple II computers viable platforms for learning programming, in this case Pascal and potentially other languages. But what about the manuals that older programmers used when they were kids?[30] Consider the possibility of new online help systems designed for learning programming on these pre-Internet, antique computing platforms. These systems could employ the best features of the original print manuals, augmented by the affordances of state of the art, network enabled documentation interfaces. This research paper will inquire whether print should be deprecated, and how to best create online help for learning programming, by looking for the specific advantages of print media over online, and applying the lessons and best practices of task-oriented documentation design to both print and online texts. Key [questions and] ideas that will be covered include:

What kind of help do novice programmers need?

What are some common features of effective, task-orient software documentation, especially tutorials?

What are some successful design elements of well-received print tutorials from the age of early personal computers?

What unique affordances of print documentation does MSA reveal?

What are some successful design elements of well-received online tutorials for learning programming?

What is the current condition of learning programming?

What is the relationship between technical writing and the open source movement?[40]

How can technical documentation theorists and practitioners assist world wide efforts to promote learning programming?

One of the assumptions that McKee may be making is that print manuals are cheaper and easier to produce than online help systems, especially when they are task-oriented.

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Lacks attention to practical question of knowing how computers work, while Crisafi implies it is critical for phenomenologically based T&T studies. Where numerous writers (including T&T dissertations) emphasize the importance of human embodiment for everything from understanding new media to cognition itself, Iâm applying similar arguments and methodologies (or adjusting, as needed) to machine embodiment.

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This is a pretty reasonable sequence of options to make some code work, first editing the C++ class function source code, then the C++ class header source code due to failing compilation, eventually involving modifications to the poller program Perl and the journal PHP source code. You need to put journal into debug in order to see the do nothing indication that the code was executed, although initially it will not even display that because the new internal private class data member variable element is not set to true in order to hit the first version of the new code that merely prints the debug message that it was reached. Get around this by defaulting the value to true in object initialization. Next I have to set the session variable in MySQL. Now need to remember how to do the poller result from the command line, which occurs in the music player script. There should be a name for changing to another program, for it is like the human reader changing to another text; this is the essence of semiology. Canât do the ampersand because the backgrounded job immediately stops rather than continuing to execute in the foreground version (without the ampersand). But the foregrounded version takes up the display with its incessant scrolling and grab of the cursor so I cannot run another program. This, finally found after these modifications, is the file I want to use, /tmp/PHP_user/poller.html. Now that the loop is running producing the latest poller output as the designated file, include it between horizontal rules in the journal display where the debug statement marked the execution point.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20120119 20120119 5 -5+ journal_2012.html
Turkle, Kittler and others who theorize [preposition operator] the effect PHI have on our lives did not think [galaxies of possible worlds in which multiprocessing deeply enough] microcomputer concurrent asymptotically parallel multiprocessing until preponderance of TCP/IPv4 networking protocols defined most media realities (virtual realities for humans). [Thus the book form was still their default means of durable philosophical production.] FOSS represents the optimal routine for philosophizing with electricity. It has already happened in the latest versions of symposia, which is just getting an adaptation of the ncurses four Hertz supervisory control and display program. Cultural software divides between text to speech synthesis of computations of the source code and the supervisory control and display program running in user space in contrast to the kernel workqueue process handling high speed digital switching process control making the sound before the final control element loudspeakers.

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In virtual realities where computers and humans are indistinguishable reside pointers into possible philosophies of computing. QL uses what is comprehensible from speech to text whereas symposia synthesizes speech from text into audible sounds and encoded PHI data, PHI being out definition of the inhuman cognitive intellectual conscious understanding thinking being cognizant presence, and so on, computer technology. The symposia ensoniment presents a shimmering PHI in which human and computer intelligences may be, to use a term borrowed from technical terms, âanonomizedâ, for humans may employ programs to help them think. Again, trying to think about cyberspaces that are not the exclusive domain of either computers or people such as the auditory space of symposia, which can be offered up alongside other bazaar arcade phenomena connecting Benjamin to my work in the second exam question range of critical weighing heavier than rhetorical analysis of science and technology.

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Again struck by depth of typical public radio broadcast related to levels of verification for PHI developed by Berry. Regulation of public presence is no less difficult than it was thousands of years ago for humans now recomputed in virtual virtual realities. The difference is that the agency of external, non human cognition is fantasized in antiquity where today it is instantiated in computer networks.

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This is a unit operation or algorithm that probably most many people have seen. What is the unit operation? Whatever it is, it explains itself in terms of texts, technology, subjectivity and computing, the latter consuming the former as computation dissipates into its own being, radiating from the future as oracle operations, the computability busting feedback input that cannot be explained by anything except representing, transduction, imagining, signifying, the difference being multimedia, multipurposive, multiple concurrent meaning layers equivalent to language functions. No matter what the first exam question, respond by explaining texts (what they are), technology (what it is), subjectivity (how it is discussed in texts and technology studies), and computing (how my research project investigates how it, our nonhuman technological cyborg components instantiating computing operations, which subdivides into both my intentional, what Manovich calls cultural software, and my nonintentional, concurrent nonhuman technological systems regulating the rest of the world, my milieu, built environment, cyberspace, and so on, could be discussed in texts and technology studies. Of course computing has a human bias, it is created in our image even if we now imagine ourselves in its terms. Yet there is still much to learn delving into the necessarily alien temporalities, massifications, and multiplexities manifest in the Internet age even if only vaguely glimpsed by earlier theorists.

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I have to become the master of computing, insert your name philosopher of computing, therefore likely to produce a dissertation PHI tapoc becomes the basic thought of PHI. Simulate bringing the pinball machine to presentations at conferences worldwide as TCP/IPv4 bundles networks instantiations running free open source software PHI programming. You can get to the committee response through foss now jumping into these software projects. It is the metanarrative that philosophers of computing meditate with. Recalling Turkle not discriminating between Logo and Basic as best learning languages for children when asked today typically involves C++. The task for this afternoon after entering notes clearing the list.

Programming problem why is 2011 not working stops thought in this code line. Now I remember the command was to consider proposing a digital humanities or philosophy of computing course initially taught adjunct. The programming problem is that I did not code for hits in notes files beyond known free open source journal. Problem is to fix it disrupts outer loop interating master process list. What are needed are virtual journal entries emanating from notes files, a C++ programming task for the sunny Florida American afternoon imagining Socrates going nationwide with pmrek presentation. Imagine shift in virtual position to make always correct interest capturing hyperlinks to images of table with reading list text layouts turned into HTTP HTML image map hyperlink request TCP/IPv4 phenomena. The proposed code would be in refresh function prior to creation of first Journal C++ class object of current version of tapoc. The notes go back into themselves smoothly, functionally appropriately, such is the fate of all artificial and natural automata. Next to review after Kittler directed to McDaniels is Sterne hoped to be picked up by Grajeda, either of who or whom not sure at this moment forgetting things my mother said may have. The Perl script has to be run again to pick up the latest HTML anchor word processor bookmark in Kittler notes foss object PHI. A more correct way to understand the pharmakon of programming is thinking back through the default comportment developing around half a decade or longer use of a particular platform, appealing to both Bogost, merely on account of being part of the first response, and Derrida for Janz. From humanities network theory to those used by systems integrators, information technology integrators, system engineers, and various other system enacting human agencies. Deciding from reviewing Sterne notes that already cyborgs mechanically and now electronically again enumerating the series orality, literacy, electronic, augmenting sense organs.

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Critical code studies via pinball platform studies becomes the new title topic summation by which working code enters philosophy of computing via programming, for there are no authoritative universal philosophies of programming until free as in libre open source so as to imply and here is where the name multiplies Stallman GPL four freedoms exist. This is the necessary condition of future machine cognitions.

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Zizek is a Donkey Kong of Western philosophy because like the others has written and continues to write so many books that, even though his work is mostly static for he, like Socrates, Freud, Lacan will eventually die leaving static texts to perpetuate themselves combinatorically to understand them requires constant reading like repetitive levels of a videogame. This is the hook for Bogost, who like Zizek publishes a book almost yearly, recycling the same bulk material necessitating our constant update of our interpretations [of these theorists writers philosophers documenters practitioners declarers writers interpreters makers players of PHI. This becomes control language inundated into machine intelligence and human thinkers like me the guy typing this today and others reading later.] Learning programming becomes a new art of thinking taught by American Socrates. Toward a philosophy of computing through critical programming, code, software, and platform studies. This becomes a form for a new title and dive back into previous code for repetitions iterations loops cycles progressions program execution machine cognition being.

Descent into working code to improve the dissertation proposal generation machine.

[working code css]
jbork@alkibiades:~/src/tapoc$ vi
SQL="(select Path from Items where Relevance=0 and Path like â%/notes_for_%.htmlâ order by Path desc limit $TEST_COUNT) UNION (select Path from Items where Relevance=0 and right(LatestBookmark,8)>â20130126â order by right(LatestBookmark,8) desc limit $TEST_COUNT)"
jbork@alkibiades:~/src/tapoc$ make web-sourceforge
[working code css]

To continue thinking it requires working code in the MySQL Workbench to obtain sound source code to do the designed software job work function operation result. Attempts to use DATE_SUB in a UNION of SELECT statements failed to get those whose most recent bookmarks are within the last three days, so a cruder method based on post exam boundary employed.

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No working from home is the new ethic not anticomputational or antiprotocological but semiotic, signaling, signifying, now working from home representing, part of the circuit, like an interrupt generator zero crossing detector circuit is a new unit operation of hypernetwork cognition coming through the variable PHI() is what I mean by emphasizing the pro. Hilarious borking public radio Derrida Donkey Kong Zizek examples boundary of high speed process control against literature. If you turn on character hyperlinks, they should only burn for a certain time not to exceed a tiny fraction of the total. Dive into working code for a while.

[working code css]
jbork@alkibiades:~/src/tapoc$ grep -n 600000 *.cgi
gentapoc.cgi:41:my $default_refresh_rate=600000;
jbork@alkibiades:~/src/tapoc$ vi +41 gentapoc.cgi
my $default_refresh_rate=600000;
search hit BOTTOM, continuing at TOP
elsif($session ne "")
if($refresh_period ne "")
$default_refresh_rate = $refresh_period;
jbork@alkibiades:~/src/tapoc$ sudo make web-cgi
UPDATE `JournalInfo`.`Arguments` SET `Value`=â6000â WHERE `Session`=â6â and`Argument`=ârefresh_periodâ;
UPDATE `JournalInfo`.`Arguments` SET `Value`=â60000â WHERE `Session`=â6â and`Argument`=ârefresh_periodâ;
UPDATE `JournalInfo`.`Arguments` SET `Value`=â600000â WHERE `Session`=â6â and`Argument`=ârefresh_periodâ;
UPDATE `JournalInfo`.`Arguments` SET `Value`=â6001â WHERE `Session`=â6â and`Argument`=ârefresh_periodâ;
UPDATE `JournalInfo`.`Arguments` SET `Value`=â30000â WHERE `Session`=â6â and`Argument`=ârefresh_periodâ;
select now(),addtime(now(), â0:00:10â)
select now(),addtime(now(), sec_to_time(10))
my $future_time = "never" if($future_time==0);
$future_time = `mysql -u$db_user -p$db_passwd --batch --skip-column-names -e"select addtime(now(), sec_to_time($default_refresh_rate/1000))"` if($default_refresh_rate != 0);
[working code css]

An excursion through the code to find out why the page refresh time out is not being set from what is put in the control console even after unsetting session that forces database value. There is your problem, the refresh rate set in the control console is only being set, ironically, if a session number is specified, even though the session number has to be unspecified from the control console in order for this imaginable display to happen. Distributing the dissertation as virtualization specification or virtual machine archive allows living writing to stay alive in relation to other users starting with dissertation committee members whose comments now must be reviewed. Stepping through temporal orders of magnitude jumping back to rapidly repeating for human readers.

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What is borking public radio but real virtuality? It is the screeching sound as literature subsumed by high speed digital computer processes PHI. Imagine HTML table first column containing playfield and rows of statistics analyzed for pinball platform studies. Spread playfield images among days in year. Entering working code via BASH script and C++.

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Perhaps it is necessary to review the presentation, for giving the weekly lecture like seminar of Lacan is where philosophy exists in corporate America as implicit philosophies of computing reflected in career trajectory optimally benefiting the business.

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This is to make a virtual reality encampment in which humans take roles of project leads, managers, directors from earlier years that followed an academic track. Bork philosopher of computing age verb operator noun expresses philosophy of computing. The human computer symbiote is the cyborg, to which I refer as post-postmodern dividual, and my writing becomes that which will one day be thought in more open senses as I do within my single human mind do now through aural and visual imagination once all copyrights expire, expressible in thirty two preferably sixty four bit second unit data structure variable values.

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What have I been writing is disposable thoughts at other house in other embodiment space time. This is the quintessence of machine thinking.

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From a year ago argue why it is not enough to be a dilettante, which OâGorman recommends for post-institutional, post-interdisciplinary humanities. This is the boundary of thinking with programming, either getting into rsync or some other source, perhaps your own work. That is the wager I am making with potential browsers and commit rights power users, what I am advertising they can learn from interacting with this body of texts (discourse). Escape Derrida and his end game with the book form and writing; escape Ulmerâs silliness. From the Maner PDF I have, putatively a keynote address, it announces "this paper appeared in Science and Engineering Ethics, volume 2, number 2 (April, 1996), pages 137-154." Visiting the old version I have, the third edition, Maner is mentioned once in a section headed by "ARE COMPUTER ETHICAL ISSUES UNIQUE? A DEEPER ANALYSIS." I raise the point that the ethical question whether to program realizing we do it whether we know we are doing it is unique in the sense that doing other things seldom incites us to wonder whether we should spend five years studying it. This is the shaking off of studying everything sensed by Plato, via Socrates in Phaedrus, leading to the famous Socratic maxim know thyself, remediated today by learning about computers as the best we to study the soul, and also the body. Look at [analogy recalling what will be heard Friday night on public radio of a conversation including Hofstader on human cognition] how machines fail as analogies to ways human bodies fail, such as poor conduction in power circuits due to high resistance, the concept of resistance and current in wires and blood in flesh. Leverage focus on embodiment in digital humanities theory and scholarship, especially when focusing on texts and technology, how embodiment matters, is philosophized, and artfully interpreted (Greek poeisis differentiated from second order, deliberately initially fore thought and with mastery internalized, archiving as well as producing, practices). Having gone to the other house and lit a fire, but disheartened by an annoying phone message from work, this clear thoughts from the garage still fail to recollect themselves, as if they were autonomous ontological units with their own hidden lives. Bogost responded that a platform study of pinball machines has not been planned yet; put on the list of future work once the dissertation is done. Again, perhaps Maner did not think of the important self-involving ethical question of whether to practice programming, or how computers resemble writing as pharmaka, relating them to ancient ethical arguments. Kittler cautions drawing such simple conclusions. That Turkleâs work exists, and a generation of Americans were taught to use computers and program them in public schools, and for that movement to recede, seems sufficient evidence that ethical questions regarding computers were not thoroughly considered by philosophers. That Deborah Johnson mentions Maner in two consecutive editions of Computer Ethics sharpens how these philosophical texts cross our system. It is also instructive to compare the cover artwork of these editions to see how they symbolize human machine symbiosis. Another hint at why humans becoming stupider reviewing Kemeny after Deleuze and Guattari, whose grasping fantasy concepts like body without organs, plane of consistency, and so on are actualized in contemporary global and local network machine cognition.

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The idea again has to do with virtual machines, something as exotic as a virtual machine running a GNU/Linux desktop as different take on generic browser based user interface for work.

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Using machine tests to determined whether Brin notes exist.

[working code css]
select Path, Relevance from Items where Path like â%brin%â
jbork@alkibiades:~/public_html/progress$ find . -name *brin*
[working code css]

Machine tests constituting contribution of technological nonconscious by symbiote answer in one form of the Big Other responding. While the computing way of treating others, which new hires going through streamlined onboarding training may understand and practice better than long time employees, has a negative connotation, gets a bad rap (why does computing always have to be the boss?), the important point is that in order to compute, symbolization must occur, which for humans implies knowing the characters in the organizational charts. The stones used in calculation presuppose variable value assignment, and for digital (in contrast to analog that retains its Zizek traumatic kernel real link) presuppose contextual, situational, run time assignation.

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vmdkâ: File too large
[working code css]

This code makes the virtual phenomenological field bristle (or better or silly term) with hyperlinks. The point of earlier thinking was that putting tapoc on nonvolatile static random access memory makes the stones used in calculation themselves network dividual components. At the radical creative pole is a language machine that writes to the removable memory from within its virtual world itself run from the device itself (needs enough space for ova and runnable virtual machine). Interesting visual collage anticipating this mechanical thinking that will be permitted decades from now when all copyrights expire including the overheard public radio that was part of that thinking (recall Hayles on Feyerabend notebooks). The five minute delay creating the ova replaces batch code delay whose effect on the nature of human computer symbiosis was altered and revealed by time-sharing, then multiprocessing, then distributed network cloud computing.

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The first attempt failed as the open source as in floss version of the virtual machine manager does not directly interface the export it makes by default or explicit configurable option. This one (thumb drive) is junk attempting to copy larger than 32 bit file at edge of ken of 16 bit computing theorists. Working code starts in another world and continues here.

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The philosophy of computing and philosophy of programming are both uninstantiated as explicit critical disciplines in the way philosophy of information, philosophy of software, and semiotics of programming have been articulated as scholarly work. [A putative close cousin, the philosophy of software, as presented by Berry promotes an ethic of being a good stream, whose parasitic subjectivity, although requiring thoughtful comportment to computer technologies, does not endorse outright learning and practicing programming as itself critically important to being a good stream the way literacy did for prior generations, or as a substantial proportion of intellectual labor in humanities scholarship.] A reasonable explanation for this condition is that the relative scarcity of programming philosophers compared to the union of all philosophers and all programmers makes definitive (privileges, biases) the texts of early theorists, and unarticulated, possibly accidental and unreflective philosophies of influential technologists. Also silent is philosophy embedded in source code. Programming philosophers are hard to find because their work is concretized in code, perhaps doubly on account of nondisclosure; instead, there are default empirical assemblages.

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Imagine the proposal iterates between timestamp other file and journal objects PHI is where new philosophies of computing begin with procedural rhetorics of diachronies in synchronies playing on textual linguistic and now computable as real virtualities code variations PHI becomes the proposal to articulate by about twenty sentences.

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So there are just commercials for schizoanalysis, venture no further in doing what is recommended than announcing its necessity. (171-172)

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Derrida acknowledges he does not have enough time or right to impose on the audience full hearing of his arguments, ironically setting up for future consumption by machine cognizers. (5)

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Exergue also like prototype declaration hinting at meaning of software structures. (7)

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Archive entrusted to external substrate rather than intimate mark of circumcision on the body proper. (8)

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Mystic Pad as representation of technical model of machine tool by Freud for internal archivization. (13-14)

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Two irreducible hypotheses inviting test whether new machine tools better represent psychic apparatus, or affected differently by computerization? (15)

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That employment in computing fields exceeds engineering and architecture is evidence the computer boys have taken over. (1)

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Philosophy of computing bounded by mysterious technical activities ignored and avoided by nonpractitioners. (1)

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Entrenched stereotype of computer people as antisocial. (2)

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Most attention paid to inventors and high profile software creators; little yet to common computer specialists. (3)

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Histories of technology poorly address activities of nonelite actors, invisible technicians. (3)

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Bias in history of computing on the electronic, programmable, digital computer. (4)

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The work of most computer specialists, like writers with their medium, has nothing to do with design or construction of computers; their concern is with applications. (4-5)

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History of computer software at heart of computer revolutions. (5)

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Most experience computers through software; it defines relationships, gives meaning. (5)

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Software typically considered a consumer good, but is better understood as bundle of systems, services and support, and most software custom produced for particular corporations or institutions; compare to Sterne setting very broad bounds for ensoniment. (6)

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Tukey introduced distinction between hardware and software a decade into electronic computing; software was unidfferentiated collection of tools, personnel and procedures. (7-8)

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Software exemplary sociotechnological system; John Law heterogeneous engineering. (7-8)

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Ultimate heterogeneous technology with some aspects that can be generalized and others that are inescapably local and specific. (8)

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Uses example of computerized accounting system to survey broad aspects of computerization including ancillary parts like reports, studies, training, organizational transformations. (8)

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Category of software ever expanding with fewer clear narratives of regular, successful historical progress than hardware; apocalyptic rhetoric of looming crises instead of Moores Law optimism. (9)

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Problem is not that software is hard but inherently contested, having unintended side effects for organizations using it. (10-11)

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View software crises as socially constructed historical artifacts revealing hidden fault lines with a community or organization. (11)

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Focus on technical specialists who build software and how they constructed their occupational identity. (12)

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Skills of computer specialists combined scientific, technical and business expertise, leading them to take over in corporate, government, politics and society. (12-13)

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Computer became tool for management, stirring up organizational structures, and computer specialists became change agents. (13)

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Computer user invented by technological innovators as kind of people they expected to use computers. (13)

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Women start the story but are quickly subsumed in male dominance of the publishing and conference attending computing field. (14)

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Computer boys blanket term for postwar technical experts but especially programmers. (14)

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Connect to inspiration for Hayles My Mother was a Computer. (14)

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Notes started May 2011. (ix)

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Later note on Foucault admission of arbitrariness akin to Zizek on Adorno habit of practicing vulgar sociologism, akin to Quintillian depravity of style noted in Seneca who writes of fetish of tools and engineering knowledge. (ix)

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If only more philosophers had been programming back then is reduced by lack of feasibility operating rhetorically like ancient literary reading formant synthesis conventions, audible techniques repeated in centuries of writing techniques. (45-46)

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Notion of simultaneity of social production contributes to my concept of diachrony in synchrony. (258-259) Information carries through its networks both the wealth and the command of production, disrupting previous conceptions of inside and outside, but also reducing the temporal progression that had previously defined primitive accumulation. . . . The temporal sequence of development is thus reduced to immediacy as the entire society tends to be integrated in some way in the networks of informational production. Information networks tend toward something like a simultaneity of social production.

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Developmental view ignores relativity and importance of position within global system; compare to critiques of technological determinism. (282) This discourse conceives the economic history of all countries as following one single pattern of development, each at different times and according to different speeds. . . . The developmental view fails to recognize, however, that the economies of the so-called developed countries are defined not only by certain quantitative factors or by their internal structures, but also and more important by
their dominant position in the global system.
(283) To say that the subordinate economies do not develop does not mean that they do not change or grow; it means, rather, that
they remain subordinate in the global system and thus never achieve the promised form of a dominant, developed country.

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Developmental view also inadequate because subordinate countries cannot repeat past conditions; compare to periphery software development practices not repeating Silicon Valley successes. (284) The tendential realization of the world market should destroy any notion that today a country or region could isolate or delink itself from the global networks of power in order to re-create the conditions of the past and develop as the dominant capitalist countries once did.

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Notion of hybrid exemplified by Italian economy contributes to my concept of diachrony in synchrony; compare to description of software development in a South American city. (288-289) The transformations of the Italian economy since the 1950s demonstrate clearly that relatively backward economies do not simply follow the same stages the dominant regions experience, but evolve through alternative and mixed patterns. . . . The economic stages are thus all present at once, merged into a hybrid, composite economy that varies not in kind but in degree across the globe.

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Hardt and Negri fail to note control regimes are nonetheless imposed into immaterial labor systems and social networks, especially in workplaces that are heavily code spaces. (294) In other words, the cooperative aspect of immaterial labor is not imposed or organized from the outside, as it was in previous forms of labor, but rather, cooperation is completely immanent to the laboring activity itself. . . . Brains and bodies still need others to produce value, but the others they need are not necessarily provided by capital and its capacities to orchestrate production. Today productivity, wealth, and the creation of social surpluses take the form of cooperative interactivity through linguistic, communicational, and affective networks. In the expression of its own creative energies, immaterial labor thus seems to provide the potential for a kind of spontaneous and elementary communism.

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Protocol operation hinted but not explicitly articulated by Hardt and Negri in their discussion of abstract cooperation. (296) The labor of informational production (of both services and durable goods) relies on what we can call
abstract cooperation.

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Gates Road Ahead plays significant role in Hardt and Negri discourse. (296) Bill Gates, the co-founder of the Microsoft Corporation, takes this tendency to an extreme when he predicts a future in which networks will overcome entirely the barriers to circulation and allow an ideal, friction-free capitalism to emerge. . . . If Gateâs vision were to be realized, the networks would tend to reduce all distance and make transactions immediate. Sites of production and sites of consumption would then be present to one another, regardless of geographical location.

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Information network infrastructures are both democratic and oligopolistic, combining rhizomatic broadcast models; compare to Galloways much deeper analysis of technical mechanisms of Internet. (298-299) In political terms, the global information infrastructure might be characterized as the combination of a
democratic mechanisms and an oligopolistic mechanism, which operate along different models of network systems. The democratic network is a completely horizontal and deterritorialized model. . . . This democratic model is what Deleuze and Guattari call a rhizome, a nonhierarchical and noncentered network structure.
(299-300) The oligopolistic network model is characterized by broadcast systems. . . . The broadcast network is defined by its centralized production, mass distribution, and one-way communication. . . . This oligopolistic model is not a rhizome but a tree structure that subordinates all of the branches to the central root.

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Functional equilibrium evidence of diachrony in synchrony. (314)
(314) The Empire we find ourselves faced with today is also mutatis mutandis constituted by a functional equilibrium among ehse three forms of power: the monarchic unity of power and its global monopoly of force; aristocratic articulations through transational corporations and nation-states; and democratic-representational comitia, presented again in the form of nation-states along with the various kinds of NGOs, media organizations, and other popular organisms.

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Compare bad forms to Kemeny fear that human computer symbiosis corruptible by bad management. (315) We can recognize the ways in which we are close to and distant from the Polybian model of imperial power by situating ourselves in the genealogy of interpretations of Polybius in the history of European political thought.
(316) One could even argue that our experience of the constitution (in formation) of Empire is really the development and coexistence of the bad forms of government rather than the good forms, as the tradition pretends. All the elements of the mixed constitution appear at first sight in fact as through a distorting lens. . . . Both within the individual states and on the international level, this limited sphere of imperial democracy is configured as a
People (an organized particularity that defends established privileges and properties) rather than as a multitude (the universality of free and productive practices).

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Jameson conspiracy theories in film approximates functioning of the totality as if directed by single global power: like New Coke debacle, not that smart and not that dumb. (323) As Fredric Jameson explains wonderfully in the context of contemporary film, conspiracy theories are a crude but effective mechanism for approximating the functioning of the totality. The spectacle of politics functions
as if the media, the military, the government, the transnational corporations, the global financial institutions, and so forth were all consciously and explicitly directed by a single power even though in reality they are not.

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Immanence relates to diachrony in synchrony. (324) In other words, sovereignty operates through the striation of the social field.
(325) Capital, on the contrary, operates on the plane of
immanence, through relays and networks of relationships of domination, without reliance on a transcendent center of power. It tends historically to destroy traditional social boundaries, expanding across territories and enveloping always new populations within its processes.

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Consent formed through local effectiveness; relate to operation of protocols within their application layers. (343) Consent to the imperial regime is not something that descends from the transcendentals of good administration, which were defined in the modern rights states. Consent, rather, is formed through the local effectiveness of the regime.

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Forced beyond transcendental politics of divine city into ontology because politics and social life merge in the postmodern spectacle. (353-354)

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Hardt and Negri make the conceptual stretches in these sections, developing ontology of the mutltitude in Empire as concrete universal. (356)

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Construction of value takes place beyond measure in immanent non-place of virtuality. (356)

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Virtual is set of powers to act residing in multitude, living labor, general social activity. (357)

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Constituent power of common action by the multitude is power of freedom; ontological terrain of Empire. (358)

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Imperial government appears as a parasite; its actions are rebounds of the resistance of the multitude. (359)

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Concrete universal is the multitude actions making common through nomadism and miscegenation. (362)

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Concrete universal fashioned by the actions of the multitude also evident as development of cyberspace. (362)

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Power to circulate as ethical act; again well articulated in cyberspace interior journeys, though focus here is global nomadism and miscegenation of bodies. (363-364)

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General intellect formation predicted by Marx is our era. (364)

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Must acknowledge corporeal aspects of general intellect, not just plane of thought, as biopower is subsumption of society under capital, globalized productive order. (364-365)

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Life infuses all production, no separate from the working day. (365-366)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (365-366) 20141130c 0 0+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Production of commodities accomplished through language; Agamben naked life appears as wealth of virtuality. (365-366)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (366-367) 20141111h 0 -11+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Machinic exodus by the multitude through their collective use of technologies. (366-367) The field on which productive forces are reappropriated by the multitude is a field of radical metamorphosis the scene of a demiurgic operation. This consists above all in a complete revision of the production of cooperative subjectivity; it consists in an act, that is, of merging and hybridizing with the machines that the multitude has reappropriated and reinvented, it consists, therefore, in an exodus that is not only spatial but also mechanical in the the sense that the subject is transformed into (and finds the cooperation that constitutes it multiplied in) the machine. This is a new form of exodus, an exodus toward (or with) the machine a machinic exodus. . . . Now the new virtualities, the naked life of the present, have the capacity to take control of the processes of machinic metamorphosis. . . . This new terrain of production and life opens for labor a future of metamorphoses that subjective cooperation can and must control ethically, politically, and productively.

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Recognize capitalist rule was a transitory period; need to enter ontology of the possible and what accumulated virtualites may realize as materialist telos. (367-368)

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Ontology of possible replaces worn out metaphysical traditions; compare to Latour. (367-368)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (369) 20141130f 0 0+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
Revolutionary machines of irreducible innovation. (369)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK hardt_negri-empire (405) 20141111i 0 -2+ progress/2014/10/notes_for_hardt_negri-empire.html
New system of machines; progression of desire in freedom actualized in global human machine network interaction by the multitude. (405) In the passage from the struggle over the sense of language to the construction of a new system of machines, the telos gains a greater consistency. This second aspect of the telos serves to make what has been constructed in language a lasting, corporeal progression of desire in freedom.

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Experience and experimentation of the multitude that replaces dialectical mediation with dynamic constitution afforded by critical programming. (405) It has to become real as a site of encounter among subjects and a mechanism for the constitution of the multitude. This is the third aspect of the series of passages through which the material teleology of the new proletariat is formed. Here consciousness and will, language and machine are called on to sustain the collective making of history. The demonstration of this becoming cannot consist in anything but the experience and experimentation of the multitude. Therefore the power of the dialectic, which imagines the collective formed through mediation rather than through constitution, has been definitively dissolved. The making of history is in this sense the construction of the life of the multitude.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4 (22) 19951026 0 0+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heidegger-nietzsche_vol_4.html
How this new way of taking-to-heart, on account of the new way of letting-lie-before-me, that results from the shift from 8. (22)

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Perhaps when I commented upon the growing wasteland in psycho-analytic work with regard to the lost dignity of the hand, the dignity granted it in its ability to embarrass itself by leaving traces of its (and its owners) mistakes, helps to fill up this nothing about which Heidegger speaks, which Freud tried (says Lacan) to illuminate (recalling that often considered page 53, mistakes seem to have replaced the omens or portents of the ancients. (214)

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Technological congruence, which Callon calls actor networks, explains sequencing due to slow accumulation of capital, infrastructures, and social practices; seems to be rule or ideology built into computer game Civilization. (32) The necessary requirement of technological congruence gives us an additional cause of sequencing. For the ability of many industries to cooperating in producing the equipment needed for a higher stage of technology depends not alone on knowledge or sheer skill but on the division of labor and the specialization of industry. And this in turn hinges to a considerable degree on the sheer size of the stock of capital from which springs the gradual diversification of industrial function, becomes an independent regulator of the reach of technical capability.

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Heidegger Gestell explained. (304-305)

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Dartmouth College decision for promoting computer literacy led to development of time sharing and BASIC language. (vii)

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Definitions of algorithm abstract method for computing input from output, program embodiment of computational method in some language, computation as information processing; information and data likewise distinguished as abstract and qualified. (1)

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Statements of computer program and algorithm; evaluation of programs based on quickness of machine performance and clearness of understanding by humans. (2)

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Discipline of computer science deals with complex phenomena surrounding computers, answering question what can be automated. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science (1) 20140309 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science.html
Definitions of algorithm abstract method for computing input from output, program embodiment of computational method in some language, computation as information processing; information and data likewise distinguished as abstract and qualified. (1)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science (2) 20140309a 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science.html
Statements of computer program and algorithm; evaluation of programs based on quickness of machine performance and clearness of understanding by humans. (2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science (3) 20140309b 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_knuth-selected_papers_on_computer_science.html
Discipline of computer science deals with complex phenomena surrounding computers, answering question what can be automated. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (1) 20140108a 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Covers languages from 1945 to 1957, commissioned for 1977 publication in Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. (1)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (2) 20140109 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Pre-Babel days (Raley). (2)

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Explicit emphasis on how languages were developed, what human elements are expressed in each language, and appreciation of amount of progress now built into the environment and regarded as self evident, all ignored by computer scientists. (2)

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Use example of fixed algorithm expressed in all languages to grasp their spirit; able to discuss edge of nonsense with language features TPK program example does not reveal. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (3-4) 20140108e 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Algol 60 as human machine bridge language expressing TPK algorithm, although a threshold competency is required even to understand it. (3-4)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (3-4) 20140108f 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Provides example of code citation and working code commentary of what the program means. (3-4)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (3) 20140109a 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Footnote to Grimms Law in comparative linguistics evidence the authors coming from deeper background than early programmers themselves, as criticized by Golumbia. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (4) 20140108g 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Studying useless algorithm versus more useful working code adequately dismissed as methodological question on basis of length. (4)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (4) 20140108h 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Modifications to TPK algorithm such as for languages unable to define custom functions, the process is turned into a runtime variable declaration. (4)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (5) 20140108i 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Considers prior history of written algorithms from 1945 back to 2000 BC, noting the most ancient programs always rendered informally in natural language, where loop iterations always expanded. (5)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (5) 20140108j 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Dark age before invention of notation for dynamic processes automated in machinery. (5)

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Programs written for Babbage and other early computing devices presented in machine language rather than true programming language to be converted to machine language. (6)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (6) 20140108l 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Babbage noticed machines could produce programs as output. (6)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (6-7) 20140108m 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Turing macro expansion machine language working code representation of dynamic process, and Church lambda notation as boundaries of highly developed mathematical algorithm description. (6-7)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (8) 20140108n 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Imagine that the little shed to which Zuse moved the only Z4 machine was near Heideggers hut. (8)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (8) 20140108o 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Zuse PK language dead on arrival. (8)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (9-10) 20140108p 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Hilbert philosophical logic destined for machines but taught in American universities for decades for human calculation. (9-10)

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Zuse proposed incredibly complex programs of things impossible for humans to compute; compare to Thamus example used by Postman and others. (9-10)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages (10) 20140108s 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_knuth_and_pardo-early_development_of_programming_languages.html
Expression of TPK algorithm in Zuse PK. (10)

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Separation of work in modern programming. (16)

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External programming. (23)

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Symbolic code languages relieved applications programmer of having to write or know machine language by transferring tasks to other programmers. (24)

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Microprogramming libraries of special routines in auxiliary units followed by high level programming languages. (26)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (27) 20130924d 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Goal of managerial control with ideal of eliminating the programmer altogether. (27)

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Producing programs left to anonymous army who have little understanding of why they are doing what they do, strengthening separation between those who think and those who do everything else. (29)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (31-32) 20130925a 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Twentieth-century engineering occupations share little with older civil and mechanical; creations of their industries and employers like other raw materials used in production. (31-32)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (36) 20130925b 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Social role of programmer understood by IBM, but training still master apprentice model. (36)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (37) 20130925c 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Role of SAGE in history of software training. (37)

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SDC spin-off of RAND developed managerial techniques for small number of senior personnel to oversee large number of junior personnel, institutionally separating conception and construction. (37-38)

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Trained by future employers, not by peers as in guilds; temporarily modulated by emergence of personal computer and later floss. (46)

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Social class differences mirrored in software training. (49)

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De-skilling is standardizing work to produce standardized products. (51-52)

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Tiny proportion of labor force used to make skills of vast majority unproductive. (52)

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Do autonomous technologies transfer deskilling performed by previous generations, making us collectively dumber? (52)

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Canned programs, structured programming, Chief Programmer Teams central changes making programming less complex and more routine. (54)

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Structured programming and modularization encourage programmers work like machines. (57)

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Structured programming freed managers from dependence on individual workers and made job-based fragmentation possible. (58)

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CPT formalizes natural organization under structured programming, similar to surgical team. (59-60)

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Automatic regulation and supervision creates docile programmers. (61)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (66-67) 20140119h 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Observation of three workplaces, interviews, and published sources ground workplace analysis; compare summary to more recent ethnographic approaches by Rosenberg, Takhteyev. (66-67)

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Is separation of workers and machines reproduced today in datacenters and version control systems? (68)

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Different social relations typical of each suboccupation. (70)

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Programmers permitted breaks but expected to be writing code, formerly on paper, most of the day. (70-71)

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Analyst function as conceptual architect involves super programmer and managerial generalist activities. (72)

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Programmer manager has ambiguous position. (76-76)

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Argues there will be less movement across suboccupations and more within by creation of variety of job titles, social subdivision. (81)

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Training for low-level software workers narrowly vocational and heavily ideological. (82)

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Managers trained as generalists expected to aim beyond technical specialization. (84)

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Judgment of experience of technical specialists in the periphery of the top level minority of generalist managers reflects personal experience in commercial software, in everyday struggles with imposed multiple substantive job tasks and absense of authority structure leading teams. (86)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (87) 20140120f 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Technical specialists can change careers if willing to abandon technical aspects, which seems to make knowledge soluable and cost soul (Heraclitus). (87)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (95) 20140119r 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Professional redefined to involve universal job descriptions, training programs, certification processes yet not arbitrated by peers, licensing, or conversion to entrepreneur; managers have the power to define what programming is. (95)

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Individualism confined to self image substitutes for advantages of collective action and genuine professional standing. (96)

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Ironic that Babbage an early proponent of cheapening labor. (97)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kraft-programmers_and_managers (99) 20140119u 0 0+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kraft-programmers_and_managers.html
Structured programming the key management de-skilling effort, akin to limiting workers choice of tools and using standard parts and materials, industrial rather than craft production. (99)

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Modular programming and Chief Programmer Teams extend structured programming to workplace organization. (99-100)

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Function of supervisors has become more ideological; evidence today is yearly performance management goal setting, communication of organization plans, job simplification and time tracking. (101)

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Company propaganda, pervasive ideology of individualism, management-defined professionalism. (102)

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Personal success in collectivized setting. (102)

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Man machine interface unmediated by human programmer has become the modern GUI, but still needs programmers to build and maintain it. (104)

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Design of operating systems, languages, and firmware predicted to become the loci of opportunities for highly skilled programmers. (104)

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Questionable position on entry of women and minorities in programming. (106)

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Grim prediction for future of majority of software workers; disrupted by emergence of personal computer, Internet, and floss? (106)

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Unfair burden of cultivated individualism, evidence of absence of collective action against layoffs, acceptance of management explanations for eliminating less productive colleagues of the pseudo-profession. (106-107)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (37) 20140120t 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
First of many interludes putatively between Kurzweil and the reader, though the latter could also be an imagined machine interlocutor. (37) OKAY, LET ME GET THIS STRAIGHT, MY CONCEPTION AS A FERTILIZED EGG WAS LIKE THE UNIVERSEâS BIG BANG UH, NO PUN INTENDED THAT IS, THINGS STARTED OUT HAPPENING VERY FAST, THEN KIND OF SLOWED DOWN, AND NOW THEYâRE REAL SLOW?

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (1-2) 20140313 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
My code should pass through like this in comments surrounding visual or audible text of original work being annotated falls within fair use when encoded to form doctoral dissertations PHI. (1-2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (2) 20140313b 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Suggests building IT infrastructure such that humans always rewarded for using. (2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (2) 20140313c 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Value of Instagram compared to Kodak begs the question where did all the employees go to work that ball of dough; overlay Boltanski and Chiapello logic. (2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (3) 20140313e 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Imply building user monetization measurement and compensation built into cultural software assuming much smaller number of individuals are directly paid. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (3) 20140313f 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Assume privileged at lesser proportions incorporate middle class like class of chief programmers and other elite salaried corporate positions; imagine doing with academic position or virtual as independent contractor, a rhizomorphous employability lifetime income generator genius. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (7) 20140313g 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Most future productivity will be software mediated, and software might subsume all future revolutions; current trend is toward hyper unemployment. (7)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (8) 20140430 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Lanier goes beyond points made by Turkle and others that we are diluting our humanity through idolizing digital phenomena, considering the material cost of the asymmetry between big servers collecting data and individuals using them. (8)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (8) 20140313h 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Material cost of digital systems because they do not treat people as special; people need to be paid for their life long small contributions to the networks. (8)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (9) 20140313i 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
The solution to the material asymmetry is to pay people for information gleaned from their network use and that they directly contribute, and make them pay for the servers they believe are free. (9)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (9-10) 20140313j 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Direct experience of consumer electronics has been primary influence of technology; exhilaration over Moores Law has lead to religious emotion among many technologists. (9-10)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (9) 20140430a 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Break out of free information idea into universal micropayment system; Gates noted the early Internet of the 1990s needed to address billing, but probably not symmetrical. (9)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (10) 20140313k 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Commonsense expectation that online services will continue to become cheaper, but really in exchange for acquiescence for being spied on. (10)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (12) 20140313l 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Humans who provide data making social software valuable are treated by those systems as essential but worthless. (12)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (12) 20140313m 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Utopian claims of Silicon Valley metaphysics include immortality in VR, accelerating change, abundance and singularity. (12)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (14) 20140313n 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Endgame of universal transparency in ambient abundance played with even libertarians tolerating surveillance by technical few on far less technical many. (14)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (15) 20140313o 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Problem with how we think about technology, not technology itself: elite networks generate fortunes tossing trinkets to the masses who believe they are participating in sharing cultures, providing them free content and information that can be marketed by the elite powers. (15)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (18) 20140313p 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Must look at the whole system to find the costs of apparently free content and services. (18)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (18) 20140430b 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Lanier uses talking robotic seagull throughout book as avatar for the Big Other, reminiscent of cyberpunk science fiction dystopias. (18)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (19) 20140313q 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
The simple idea is that digital information is really just people in disguise because people play a crucial though small role in creating it. (19)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (20) 20140313r 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
New economic model for online life based on digital dignity treating information as individual-based, therefore consistently valuable, suggests a new spirit of capitalism based on nanopayments motivating contributions to symmetrical information economy. (20)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (22) 20140313s 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Aristotle refers to robotic servants of Greek mythology; modern AI gifts us with automation so we do not need to pay each other. (22)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (24) 20140313t 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Abundance and freedom without politics always an illusion promoted by the greatest beneficiaries of civilization; always hoped that technologies could supplant territorial conquest. (24)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (31) 20140314 0 0+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Theological sense of elite servers. (31)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK levy-collective_intelligence (vii) 20141115 0 0+ progress/2015/02/notes_for_levy-collective_intelligence.html
Claim by Provenzo in foreword that the translation introduces to American readers the most imaginative continental thinker about Internet era computers and their social impact. (vii)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK licklider-man_computer_symbiosis (77) 20140330a 0 0+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_licklider-man_computer_symbiosis.html
Speed and cost of computers does not foster real-time cooperative thinking, making time-sharing a desirable enhancement. (77)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK licklider-man_computer_symbiosis (78) 20140330b 0 0+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_licklider-man_computer_symbiosis.html
Retrieval by name and pattern demands associative memory. (78)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mazlish-fourth_discontinuity (216) 20140418 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mazlish-fourth_discontinuity.html
Mazlish proposes fourth discontinuity as the differentiation between humans and machines, a threat that culminated in 1980s romantic reaction to the computational mind, which we are now well past, hurtling toward the robotic moment. (216) These two cartoons are a way of suggesting the threat which the increasingly perceived continuity between man and the machine poses to us today. It is with this topic that I wish to deal now, approaching it in terms of what I shall call the fourth discontinuity.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mazlish-fourth_discontinuity (218) 20140418a 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mazlish-fourth_discontinuity.html
Freud as third revolutionary ego smashing metaphysician following Copernicus and Darwin represents continuity between human mind extended into its animal embodiment. (218) In this version of the three historic ego smashings, man is placed on a continuous spectrum in relation to the universe, to the rest of the animal kingdom, and to himself. He is no longer discontinuous with the world around him.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mazlish-fourth_discontinuity (218) 20140418b 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mazlish-fourth_discontinuity.html
We need to accept fourth continuity joining human and machine, the cyborg moment; compare to Malabou noting coextension of liberal capitalism and neuronal flexibility. (218) Yet, to use [Jerome] Brunerâs phraseology, though not his idea, a fourth and major discontinuity, or dichotomy, still exists in our time. It is the discontinuity between man and machine. In fact, my thesis is that this fourth discontinuity must now be eliminated indeed, we have started on the task and that in the process manâs ego will have to undergo another rude shock, similar to those administered by Copernicus (or Galileo), Darwin, and Freud. To put it bluntly, we are now coming to realize that man and the machines he creates are continuous and that the same conceptual schemes, for example, that help explain the workings of his brain also explain the workings of a thinking machine. Manâs pride, and his refusal to acknowledge this continuity, is the substratum upon which the distrust of technology and an industrialized society has been reared. Ultimately, I believe, this last rests on manâs refusal to understand and accept his own nature as a being continuous with the tools and machines he constructs.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (51) 20140418 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
Definition of best life possible under democracy involves self-direction, expression and realization. (51) The best life possible and here I am consciously treading on contested ground is one that calls for an ever greater degree of self-direction, self-expression, and self-realization.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (52) 20140418a 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
Thesis Mumford promotes is a looming turning point in which system-centered technologies override human-centered ones, wiping out residual autonomy by imposing authoritarian controls. (52) My thesis, to put it bluntly, is that from late neolithic times in the Near East, right down to our own day, two technologies have recurrently existed side by side: one authoritarian, the other democratic, the first system-centered, immensely powerful, but inherently unstable, the other man-centered, relatively weak, but resourceful and durable. If I am right, we are now rapidly approaching a point at which, unless we radically alter our present course, our surviving democratic technics will be completely suppressed or supplanted, so that every residual autonomy will be wiped out, or will be permitted only as a playful device of government, like national balloting for already chosen leaders in totalitarian countries.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (52) 20140418b 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
Democratic technics are small scale activities actively directed by individual craftspeople celebrating their gifts. (52) What I would call democratic technics is the small-scale method of production, resting mainly on human skill and animal energy but always, even when employing machines, remaining under the active direction of the craftsman or the farmer, each group developing its own gifts, through appropriate arts and social ceremonies, as well as making discreet use of the gifts of nature.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (53) 20140418c 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
Authoritarian technics are large scale activities directed by absolute rulers. (53) In the person of an absolute ruler, whose word is law, cosmic powers came down to earth, mobilizing and unifying the efforts of thousands of men, hitherto all-too-autonomous and too decentralized to act voluntarily in unison for purposes that lay beyond the village horizon.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (53) 20140418d 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
Authoritarian technics leverage high order inventions like mathematics and writing to compose massive human machines, work and military armies he elsewhere calls the Megamachine, versus local, small scale, familial, artisan community efforts of democratic technics. (53) This centralized technics drew on inventions and scientific discoveries of a high order: the written record, mathematics and astronomy, irrigation and canalization: above all, it created complex human machines composed of specialized, standardized, replaceable, interdependent parts the work army,the military army, the bureaucracy.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics (53) 20140418e 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-authoritarian_and_democratic_technics.html
A second essay by Mumford in this anthology hopes for relief from dependence on the Megamachine so that humans can be liberated for self-rewarding work of the sort Marx idealized that is only enjoyed by the privileged few in the projective city. (53) This centralized technics drew on inventions and scientific discoveries of a high order: the written record, mathematics and astronomy, irrigation and canalization: above all, it created complex human machines composed of specialized, standardized, replaceable, interdependent parts the work army,the military army, the bureaucracy.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-technics_and_nature_of_man (208) 20140418 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-technics_and_nature_of_man.html
Human Megamachine hierarchically organized for corpselike obedience original model of specialized machinery. (208) The expansion of power, through ruthless human coercion and mechanical organization, took precedence over the enhancement of life.
(209) The machine I refer to was never discovered in any archaeological diggings for a simple reason: it was composed almost entirely of human parts. These parts were brought together in a hierarchical organization under the rule of an absolute monarch whose commands, supported by a coalition of the priesthood, the armed nobility, and the bureaucracy secured a corpselike obedience from all the components of the machine. Let us all this archetypal machine the human model for all later specialized machines the Megamachine. This new kind of machine was far more complex than the contemporary potterâs wheel of bow-drill, and it remained the most advanced type of machine until the invention of the mechanical clock in the fourteenth century.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK mumford-technics_and_nature_of_man (214) 20140418a 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_mumford-technics_and_nature_of_man.html
Life-centered technology aims for liberation for work to pursue higher human ends, as Fuller hoped as well; only enjoyed by the privileged few in the projective city. (214) Instead of liberation from work being the chief contribution of mechanization and automation, I would suggest that liberation for work for educative, mind-forming work, self-rewarding even on the lowest physiological level may become the most salutary contribution of a life-centered technology.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (xv) 20140426 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Students learning programming are not encouraged to study masterful code. (xv)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (xvii) 20140426a 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Experts were solicited to contribute insights about beautiful code, with proceeds of the book sales going to Amnesty International. (xvii)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (1-2) 20140426b 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Kernighan notes regular expressions as special-purpose pattern matching language invented by Kleene, implemented by Thompson for rapid text pattern matching in one of the first software patents. (1-2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (2) 20140426c 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Kernighan explains Thompson pattern match fast because it generated machine instructions on the fly and carried forward all possible matches. (2)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (3) 20140426d 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Kernighan presents implementation of simple regular expression matching algorithm by Rob Pike as beautiful code exemplifying recursion and C pointers. (3)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (6) 20140426e 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Kernighan describes proven use of pattern matching code teaching programming, good for exploring performance, class extensions, and testing techniques. (6)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (11) 20140426f 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel discusses beauty of Subversion delta editor interface, which is defined as a C structure. (11)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (12) 20140426g 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel notes Subversion delta editor designed by a single very experienced person over a short time period, confirming a suspicion about good designs proposed by Brooks among others. (12)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (12) 20140426h 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel explains Subversion repository based on directory versioning. (12)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (15) 20140426i 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel explains that maintaining the working copy on the Subversion client side is the major design challenge. (15)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (16) 20140426j 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel recounts visit to Jim Blandy for design guidance on how to express Subversion tree differences, from which the delta editor was born. (16)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (16) 20140426k 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Humorous account by Fogel of discussing Subversion design with Jim Blandy, only to be sent away so he could think. (16)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (17) 20140426l 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel provides commentary on large segments of Subversion delta editor interface source code that goes for a number of pages. (17)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (23) 20140426m 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Fogel argues Subversion delta editor interface is art for its use of constraints, carrying context by means of batons, and providing clear boundaries between suboperations, which he calls streaminess. (23)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (27) 20140426n 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
To Fogel the Subversion API guides thinking by providing a model to follow, especially for future project members, providing an example of practical finesse by relieiving development community of need for certain debates. (27)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (29) 20140426o 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Bentley writes about runtime of classic Quicksort program to talk about beautiful code that is not there. (29)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (30) 20140426p 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Bentley wrote thesis on divide-and-conquer algorithms, and admits tiptoeing around innermost loop in famous Quicksort algorithm by Hoare. (30)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (31) 20140426q 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Bentley developed an experimental approach to analyzing the Quicksort algorithm when he noted undergraduates could not get the gist of its mathematical proof. (31)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (39) 20140426r 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Bentley provides a number of philosophical aphorisms to express theme of simplicity, elegance, and concision in the Quicksort algorithm study. (39)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK oram_wilson-beautiful_code (41) 20140427 0 0+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_oram_wilson-beautiful_code.html
Bray claims search is a primary occupation for users and programmers alike. (41)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK postman-technopoly (12-13) 20131227f 0 0+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Interesting narrative about Farish who invented grading examinations. (12-13)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK rae-know_how_tradition (82) 20140418 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_rae-know_how_tradition.html
Unique influence of technology in American society, which most people fail to appreciate, comfortable until only recently with ingrained American superiority in technical know-how; have we ever understood our technological history? (82) American society has been influenced to a unique degree by the forces of technology.
(82) As a people we have given ample lip service to technology. Until a year or so ago it was an article of faith that Americans had an ingrained superiority in technical know-how, and if we have lost a little of our self-confidence, it has been only a little. We have a completely justified pride in the achievement of American civilization in applying technology to the material advancement of its people, although our pride in this achievement has not been matched by understanding of how it came about.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK rae-know_how_tradition (87) 20140418a 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_rae-know_how_tradition.html
Pay attention to role technology plays in growth of industry to avoid distortions, especially suspicion of big business, though also more subtle, such as Microsoft FUD of 1990s over floss, and mistaken beliefs by young people about social media companies Turkle notes. (87) My final point in this paper is that we must give more attention to the role of technology in the growth and organization of industry. Our failure to do so in the past has resulted in misconceptions and distortions, particularly in the area of big business.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK rae-know_how_tradition (89) 20140418b 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_rae-know_how_tradition.html
Example of automotive industry oligopoly growth pattern leading to widespread ownership determined by technology; introduce Rushkoff criticism of ignorance of social and environmental implications by compliant consumers. (89) The automobile industry provides another illustration of a growth pattern largely determined by technology.
(89-90) To put it another way, the widespread ownership of automobiles which is a distinctive feature of American society has been made possible by a technology which can be most effectively employed in what the economists like to call oligopoly. The manufacture of a car at a price within the reach of what Henry Ford referred to as the multitudes can be achieved only by mass-production techniques.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line (3) 20131012a 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line.html
Stephenson provides a subjective essay based on time using and programming many personal computer operating systems, and as a writer of science fiction, sensitive to metaphors, staking a claim as a philosopher of computing. (3) What the hell is going on here? And does the operating system business have a future, or only a past? Here is my view, which is entirely subjective; but since I have spent a fair amount of time not only using, but programming, Macintoshes, Windows machines, Linux boxes, and the BeOS, perhaps it is not so ill-informed as to be completely worthless. This is a subjective essay, more review than research paper, and so it might seem unfair or biased compared to the technical reviews you can find in PC magazines. But ever since the Mac came out, our operating systems have been based on metaphors, and anything with metaphors in it is fair game as far as Iâm concerned.

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Analogy between cars and operating systems, with major vendors as dealerships. (5) The analog between cars and operating systems is not half bad, and so let me run with it for a moment, as a way of giving an executive summary of our situation today.
(5) Imagine a crossroads where four competing auto dealerships are situated.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line (12) 20131012c 0 -7+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line.html
Written language as strings of phonetic symbols the easiest way to convert to bits and first communicate with a computer, having been developed with Morse code telegraphy, though people raised on GUIs may be surprised. (12) People who have only interacted with computers through graphical user interfaces such as the MacOS or Windows which is to say, almost everyone nowadays who has ever used a computer may have been startled, or at least bemused, to hear about the telegraph machine that I used to communicate with a computer in 1973. . . . Written language is the easiest of all because, or course, it consists of strings of symbols to begin with. If the symbols happen to belong to a phonetic alphabet (as opposed to, say, ideograms), converting them into bits is a trivial procedure, and one that was nailed, technologically, in the early nineteenth century, with the introduction of Morse code and other forms of telegraphy.
(12) We possessed a human/computer interface a hundred years before we had computers.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line (14) 20140626 0 0+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line.html
A book with ellipsis built into its title that provides connecting arguments for chapter one. (14)

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line (15) 20131012d 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line.html
Getting a sense of the computer point of view through examining the HTML source code of browser content or tcpdump. (15) The quickest way to get a taste of this is to fire up your web browser, visit a site on the Net, and then select the View/Document Source menu item.

0 0+ 0+ 1 (+) [0+]mCQK stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line (32) 20131012e 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_stephenson-in_the_beginning_was_the_command_line.html
Mac and Windows users appear to reflect distinct artistic and capitalist ideologies, but all become accustomed to using GUIs. (32) Mac partisans want to believe in the image of Apple purveyed in those ads, and in the notion that Macs are somehow fundamentally different from other computers, while Windows people want to believe that they are getting something for their money, engaging in a respectable business transaction.
(32) The upshot is that millions of people got accustomed to using GUIs in one form or another.

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Command line offered by UNIX, now GNU/Linux remembering this book was published before Linus wrote the first version although Stallman had been long at GNU, separate OS from GUI; text only layer of technosphere privileged human machine interface that can be widely enjoyed through floss. (41) Unix is the only OS remaining whose GUI (a vast suite of code called the Xwindow System) is separate from the OS in the old sense of the phrase. This is to say that you can run Unix in pure command line mode if you want to, with no windows, icons, mouses, etc. whatsoever, and it will still be Unix and capable of doing everything Unix is supposed to do. But the other OSes MacOS, the Windows family, and BeOS have their GUIs tangled up with the old-fashioned OS functions to the extent that they have to run in GUI mode, or else they are not really running.

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GUI understood as vast suite of code in addition to rest of old-fashioned operating system functions. (41) Unix is the only OS remaining whose GUI (a vast suite of code called the Xwindow System) is separate from the OS in the old sense of the phrase. This is to say that you can run Unix in pure command line mode if you want to, with no windows, icons, mouses, etc. whatsoever, and it will still be Unix and capable of doing everything Unix is supposed to do. But the other OSes MacOS, the Windows family, and BeOS have their GUIs tangled up with the old-fashioned OS functions to the extent that they have to run in GUI mode, or else they are not really running.

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Reliance on GUI complicates operating system; implies additional contrast that effective minimal command line keyboard text only interface has benefit for humans. (41) When OSes are free, OS companies cannot compete on price, and so they compete on features. This means that they are always trying to outdo each other writing code that, until recently, was not considered to be part of an OS at all: stuff like GUIs.

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Interesting argument that integrating browser into OS adds value to salable product. (42) If browsers are free, and OSes are free, it would seem that there is no way to make money from browsers or OSes. But if you can integrate a browser into the OS and thereby imbue both of them with new features, you have a salable product.

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Ethical consideration to limit territorialization of operating system; apply to smartphone evolution. (42) The real question is whether every new technological trend that comes down the pike ought to be used as a crutch to maintain the OSâs dominant position.

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Internet provides fossil record of prior versions of operating systems and applications, the concretized lower bounds of technosphere. (43) The fossil record the La Brea Tar Pit of software technology is the Internet. Anything that shows up there is free for the taking (possibly illegal, but free).

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Companies avoid tar pit by using research efforts to probe upper bounds of technosphere; everyday users can learn about the milieu by experimenting with alternatives to the defaults like Linux and BeOS. (44) The danger is that in their obsession with staying out of the fossil beds, these companies will forget about what lies above: the realm of new technology. In other words, they must hang on to their primitive weapons and crude competitive instincts, but also evolve powerful brains. . . . I have learned much more about Microsoft by using the Linux operating system than I ever would have done by using Windows.

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Philosophy addresses long runs like when all copyrights expire, noting major corporate players hire philosophers and creative engineers; jumping around temporary corporate seminars seems like a place for philosophers of computing to operate. (45) The question is whether this makes sense in the long run. If Microsoft is addicted to OSes and Apple is to hardware, then they will bet the whole farm on their OSes so that customers will not switch to the cheaper alternatives, and maintaining the image that, in some mysterious way, gives those customers the feeling that they are getting something for their money.

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Philosophical argument that seriously considering obligation to develop GUI with traditional functions of OS addressed to Microsoft and Apple. (45) The question is whether this makes sense in the long run. If Microsoft is addicted to OSes and Apple is to hardware, then they will bet the whole farm on their OSes so that customers will not switch to the cheaper alternatives, and maintaining the image that, in some mysterious way, gives those customers the feeling that they are getting something for their money.

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Microsoft makes money by temporal arbitrage, betting on time of new technologies gaining market share then becoming free. (45) Microsoft is making money by taking advantage of differences in the price of technology in different times. Temporal arbitrage, if I may coin a phrase, hinges on the arbitrageur knowing what technologies people will pay money for next year, and how soon afterwards those same technologies will become free.

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Preference for mediated experiences fits postmodern perspective; Stephenson ties to success of GUIs as does Turkle, suggesting that Disney should create an operating system. (47) Americansâ preference for mediated experiences is obvious enough, and Iâm not going to keep pounding it into the ground. . . . But it clearly relates to the colossal success of GUIs, and so I have to talk about it some. Disney does mediated experiences better than anyone. If they understood what OSes are, and why people use them, they could crush Microsoft in a year or two.

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Stephenson claims inspiration observing shopping habits and Disney World, though credits Steven Johnson, who already wrote a book called Interface Culture. (47) Directly in front of me [at Main Street USA] was a man with a camcorder. . . . Rather than go see a real small town for free, he had paid money to see a pretend one, and rather than see it with the naked eye, he was watching it on television.

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Argues the word is only nonfungible method of encoding thoughts because it is a conversation, in contrast to visual representations, as command line brings you closer to the machine; contrast to Hayles and others presenting examples of literature that involves typography itself as visual representation. (50) Disney is in the business of putting out a product of seamless illusion a magic mirror that reflects the world back better than it really is. But a writer is literally talking to his or her readers, not just creating an ambience or presenting them with something to look at. Just as the command line interface opens a much more direct and explicit channel from user to machine than the GUI, so it is with words, writer, and reader.
(50) The word, in the end, is the only system of encoding thoughts the only medium that is not fungible, that refuses to dissolve in the devouring torrent of electronic media.

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Disney visitors not interested in absorbing ideas from books through written media; compare to Bauerlein. (51) If I can risk a broad generalization, most of the people who go to Disney World have zero interest in absorbing new ideas from books. This sounds snide, but listen: they have no qualms about being presented with ideas in other forms. Disney World is stuffed with environmental messages now, and the guides at Animal Kingdom can talk your ear off about biology.

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Disney presents an entire culture, like the medieval cathedral, rather than dialog with individual artists, thus seems creepy for lacking translation of content to explicit words; likewise laborious quasi oral tradition of command line interface man pages lost in expensively designed GUI. (52) The cathedral as a whole is awesome and stirring in spite, and possibly because, of the fact that we have no idea who built it. When we walk through it, we are communing not with individual stone carvers but with an entire culture.
(52) Disney World works the same way. . . . But itâs easy to find the whole environment a little creepy, because something is missing: the translation of all its content into clear explicit written words, the attribution of the ideas to specific people. You canât argue with it.
(52) And this is precisely the same as what is lost in the transition from the command line interface to the GUI.
(52) Disney and Apple/Microsoft are in the same business: short-circuiting laborious, explicit verbal communication with expensively designed interfaces.

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Universal acknowledgment of failed intellectualism and overly complicated world rationalizes use of nonverbal media; compare failure of intellectualism to Bauerlein contention that adults are too indulgent. (53) Part of it is simply that the world is very complicated now much more complicated than the hunter-gatherer world that our brains evolved to cope with and we simply canât handle all the details.
(53) But more importantly, it comes out of the fact that during this century, intellectualism failed, and everyone knows it.
(53) We seem much more comfortable with propagating those values to future generations nonverbally, through a process of being steeped in media.

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Written word is unique as digital medium easily manipulated by humans. (54) The written word is unique among media in that it is a digital medium that humans can, nonetheless, easily read and write.

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Global trend to eradicate cultural differences along with need to suspend judgment, like indulgence of low performing youth, leads to suspicion of and hostility toward authority. (55) It is obvious, to everyone outside of the United States, that our arch-buzzwords multiculturalism and diversity are false fronts that are being used (in many cases unwittingly) to conceal a global trend to eradicate cultural differences.
(55) The lesson most people are taking home from the twentieth century is that, in order for a large number of different cultures to coexist peacefully on the globe (or even in a neighborhood) it is necessary for people to suspend judgment in this way. Hence (I would argue) our suspicion of, and hostility toward, all authority figures in modern culture.

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Two tiered cultural system like Wells Morlocks and Eloi inverted, the latter majority steeped in electronic media maintained by the book reading former minority; compare to Rushkoff and Lanier. (58) Contemporary culture is a two-tiered system, like the Morlocks and the Eloi in H. G. Wellsâs The Time Machine, except that itâs been turned upside down. . . . The Morlocks are in the minority, and they are running the show, because they understand how everything works. The much more numerous Eloi learn everything they know from being steeped from birth in electronic media directed and controlled by book-reading Morlocks.

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Dim comprehension through an interface is better than none. (59-60) It simply is the case that we are way too busy, nowadays, to comprehend everything in detail. And itâs better to comprehend dimly, through an interface, than not at all. Better for ten million Eloi to go on the Kilimanjaro Safari at Disney World than for a thousand cardiovascular surgeons and mutual fund managers to go on real ones in Kenya. . . . The specter of a polity controlled by the fads and whims of voters who actually believe that there are significant differences between Bud Lite and Miller Lite, and who think that professional wrestling is for real, is naturally alarming to people who donât. But then countries controlled via the command line interface, as it were, by double-domed intellectuals, be they religious or secular, are generally miserable places to live.

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Abdication of responsibility and surrender of power to the operating system because people want things to be easier. (61) Back in the days of the command line interface users were all Morlocks who had to convert their thoughts into alphanumeric symbols and type them in, a grindingly tedious process that stripped away all ambiguity, laid bare all hidden assumptions, and cruelly punished laziness and imprecision. Then the interface makers went to work on their GUIs and introduced a new semiotic layer between people and machines. People who use such systems have abdicated the responsibility, and surrendered the power, of sending bits directly to the chip thatâs doing the arithmetic, and handed that responsibility and power over to the OS. . . . We want things to be easier. How badly we want it can be measured by the size of Bill Gatesâs fortune.

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GUI as new semiotic layer between people and machines fits diachrony in synchrony model. (61) Back in the days of the command line interface users were all Morlocks who had to convert their thoughts into alphanumeric symbols and type them in, a grindingly tedious process that stripped away all ambiguity, laid bare all hidden assumptions, and cruelly punished laziness and imprecision. Then the interface makers went to work on their GUIs and introduced a new semiotic layer between people and machines. People who use such systems have abdicated the responsibility, and surrendered the power, of sending bits directly to the chip thatâs doing the arithmetic, and handed that responsibility and power over to the OS. . . . We want things to be easier. How badly we want it can be measured by the size of Bill Gatesâs fortune.

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Operating system as intellectual labor saving device translating vague intentions into bits, taking over functions formerly considered the province of humans. (62) The OS has (therefore) become a sort of intellectual labor-saving device that tries to translate humansâ vaguely expressed intentions into bits. In effect we are asking our computers to shoulder responsibilities that have always been considered the province of human beings we want them to understand our desires, to anticipate our needs, to foresee consequences, to make connections, to handle routine chores without being asked, to remind us of what we ought to be reminded of while filtering out noise.

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Analogies developed to describe upper level functions through conventions like menus, buttons, windows; promiscuous metaphor mixing exemplified by the electronic document. (62) At the upper (which is to say, closer to the user) levels, this is done through a set of conventions menus, buttons, and so on. These work in the sense that analogies work: they help Eloi understand abstract or unfamiliar concepts by likening them to something known. But the loftier word metaphor is used.
(63) There is massively promiscuous metaphor-mixing going on here, and I could deconstruct it till the cows come home, but I wonât. Consider only one word: document.

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GUIs use bad metaphors to make computing easier; we are buying into the assumption that metaphors are a good way to deal with the world rather than precise description exemplified in the command line. (64) So GUIs use metaphors to make computing easier, but they are bad metaphors. Learning to use them is essentially a word game, a process of learning new definitions of words such as window and document and save that are different from, and in many cases almost diametrically opposed to, the old.
(64) What weâre really buying is a system of metaphors. And much more important what weâre buying into is the underlying assumption that metaphors are a good way to deal with the world.

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GUIs are now general tools encountered in many devices, promoting metaphors to method of world interpretation. (65) So we are now asking the GUI to do a lot more than serve as a glorified typewriter. Now we want it to become a generalized tool for dealing with reality.