CRITICAL PROGRAMMING: Toward A Philosophy Of Computing{13}

Chapter 1 Introduction{13}

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation{13}

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing{13}

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation{13}

schedule

Chapter 2 Situation post-postmodern network dividual cyborg{13}

2.1 modernism and postmodernism, regressive subjectivity, inventing the posthuman in Heideggers America{13}

2.2 closed world cybernetics, cyborg embodiment, techno-capitalist networks, dividual cyborg, cybersage{13}

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and methodology{13}

3.1 critical theory, textuality studies, media studies, social construction of technology, histories of computing software and networking, psycho-social studies of computer programmers, philosophers of computing technologies, software studies, code studies, procedural rhetoric of diachrony in synchrony, workarea{13}

3.2 philosophical programmers, working code places, programming philosophers, critical programming{13}

Chapter 4 Critical programming studies{13}

4.1 symposia, ensoniment{13}

4.2 tapoc, fossification{13}

4.3 pmrek, machine embodiment{13}

Chapter 5 Conclusion{13}

5.1 cyborg revisited{13}

5.2 recommendations{13}

5.3 future directions{13}

Chapter 6 Philosophical programmers{13}

6.1 system architects pioneers of babelization, distribued network visionaries, the new ontologists{13}

6.2 application developers beyond hard mastery and bricolage, auto-ethnographers of coding places{13}

Chapter 7 Syllabus for a Philosophy of Computing{13}

7.1 philosophies{13}

7.2 hermeneutics of computing{13}

7.3 phenomenology of electronic technology{13}

7.4 programming languages{13}

7.5 new ontologies{13}

7.6 tcpip networking protocols{13}

7.7 philosophical programmers{13}

7.8 programming styles{13}

7.9 use and advantages of foss{13}

7.10 coding communities{13}

7.11 lifecycle project management{13}

7.12 virtualization{13}

7.13 programming philosophers{13}

7.14 revisiting ancient computing{13}

7.15 holding power of programming platforms{13}

7.16 governmentality of software{13}

7.17 can software be innocent{13}

7.18 programmed responses{13}

Chapter 8 Syllabus for Advanced Server Side Programming{13}

8.1 http client server architectures, brief history of computing, protocol, ipv6, http overview, request response cycle{13}

8.2 web services, soap, restful{13}

8.3 php design patterns, mvc{13}

8.4 testing patterns, test driven programming{13}

8.5 coding dojo{13}

8.6 application development{13}

8.7 automating tests{13}

8.8 user input via web forms{13}

8.9 content management systems{13}

Chapter 9 Governmentality of software{13}

9.1 biopolitics, protocol, software, alienation, collective intelligence, programming milieu, bioprogramming{13}

Works Cited


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.0.0+++

1 0+ 0 (100) [-9]mCQK bork-journal 20140218 20140218 1 -26+ journal_2014.html
I am trying to tackle a very large problem, no less it seems than the intellectual fate of humanity or at least in the United States, complementing rhetorical work by Bauerlein to which Hayles refers shape of current mass society of small people prospering in network age coconstitute their technological milieu with inhuman systems they construct. The overall research question cast as, quickly, how have humans become dumber while machines continue to get smarter, is approached through articulating an ontology epitomized by post-postmodern network dividual cyborgs, as beings embodying the present human condition in the US, all of us and our electronic devices, enacting network consumption, tightly coupled to the built environment, including more and more intelligent machines, arrived at, and forming a second research question, through decades of immersion in and constitution as expanding computer technologies in the overall context of late capitalist Internet age America that has come about to resemble a more banal version of the nightmare Heidegger proclaimed was becoming America in the analysis titled Understanding Technology Ontotheologically, or: the Danger and the Promise of Heidegger, an American Perspective by Iain Thomson. Key theorists in the development of the overall research question include, in alphabetical order: Theodor Adorno, Jean Baudrillard, Manuel Castells, Andy Clark, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Felix Guattari, Andrew Feenberg, Michel Foucault, Martin Heidgger, Michael Heim, Max Horkheimer, Don Ihde, Fredric Jameson, Friedrich Kittler, Jean Francois Lyotard, Walter Ong, Neil Postman, Sherry Turkle, Joseph Weizenbaum, Langdon Winner, and Slavoj Zizek. The second and third chapters of the dissertation lay this groundwork, and then begin to craft a digital humanities response through the framework of diachrony in synchrony expressed as the intermingling of technogenesis and synaptogenesis generating the current milieu, heavily inspired by ideas articulated in the work of N. Katherine Hayles, Ian Bogost, Nick Montfort, Alexander Galloway, Wendy Chun, Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii, David Berry, Bruno Latour, Luc Boltanski, Eve Chiapello, Catherine Malabou, Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, Rob Kitchin, Martin Dodge, Jerome McGann, Lev Manovich, Jonathan Sterne, David Campbell-Kelly, Paul N. Edwards, David Golumbia, Lawrence Lessig, Matthew Fuller, and David MacKenzie. The third chapter develops a theoretical framework and methodology combining critical theory, textuality, and media studies with the social construction of technology, applied to histories of computers, networking, and software, which characterizes popular theory today if we tried to identify philosophies of computer programming. This background sets the stage for review of the related disciplines flourishing in this theoretical space afforded by the ontogenetic character of such studies, picking up with software in the well established field of software studies, the fledgling critical code studies and platform studies at early 2010s state of the art, arriving at a critical framework for revisiting cyborg identity deeply intertwining human and machine practices and concerns. After revisiting the dividual cyborg and equipping it with the latest tools and prostheses, the fourth chapter undertakes a speculative reimagining of the history of computing and the ensuing changes to human being as told by those I refer to as philosophical programmers, technologists whose deliberate and unconscious design choices, philosophical stances, and biases map onto the analysis developed in the previous chapters and, more importantly, offer unexplored and underrepresented strategies, tactics, and degrees of freedom to form a response, which I call critical programming. The bulk of the dissertation research involves examining the work and writings of these pioneers of computers, programming languages, networking protocols, and operating systems, beginning with Burks, Goldstine and von Neumann, Douglas Engelbart, John Kemeny, Kernighan and Ritchie, Knuth and Pardo, J. C. R. Licklider, Seymour Papert, Bruce Shneiderman, Herbert Simon, Bjourne Stroustrup, Richard Stallman, Linus Torvalds, and Terry Winograd. It will also incorporate writings and interviews of individual application developers, shifting into technically oriented ethnographic studies of programming practices, especially free, open source projects, and research in learning programming that will round out the fourth chapter with works by Janet Abbate, Frederick Brooks, Jr., Hafner and Lyon, Philip Kraft, Susan Lammers, Oram and Wilson, Scott Rosenberg, Shasha and Lazere, Yuri Takhteyev, Ellen Ullman, and Gerald Weinberg. The fifth chapter presents working code places where programming philosophers, as counterparts to the technically oriented theorists of the previous chapter, deliberately conceive, create, deploy, and reflect upon their own programming efforts to investigate humanities questions and address the overall problem of declining human intelligence in the midst of accelerating machine intelligence. The means by which humans and machines together coexist as digital humanities scholarship thought time is by critical programming. Key theorists of this synthetic level are again N. Katherine Hayles and Jerome McGann, joined by Stephen Ramsay, Bruce Janz, J. D. Applen, Rudy McDaniel, Gregory Ulmer, and Marcel OâGorman. First foregrounding the work of a number of contemporary programming philosophers then delving into three software projects that I have been developing for the past decade as sites for expanding my philosophical horizons in the context of my professional work as a software engineer and my doctoral studies in the UCF texts and technology program, critical programming is explored in a combination of contexts to iterate a set of thoughts emerging from lifelong programming and writing. The symposia project begins with the ensoniment of Platoâs Symposium via formant speech synthesis of the ancient Greek text normally silently read in translation, then invites wholesale reconsideration the ocularcentric experience of Western philosophy while spanning numerous opportunities for what Hayles calls Big Humanities projects. The tapoc project self-reflexively encompasses the iterative generation of this dissertation as working code places, and explores the idea of philosophical finesse through flossification, literally turning literary text into GPL licensed code. The pmrek project challenges both mastery of the entire diachrony in synchrony constituting a complex, programmed physical electronic control system in the context of pinball platform studies, and intuiting what machine embodiment may be like from sustained acculturation close to the machine.

1 0+ 0 (200) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130331 TAPOC_20130331 0 -6+ journal_2013.html
The electronic age launched with utopian visions of universal intelligence augmentation arising through the human computer symbiosis. The problem is that humans have begun following a negative trajectory, getting dumber, while machines continue to get smarter. In fact, it may be that we arrive at Turkleâs robotic moment and other sorry states of affairs like the failure of American schools to produce STEM workers because our evolution has shifted from actively engaging computer technologies by programming them to a seemingly active engagement that belies passive consumption confined within immediate, intermediating interface agency relations. I am suggesting we have reached this condition not only because of postmodern tendencies, as analyzed by Turkle, and willful avoidance, as exemplified by Ong, but also because historical contingencies like the dominance of closed, proprietary systems that held sway before the turn of the century retarded development of human intelligence while continuing to augment machine intelligence [improving improvement down to base proficiencies to the point of not knowing how anything works]. Influenced by this same trajectory, philosophy has failed to notice, or misidentified, this shocking downward trend toward [deprivileged comportment, ignorance, dumbing down], satisfied with the belief that avoiding the dangers inherent in studying technical affairs preserves the authenticity of the human spirit, avoiding cyborg identities at all costs. Thus it is telling that Derrida summons his thoughts around his personal computer, not coincidentally being a Macintosh, the quintessential delightful interface harboring a proprietary, closed system manufactured by a totalitarian corporation, musing over the mysteries of archiving by technological systems he did not write in languages he would never wish to pronounce, even if he were legally permitted to question them: the commodity consumer closed source other antithesis of the philosophical spirit.

1 0+ 0 (300) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20130515 20130515 0 -3+ journal_2013.html
The philosophy of computing and philosophy of programming are both uninstantiated as explicit critical disciplines. A default concretizes around humanities philosophies of technology in academic circles and engineering philosophies of technology in technical communities. Programming philosophers are hard to find when they work in industry rather than the humanities; their private musings might be found in source code comments, though most are uttered in strange languages like C++, sometimes doubly occluded on account of nondisclosure and superseded revisions.

1 0+ 0 (400) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140406 20140406a 0 -3+ journal_2014.html


1 0+ 0 (500) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130227 TAPOC_20130227 0 -10+ journal_2013.html
Critical programming studies the âproâ, as in processes, in contrast to traditional early digital humanities, which emphasize the âgramâ, as in texts. Nietzsche was prescient in stating that our writing machines write us[, though lacking the verb now borrowed from computer science to describe how synaptogenesis occurs through our interaction with media]. Others boldly conjecture that we are profoundly influenced by all media. Kittler was likewise on target in stating that the proper domain of media studies concerns their schematism of perceptibility, including the electronic circuits and software networks creating the real virtualities constituting dynamic media[, which we refer to as internet, LAN, and localhost phenomena]. Many now recognize this function to be an important aspect of the human computer symbiosis, far advanced from the discreet purposes enumerated by Lickliderâs famous 1962 essay, itself a leap beyond conceiving computing machinery as primarily calculation tools. Profound transformations of commingling synaptogenesis and technogenesis, to use the terms put forward by N. Katherine Hayles in How We Think, now must be considered, as must be the means of doing the considering. I will argue that Haylesâ conception of posthuman, cyborg, cognitive-embodied processes are the appropriate replacements for the liberal humanist subjects of earlier times, transitioning from solely human driven to thought whose burden technological others now undertake on our behalf, and for that reason I propose to engage in philosophy [philosophy or philosophical study of the human computer symbiosis constituting the control society dividual] by practicing a radical digital humanities discipline that writes and reads computer software and technical documentation in addition to traditional literature. Working code as a significant (at least twenty percent) percentage of digital humanities research scholarship considers and innovates the possibilities of C++ rather than English alone; builds circuits, assembles networks, and implements webservers rather than outputting printed matter. Beginning with an analysis of the control society dividual as the post-postmodern subject, I will argue that its deep interpenetration of biology, machinic processes, society, and technologies requires rigorous consideration of the materiality of code in order to respond intelligibly to traditional humanities questions down to the basic Socratic maxim âknow thyselfâ.

1 0+ 0 (600) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130224 TAPOC_20130224 0 -11+ journal_2013.html
Critical programming studies digital humanities scholarship working code toward a philosophy of computing. It arises with a second consideration of programming as a basic knowledge like language, writing, arithmetic, now made available by internet, as in that which follows orality and literacy, creating a period break from frameworks based on first generation digital humanities scholarship. First generation approaches characterize the phenomenon of human computer symbiosis as an impenetrable, intergalactic gulf between human cognizers and machine intelligence, rendering encounters with bugs, error messages, timing glitches, on the one hand, and fortuitous deformations, on the other hand, appropriate localizations for scholarly attention, and developing, at best, ethical imperatives to use the best tool for the job, favor open systems, and then go off and evaluate solutions, having deeply internalized prohibitions against a slew of digital cyberspace delinquencies like pirating copyrighted materials to perform research objectives. The problem is systemic, for along with avoiding copyright infringement, digital humanities scholarship also shunning writing software and building circuits, constrains activity to, using the Heideggerian term, ready at hand cyberspace, and therefore default philosophies of computing. A great deal of valuable work has been done by twentieth and early twenty first century texts and technology studies, responding to the fundamental question of what follows orality and literacy as the great evolutionary intellectual stages of humanity. However, even at the fringes of traditional humanities, interpellations via Ulmer[, whose Derridean approach reflects a utopic yearning that is also a psychotic state,] electracy nonetheless privilege traditional critical perspectives, especially for being those on the fringes, such as Derridean grammatology, Foucauldian biopower, Deleuzian control socities, and so on, because they found much other theory, that need revisions to reprivilege the electric, technology half along with the tracing, textual half in order to properly reconsider the electronic, that is, a rigorously technical engineering perspective suitable for creative internet experience. Digital humanities scholarship done by designing and running stored program computer code represents a new type of study with an active component (twenty percent of total intellectual labor) whose unpredictable synergies are sought to inform ongoing philosophical thoughts about humans and computers. By following orality and literacy with internet, an invitation to complement the first generation approaches, which were reached by critical analysis of the ready at hand cyberspace, with research methodologies emerging from philosophically informed software engineering suggests itself to base my proposal. Therefore, the framework of my project begins with an elaboration of the control society dividual as the principal human internet actor and the materiality of code as the principal phenomenological unit. [recapitule responses to the candidacy exam questions] This is the background for entering software studies, platform studies, and critical code studies that in turn set the stage for critical programming. From this perspective working code of a number of software projects can be critically studied, and future projects specifically targeting digital humanities can be considered.

1 0+ 0 (700) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140125 20140125 0 -1+ journal_2014.html


1 0+ 0 (800) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140606 20140606a 1 -2+ journal_2014.html



select Chapter, Heading, SubHeading, InterstitialSequence, RelevanceLevel, TextName, PositionStart, TimestampBookmarkExtra, CitationOffset, CitationSentences, Path, Lexia, if((select count(*) from Items where Path like concat('%/',Notes.TextName,'_',Notes.TimestampBookmarkExtra,'.jpg') and Relevance=1),'Y','N'), if((select count(*) from Items where Path like concat('%/',Notes.TextName,'_',Notes.TimestampBookmarkExtra,'.png') and Relevance=1),'Y','N'), if((select count(*) from Items where Path like concat('%/screenshot_',Notes.TimestampBookmarkExtra,'.png') and Relevance=1),'Y','N'), if((select count(*) from Items where Path like concat('%/vpf_',Notes.TimestampBookmarkExtra,'.jpg') and Relevance=1),'Y','N') from Notes where Chapter=1 and (Heading=0) and InterstitialSequence>0 order by Heading, SubHeading, InterstitialSequence, TextName

1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

1.1.0+++

1 0+ 0 (100) [-9]mCQK bork-journal 20140218 20140218 1 -26+ journal_2014.html
I am trying to tackle a very large problem, no less it seems than the intellectual fate of humanity or at least in the United States, complementing rhetorical work by Bauerlein to which Hayles refers shape of current mass society of small people prospering in network age coconstitute their technological milieu with inhuman systems they construct. The overall research question cast as, quickly, how have humans become dumber while machines continue to get smarter, is approached through articulating an ontology epitomized by post-postmodern network dividual cyborgs, as beings embodying the present human condition in the US, all of us and our electronic devices, enacting network consumption, tightly coupled to the built environment, including more and more intelligent machines, arrived at, and forming a second research question, through decades of immersion in and constitution as expanding computer technologies in the overall context of late capitalist Internet age America that has come about to resemble a more banal version of the nightmare Heidegger proclaimed was becoming America in the analysis titled Understanding Technology Ontotheologically, or: the Danger and the Promise of Heidegger, an American Perspective by Iain Thomson. Key theorists in the development of the overall research question include, in alphabetical order: Theodor Adorno, Jean Baudrillard, Manuel Castells, Andy Clark, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Felix Guattari, Andrew Feenberg, Michel Foucault, Martin Heidgger, Michael Heim, Max Horkheimer, Don Ihde, Fredric Jameson, Friedrich Kittler, Jean Francois Lyotard, Walter Ong, Neil Postman, Sherry Turkle, Joseph Weizenbaum, Langdon Winner, and Slavoj Zizek. The second and third chapters of the dissertation lay this groundwork, and then begin to craft a digital humanities response through the framework of diachrony in synchrony expressed as the intermingling of technogenesis and synaptogenesis generating the current milieu, heavily inspired by ideas articulated in the work of N. Katherine Hayles, Ian Bogost, Nick Montfort, Alexander Galloway, Wendy Chun, Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii, David Berry, Bruno Latour, Luc Boltanski, Eve Chiapello, Catherine Malabou, Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, Rob Kitchin, Martin Dodge, Jerome McGann, Lev Manovich, Jonathan Sterne, David Campbell-Kelly, Paul N. Edwards, David Golumbia, Lawrence Lessig, Matthew Fuller, and David MacKenzie. The third chapter develops a theoretical framework and methodology combining critical theory, textuality, and media studies with the social construction of technology, applied to histories of computers, networking, and software, which characterizes popular theory today if we tried to identify philosophies of computer programming. This background sets the stage for review of the related disciplines flourishing in this theoretical space afforded by the ontogenetic character of such studies, picking up with software in the well established field of software studies, the fledgling critical code studies and platform studies at early 2010s state of the art, arriving at a critical framework for revisiting cyborg identity deeply intertwining human and machine practices and concerns. After revisiting the dividual cyborg and equipping it with the latest tools and prostheses, the fourth chapter undertakes a speculative reimagining of the history of computing and the ensuing changes to human being as told by those I refer to as philosophical programmers, technologists whose deliberate and unconscious design choices, philosophical stances, and biases map onto the analysis developed in the previous chapters and, more importantly, offer unexplored and underrepresented strategies, tactics, and degrees of freedom to form a response, which I call critical programming. The bulk of the dissertation research involves examining the work and writings of these pioneers of computers, programming languages, networking protocols, and operating systems, beginning with Burks, Goldstine and von Neumann, Douglas Engelbart, John Kemeny, Kernighan and Ritchie, Knuth and Pardo, J. C. R. Licklider, Seymour Papert, Bruce Shneiderman, Herbert Simon, Bjourne Stroustrup, Richard Stallman, Linus Torvalds, and Terry Winograd. It will also incorporate writings and interviews of individual application developers, shifting into technically oriented ethnographic studies of programming practices, especially free, open source projects, and research in learning programming that will round out the fourth chapter with works by Janet Abbate, Frederick Brooks, Jr., Hafner and Lyon, Philip Kraft, Susan Lammers, Oram and Wilson, Scott Rosenberg, Shasha and Lazere, Yuri Takhteyev, Ellen Ullman, and Gerald Weinberg. The fifth chapter presents working code places where programming philosophers, as counterparts to the technically oriented theorists of the previous chapter, deliberately conceive, create, deploy, and reflect upon their own programming efforts to investigate humanities questions and address the overall problem of declining human intelligence in the midst of accelerating machine intelligence. The means by which humans and machines together coexist as digital humanities scholarship thought time is by critical programming. Key theorists of this synthetic level are again N. Katherine Hayles and Jerome McGann, joined by Stephen Ramsay, Bruce Janz, J. D. Applen, Rudy McDaniel, Gregory Ulmer, and Marcel OâGorman. First foregrounding the work of a number of contemporary programming philosophers then delving into three software projects that I have been developing for the past decade as sites for expanding my philosophical horizons in the context of my professional work as a software engineer and my doctoral studies in the UCF texts and technology program, critical programming is explored in a combination of contexts to iterate a set of thoughts emerging from lifelong programming and writing. The symposia project begins with the ensoniment of Platoâs Symposium via formant speech synthesis of the ancient Greek text normally silently read in translation, then invites wholesale reconsideration the ocularcentric experience of Western philosophy while spanning numerous opportunities for what Hayles calls Big Humanities projects. The tapoc project self-reflexively encompasses the iterative generation of this dissertation as working code places, and explores the idea of philosophical finesse through flossification, literally turning literary text into GPL licensed code. The pmrek project challenges both mastery of the entire diachrony in synchrony constituting a complex, programmed physical electronic control system in the context of pinball platform studies, and intuiting what machine embodiment may be like from sustained acculturation close to the machine.

1 0+ 0 (200) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130331 TAPOC_20130331 0 -6+ journal_2013.html
The electronic age launched with utopian visions of universal intelligence augmentation arising through the human computer symbiosis. The problem is that humans have begun following a negative trajectory, getting dumber, while machines continue to get smarter. In fact, it may be that we arrive at Turkleâs robotic moment and other sorry states of affairs like the failure of American schools to produce STEM workers because our evolution has shifted from actively engaging computer technologies by programming them to a seemingly active engagement that belies passive consumption confined within immediate, intermediating interface agency relations. I am suggesting we have reached this condition not only because of postmodern tendencies, as analyzed by Turkle, and willful avoidance, as exemplified by Ong, but also because historical contingencies like the dominance of closed, proprietary systems that held sway before the turn of the century retarded development of human intelligence while continuing to augment machine intelligence [improving improvement down to base proficiencies to the point of not knowing how anything works]. Influenced by this same trajectory, philosophy has failed to notice, or misidentified, this shocking downward trend toward [deprivileged comportment, ignorance, dumbing down], satisfied with the belief that avoiding the dangers inherent in studying technical affairs preserves the authenticity of the human spirit, avoiding cyborg identities at all costs. Thus it is telling that Derrida summons his thoughts around his personal computer, not coincidentally being a Macintosh, the quintessential delightful interface harboring a proprietary, closed system manufactured by a totalitarian corporation, musing over the mysteries of archiving by technological systems he did not write in languages he would never wish to pronounce, even if he were legally permitted to question them: the commodity consumer closed source other antithesis of the philosophical spirit.

1 0+ 0 (300) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20130515 20130515 0 -3+ journal_2013.html
The philosophy of computing and philosophy of programming are both uninstantiated as explicit critical disciplines. A default concretizes around humanities philosophies of technology in academic circles and engineering philosophies of technology in technical communities. Programming philosophers are hard to find when they work in industry rather than the humanities; their private musings might be found in source code comments, though most are uttered in strange languages like C++, sometimes doubly occluded on account of nondisclosure and superseded revisions.

1 0+ 0 (400) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140406 20140406a 0 -3+ journal_2014.html


1 0+ 0 (500) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130227 TAPOC_20130227 0 -10+ journal_2013.html
Critical programming studies the âproâ, as in processes, in contrast to traditional early digital humanities, which emphasize the âgramâ, as in texts. Nietzsche was prescient in stating that our writing machines write us[, though lacking the verb now borrowed from computer science to describe how synaptogenesis occurs through our interaction with media]. Others boldly conjecture that we are profoundly influenced by all media. Kittler was likewise on target in stating that the proper domain of media studies concerns their schematism of perceptibility, including the electronic circuits and software networks creating the real virtualities constituting dynamic media[, which we refer to as internet, LAN, and localhost phenomena]. Many now recognize this function to be an important aspect of the human computer symbiosis, far advanced from the discreet purposes enumerated by Lickliderâs famous 1962 essay, itself a leap beyond conceiving computing machinery as primarily calculation tools. Profound transformations of commingling synaptogenesis and technogenesis, to use the terms put forward by N. Katherine Hayles in How We Think, now must be considered, as must be the means of doing the considering. I will argue that Haylesâ conception of posthuman, cyborg, cognitive-embodied processes are the appropriate replacements for the liberal humanist subjects of earlier times, transitioning from solely human driven to thought whose burden technological others now undertake on our behalf, and for that reason I propose to engage in philosophy [philosophy or philosophical study of the human computer symbiosis constituting the control society dividual] by practicing a radical digital humanities discipline that writes and reads computer software and technical documentation in addition to traditional literature. Working code as a significant (at least twenty percent) percentage of digital humanities research scholarship considers and innovates the possibilities of C++ rather than English alone; builds circuits, assembles networks, and implements webservers rather than outputting printed matter. Beginning with an analysis of the control society dividual as the post-postmodern subject, I will argue that its deep interpenetration of biology, machinic processes, society, and technologies requires rigorous consideration of the materiality of code in order to respond intelligibly to traditional humanities questions down to the basic Socratic maxim âknow thyselfâ.

1 0+ 0 (600) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20130224 TAPOC_20130224 0 -11+ journal_2013.html
Critical programming studies digital humanities scholarship working code toward a philosophy of computing. It arises with a second consideration of programming as a basic knowledge like language, writing, arithmetic, now made available by internet, as in that which follows orality and literacy, creating a period break from frameworks based on first generation digital humanities scholarship. First generation approaches characterize the phenomenon of human computer symbiosis as an impenetrable, intergalactic gulf between human cognizers and machine intelligence, rendering encounters with bugs, error messages, timing glitches, on the one hand, and fortuitous deformations, on the other hand, appropriate localizations for scholarly attention, and developing, at best, ethical imperatives to use the best tool for the job, favor open systems, and then go off and evaluate solutions, having deeply internalized prohibitions against a slew of digital cyberspace delinquencies like pirating copyrighted materials to perform research objectives. The problem is systemic, for along with avoiding copyright infringement, digital humanities scholarship also shunning writing software and building circuits, constrains activity to, using the Heideggerian term, ready at hand cyberspace, and therefore default philosophies of computing. A great deal of valuable work has been done by twentieth and early twenty first century texts and technology studies, responding to the fundamental question of what follows orality and literacy as the great evolutionary intellectual stages of humanity. However, even at the fringes of traditional humanities, interpellations via Ulmer[, whose Derridean approach reflects a utopic yearning that is also a psychotic state,] electracy nonetheless privilege traditional critical perspectives, especially for being those on the fringes, such as Derridean grammatology, Foucauldian biopower, Deleuzian control socities, and so on, because they found much other theory, that need revisions to reprivilege the electric, technology half along with the tracing, textual half in order to properly reconsider the electronic, that is, a rigorously technical engineering perspective suitable for creative internet experience. Digital humanities scholarship done by designing and running stored program computer code represents a new type of study with an active component (twenty percent of total intellectual labor) whose unpredictable synergies are sought to inform ongoing philosophical thoughts about humans and computers. By following orality and literacy with internet, an invitation to complement the first generation approaches, which were reached by critical analysis of the ready at hand cyberspace, with research methodologies emerging from philosophically informed software engineering suggests itself to base my proposal. Therefore, the framework of my project begins with an elaboration of the control society dividual as the principal human internet actor and the materiality of code as the principal phenomenological unit. [recapitule responses to the candidacy exam questions] This is the background for entering software studies, platform studies, and critical code studies that in turn set the stage for critical programming. From this perspective working code of a number of software projects can be critically studied, and future projects specifically targeting digital humanities can be considered.

1 0+ 0 (700) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140125 20140125 0 -1+ journal_2014.html


1 0+ 0 (800) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20140606 20140606a 1 -2+ journal_2014.html


1.1.1+++ from automated genocide to the dumbest generation

1 1 1 (100) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140825 20140825 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
Histories of computing technologies often feature images of early electronic machinery developed in America and Britain during World War II, and connect their emergence to heroic narratives of triumphant, democratic civilization over genocidal, totalitarian regimes. By a seamless progression of innovation, commercialization, and dissemination, these forerunners lay the ground for subsequent eras of mainframe, mini, personal, networked, and state of the art miniaturized, mobile, multimedia devices. In this work that suggests an approach toward a philosophy of computing, rather than another history, the inaugural image shall instead be the 1933 advertisement for Hollerith punch card machinery, the one with which Edwin Black begins his 2001 book IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and Americaâs Most Powerful Corporation.

1 1 1 (200) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140728 20140728 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
Revising the layout of the first section to be from automated genocide to the dumbest generation, after introducing Black mention Johnsonâs three periods in the development of computer ethics, then present familiar dystopian themes arising from this initial philosophical position of the computer as opponent, Edwards closed world, McLuhan statement that humans are the sex organs of machines, culminating in science fiction portrayals of the Matrix and others. Shift to the banal development of American computer literacy, from initial exuberance of Kemeny and Kay transformed into interface usability training with the ultimate aims of streamlined media consumption and social networking, culminating in the dumbest generation and the robotic moment, then to Ruskkoff kicking us out of spectator stupor by forcing us to consider ten reasonable statements founding an ethical stance or position preferable to blindness or resignation to uncontrollable impact of technologies upon humans and souls in their lifetimes.

1 1 1 (300) [-8+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (vi) 20140330 0 0+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
The book IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black, a book the author attests was difficult to write and should be just as difficult to read, especially for American digital humanists who include it in their philosophy of computing canon, begins with a reproduction of a 1933 Dehomag advertisement featuring an all-seeing eye enlightening an IBM punch card used by early mechanical computers, a factory sporting a massive smokestack, and the words translated as, see everything with Hollerith punchcards, alludes to the commencement of a horrifying holocaust narrative implicating IBM machinery, its employees, its partners in America and Europe, with their bureaucratic counterparts in the murderous Nazi regime like the infamous Adolf Eichmann, symbolizing the evil latent in apparently benign technological devices. (vi)

1 1 1 (400) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (8) 20131020b 1 -2+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Punch card and sorting systems were used for the automation of human destruction by the Nazis under guidance of IBM Germany, which lucrative business, Black argues with voluminous documentary evidence, the parent company in the United States tolerated if not encouraged with a blind eye to its purposes.

1 1 1 (500) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (8) 20131020a 0 -1+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
IBM was gripped by its amoral corporate mantra and dazzled by its universe of technical possibilities; collective intelligence, punch drunk with newly discovered organizational possibilities of automated high speed tabulating, sorting, and printing machinery, materialized in the German populace as what Hannah Arendt called the banality of evil, such that actors like Adolf Eichmann would fail to admit any sense of wrongdoing.

1 1 1 (600) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (424) 20140712n 0 -5+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
America retook Dehomag using rhetoric that is assets and employees were property of an American enterprise, though took years of bureaucratic thrashing like poorly networked computer processes to change name to IBM Deutschland.

1 1 1 (700) [-6+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (424) 20140712m 0 -4+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
As IBM enabled USSBS attributed to atomic bombing decision in 1945, Dehomag utilized to perform census of occupation once again on likely many of the same people but for a different customer than the Nazis, the occupying forces, whose collective action also resulted in horrific mass killing in Japan, neither really questioned for their meanness or inhumanity yet constituting significant bodies of both societies. "For Dehomag, the 1946 census of occupation was a project organized quickly and economically. People counting was what they did best. The questions remained the same. Only the client name changed." (424)

1 1 1 (800) [-6+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (425) 20140712o 0 -5+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
IBM published but quickly withdrew promotional book on history of computing in Europe that detailed the exploits of famous employees on both American and Nazi sides, a very rare book indeed, which Black claims decades ago not even found in Internet libraries. "The men who headed up the IBM enterprise in Nazi Europe and America become revered giants within the corporationâs global community. Chauncey became chairman of the IBM World Trade Corporation, and the European subsidiary managers were rewarded for the loyalty with op jobs. Their exploits during the Nazi era were lionized with amazing specificity in a promotional book entitled The History of Computing in Europe, published in 1967 by IBM itself. However, an internal IBM review decided to immediately withdraw the book from the market. It is no longer available in any publicly accessible library anywhere in the world." (425)

1 1 1 (900) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140818 20140818a 12 -1+ journal_2014.html
It is significant that that dreadful IBM publication remains hidden, and that we putative philosophers should engage in scholarly quests to study it along with other early workers in the field, and poses an example of pursuing philosophies implicitly and explicitly baked into program code statements and comments, for which as a holy grail we posit the missing IBM text and as everyday examples myriad floss projects of the Internet era found in source code revisions of content published under floss licenses like GPL, creative commons, US patent, copyright and finally the absolute freedom of undiscriminated multitudinous public domain, in chapter four.

1 1 1 (1000) [-6+]mCQK weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming (278) 20140331b 0 -2+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming.html
In the final pages of the epilogue to his famous Psychology of Computer Programming, Weinberg warns of the danger of banality of evil through unwitting use of programming talent, though made in ironic, innocent ignorance of the real involvement of IBM in the holocaust with which my tale opens, that Lanier argues lurk in siren servers. "Because computers are such fascinating beasts, because programming is such a game, such a joy, we who program computers are in danger of becoming the unwitting pawns of those who would use our toys for not-so-playful ends. Can there be any doubt that if Hitler had computers at his command, one of the first application would have been keeping closer track of Jews and Gypsies so that all who should have gone to the ovens did go to the ovens?" (278) Is this a reflection of the need for a renewed critique and distancing oneself from technology?

1 1 1 (1100) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (16) 20131020i 3 -2+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Black awakens us from this predigital nightmare perpetrated by the German and American government war machines, and more shockingly IBM employees in subsidiaries of this budding transnational, to renewed fears in the Age of Realization that more lists will be compiled against more people, perhaps now dropping smart bombs from drones rather than operating death camps; it is important to think about how information is gathered and processed, whether by human programmers as steeped in evil as the vilest hacker, morally ambivalent like Eichmann, or blind to the purpose of their efforts, or perhaps the lists are already being made by machines on their own, leading to future genocides portrayed in science fiction apocalypses?

1 1 1 (1200) [-4+]mCQK weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming (279) 20140331c 0 -1+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming.html
Bad systems can be built by well intentioned people.

1 1 1 (1300) [-4+]mCQK weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming (279) 20140331d 0 -3+ progress/2014/02/notes_for_weinberg-psychology_of_computer_programming.html
Tyranny over liberty seems to be the default trajectory of the specific milieu in which our computer revolutions have occurred, in spite of the good intentions of those we salute as the architects of the information age.

1 1 1 (1400) [-4+]mCQK licklider-man_computer_symbiosis (74) 20140330 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_licklider-man_computer_symbiosis.html
Soon after the second world war, Licklider promotes aims of letting computers facilitate formulative thinking as well as solving formulated problems, so that together in symbiosis, humans and machines can make decisions in complex situations, and he offers an explicit vision of technological prerequisites to achieve social goals, such as time sharing, memory hardware, programming languages, and input output equipment that is well tracked by the ensuing history: we can now see how them implemented in ontological assumptions of Rushkoff for the ten commands to make sense.

1 1 1 (1500) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (71) 20130310e 0 -3+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
John Kemeny, inventor of BASIC programming language, shared the optimism of Licklider that a great future of continuous improvement was in store for both machines and humans. "We are witnessing even now the evolution of a species in which the individual is subsumed under a group consciousness. Indeed it is a telepathic race. And I expect that computer networks will display all the marvelous traits that science fiction predicted for such strange beings." (71) Ironically, the outcome is human devolution and machine evolution, unless we change course.

1 1 1 (1600) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (145-146) 20130413r 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Part rhetorical, cautionary tale that seems to have occurred in part as a result of technological progress meant to prevent it, start here and develop historical and theoretical narratives to explain why the symbiote has reached its current evolutionary state that seems worse, instead of better than Kemeny enthusiastically predicts, for not faithfully following the project he envisions. "The best-intentioned people, if they lack the technical expertise and the tools to achieve our goals, can make the situation worse instead of better. Therefore we must look to the coming of a new man-computer partnership to provide the means which, combined with sufficient concern by men for their fellowmen and for future generations, can hopefully bring about a new golden age for mankind." (145-146)

1 1 1 (1700) [-6+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (116) 20140330 0 -7+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
Weizenbaum, in pointing out the growing zombie hordes of compulsive computer users decades before MMORPGs, documents the early effects of the human computer symbiosis gone bad. "Wherever computer centers have become established, that is to say, in countless places in the United States, as well as in virtually all other industrial regions of the world, bright young men of disheveled appearance, often with sunken glowing eyes, can be seen sitting at computer consoles, their arms tensed and waiting to fire their fingers, already poised to strike, at the buttons and keys on which their attention seems to be as riveted as a gamblerâs on the rolling dice. . . . Their rumpled clothes, their unwashed and unshaven faces, and their uncombed hair all testify that they are
oblivious to their bodies and to the world in which they move. They exist, at least when so engaged, only through and for the computers. These are computer bums, compulsive programmers." (116) But in emphasizing extreme cases draws our attention away from the mundane, long term effects of using particular technologies, just as writers who analyze geek cultures shift focus from what has happened to the everyday America.

1 1 1 (1800) [-4+]mCQK rosenberg-dreaming_in_code (130) 20140330 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_rosenberg-dreaming_in_code.html
If, as Kemeny feared, a combination of deficiencies in technical training and good intentions characterized the past few decades, then the arrival of geeks on the cultural scene should raise less alarm than the hordes of mostly inept users that fills out with them the middle and lower classes; such is the opinion of Langdon Winner, for example, who seeks to dispel the rhetoric he calls mythinformation.

1 1 1 (1900) [-6+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (597) 20131019h 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Current computer revolution influenced by absent mind rather than new wonders in AI. "Some observers forecast that the computer revolution will eventually be guided by new wonders in artificial intelligence. Its present course is influenced by something much more familiar:
the absent mind." (597)

1 1 1 (2000) [-6+]mCQK jameson-postmodernism (315) 20130930o 0 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_jameson-postmodernism.html
Promethean inferiority complex as comportment toward technology. "I want to suggest that something like the subalternity Gunther Anders years ago in a somewhat different connection called it Promethean shame, a Promethean inferiority complex in front of the machine is what we now feel for culture more generally." (315) We are shamed of our unknowing relationship to the culture we nevertheless created as we are towards technological artifacts.

1 1 1 (2100) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (16) 20140102i 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Social hopes for Internet seem to be failing, draining values and denying deep thinking rather than fostering highly articulated connections and new forms of creativity. "A society that looked at the Internet as a path toward highly articulated connections and new methods of creating meaning is instead finding itself disconnected, denied deep thinking, and drained of enduring values." (16)

1 1 1 (2200) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20140404 20140404a 6 -1+ journal_2014.html
Galloway explains how control exists after decentralization as protocol that as the technical theory implied by popular social theory of Hardt and Negri defaults to favoring large bureucracies over smaller units of collective intelligence giving them ability to leverage that added knowledge power, in sense of Foucault governmentality biopower, whose very structure in France and America created the Internet to the point it never ceases to write itself because there are always countless virtual machines running the thought shared by humans and this machinic other sharing the planet with us during the duration of a life time.

1 1 1 (2300) [-6+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (1-2) 20140313a 0 -2+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
To Lanier our network usage as the little people being monetized by a few powerful corporations by their siren servers, seems the problem of the times. "The clamor for online attention only turns into money for a token minority of ordinary people, but there is another new, tiny class of people who always benefit. Those who keep the new ledgers, the giant computing services that model you, spy on you, and predict your actions, turn you life activities into the greatest fortunes in history." (1-2) My hypothesis is that the problem is complicated with humans getting dumber for want of spending ten to twenty percent of their time programming, working code, replaced by ordinary computer application use like alienated labor in front of machinery control panels monitoring gauges, pushing buttons, turning dials.

1 1 1 (2400) [-5+]mCQK bork-journal 20140308 20140308 0 -9+ journal_2014.html
The basic hypothesis of the dissertation project needs adjustment to acknowledge that the decline in human intelligence, industriousness, and creativity whose empirical validity is a research question will not consummate in a regression to prehuman forms, a digital dark age, or machine apocalypse, but rather leave behind traces suggesting that more advantageous synergies with machine intelligence could have been achieved. Thus the imagery in WALL-E of the evolutionary effects of generations lived in the machine controlled spaceship environment depicts obese, shallowly content, physically and mentally disadvantaged consumers whose needs are met and whose desires are fulfilled precisely because they are also supplied by the surrounding intelligence of the built environment. My project therefore aligns with critiques of late capitalist societies from Allan Bloomâs Closing of the American Mind through Catherine Malabouâs What Should We Do With Our Brain? to state of the art Jaron Lanier Who Owns the Future?, while adding consideration of the significant effects of dynamic media shot through with machine intelligence and pervasive automation by coded objects on bodies themselves and their extended but still closed minds, which I call the post-postmodern network dividual cyborg. This hypothetical characterization of subjectivity should be understood as a diagram of current, mainstream America, the little people of the projective city articulated by Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello in The New Spirit of Capitalism. It connects the techno-evangelistic future predictions of Ray Kurzweilâs Age of Spiritual Machines with the more modest moralism of Douglas Rushkoffâs Program or Be Programmed, by recognizing with N. Katherine Hayles, Paul N. Edwards, David Golumbia, and Nathan Ensmenger among others the situated, contested histories of the dominant technologies whose current, default configurations are taken as inevitable outcomes of the progress of civilization.

1 1 1 (2500) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (26) 20140531b 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Philip Roth coined term Dumbest Generation in novel The Human Stain; Bauerlein applies to the large segment of young Americans entering adulthood ignorant and little concerned with liberal arts learning and civic awareness.

1 1 1 (2600) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20140811 20140811 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
My basic premise is that the dumbest generation has infected human being to steer it toward Wall-E torpor rather than familiar science fiction apocalyptic narratives from Colossus and 2001 Space Odyssey to Terminator to Matrix to Caprica, examples of societies confronting their technologies, the story of the norm versus the heroic tales of individuals such as the system building engineers now popular in science and technology studies, expertly presented by Latour, Hayles, and others, whether they claim the title themselves, digital humanities theorists.

1 1 1 (2700) [-4+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (116) 20130712 4 -3+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
Compulsive programmer computer bum replaced and quantitatively outnumbered by compulsive gamer, social networker, and other consumer practices, time wasted in front of the screen and behind the wheel.

1 1 1 (2800) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (4) 20140529g 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Beyond exceptional cases revealing systemic ill of competitive frenzy focusing on measurable results, most children spend more time with media than homework.

1 1 1 (2900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (77) 20140531t 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Studies conclude leisure time kids spend with media equivalent to full time job.

1 1 1 (3000) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (103) 20140601j 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Belief that screen interactivity invites collaboration and activity where solipsistic, passive reading was the prior condition.

1 1 1 (3100) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (106) 20140601k 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Sesame Street effect that only fun learning is good, also legitimating indiscriminate tinkering with electronic tools; each doing their part expanding collective intelligence seems appropriate.

1 1 1 (3200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (107) 20140601l 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
No reciprocal effect for individual minds, which stall as collective machine intelligence augments.

1 1 1 (3300) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (7) 20140529i 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Bauerlein claims his book focuses on examining empirical research that when collected reveals declining intellectual condition of young Americans rather than their behavior and values.

1 1 1 (3400) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (9) 20140529k 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
The closed American mind has not opened, although conduct has improved, producing sense that the kids are alright.

1 1 1 (3500) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (46) 20140531i 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Literary reader rates among 18-24-year-olds drop significantly in last twenty years, even with very low threshold for what counts as literary reading.

1 1 1 (3600) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (50) 20140531j 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Leisure reading correlates directly on reading comprehension scores and academic progress.

1 1 1 (3700) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (53) 20140531k 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Kids reject books like vegetables, unconcerned that aliteracy poses career obstacle.

1 1 1 (3800) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (109-110) 20140601m 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Vocabulary, memory, analytic talents and erudition do not expand through online experience.

1 1 1 (3900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (101) 20140601i 0 -10+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Cornerstone of civilization replaced with dissimilar building block, imagination inspiring books with screen virtual realities; another ironic iteration of Platonic criticism of writing.

1 1 1 (4000) [-6+]mCQK postman-technopoly (20) 20131227m 0 -5+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Technopoly is the unnamed multispectrum Big Other that alters the structure of human interests down to our symbols while affecting communities, populations, reached by taking an ecological view, expansive, appreciative of the overall impact on cognition rather than honed to unit operations. "New technologies alter the structure of our interests: the things we think about. They alter the character of our symbols: the things with think with. And they alter the nature of community: the arena in which thoughts develop. As Thamus spoke to Innis across the centuries, it is essential that we listen to their conversation, join in it, revitalize it. For something has happened in America that is strange and dangerous, and there is only a dull and even stupid awareness of what it is in part because it has no name." (20) Postman makes the call to revitalize speaking across centuries invoking the familiar Platonic Thamus to counter long term stupefaction being produced by current technologies.

1 1 1 (4100) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (126) 20140601r 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Time to analyze how worse intellectual dispositions of youth are strengthened by digital practices including gaming, blogging, manipulating devices.

1 1 1 (4200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (126) 20140601s 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Digital practices disrupt informal, physical settings where reading, discussions, and physical play took place for prior generations, stunting vocabulary growth.

1 1 1 (4300) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (133) 20140603e 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Peer absorption for identity building is greatest unmentioned vice of digital media.

1 1 1 (4400) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (133-134) 20140603f 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Limits of social life once managed by family unit surpassed by communication technologies; significance of Web is nonstop peer contact rather than a universe of knowledge.

1 1 1 (4500) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (267) 20140411r 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Shared attention of parents a new challenge for children.

1 1 1 (4600) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (149) 20140603m 0 -10+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Nielsen research highlights what works, reminding us that the Web is now a consumer habitat, not an educational one; children develop habits the undermine classroom goals.

1 1 1 (4700) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (160) 20140603q 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Threshold into adulthood has changed because the rituals that used to introduce adulthood shunted by digital realm as used by young Americans.

1 1 1 (4800) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (10) 20140529l 0 -16+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Attention extended to virtual social space forming extensive, autonomous generational cocoon so that minds plateau at social joys of age 18, endangering civic health of the United States by ignoring cultural and civic inheritance. "All the ingredients for making an informed and intelligent citizen are in place.
(10) But it hasnât happened. . . . A different social life and a different mental life have formed among them. Technology has bred it, but the result doesnât tally with the fulsome descriptions of digital empowerment, global awareness, and virtual communities. Instead of opening young American minds to the stores of civilization and science and politics, technology has contracted their horizon to themselves, to the social scene around them. Young people have never been so intensely mindful of and present to one another, so enable in adolescent contact. Teen images and songs, hot gossip and games, and youth-to-youth communications no longer limited by time or space wrap them up in a generational cocoon reaching all the way into their bedrooms. The autonomy has a cost: the more they attend to themselves, the less they remember the past and envision a future. They have all the advantages of modernity and democracy, but when the gifts of life lead to social joys, not intellectual labor, the minds of the young plateau at age 18. . . . Meanwhile, their intellects refuse the cultural and civic inheritance that has made us what we are up to now." (10)

1 1 1 (4900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (215) 20140612d 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Connection between healthy vigilant citizenry and abundant knowledge.

1 1 1 (5000) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (201-202) 20140611a 0 -14+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Too late for them to catch up on knowledge and culture traits from missed liberal education in their twenties due to encroaching adult responsibilities but only becoming partial citizens. "The twenty-first-century teen, connected and multitasked, autonomous yet peer-mindful, marks no great leap forward in human intelligence, global thinking, or netizen -ship. Young users have learned a thousand new things, no doubt. They upload and download, suft and chat, post and design, but they havenât learned to analyze a complex text, store facts in their heads, comprehend a foreign policy decision, take lessons from history, or spell correctly. Never having recognized their responsibility to the past, they have opened a fissure in our civic foundations, and it shows in their halting passage into adulthood and citizenship. . . . Perhaps during their twenties they adapt, acquiring smarter work and finance habits. But the knowledge and culture traits never catch up. Itâs too late to read Dante and Milton. There is too little time for the French Revolution and the Russian Revolution. Political ideas come from a news talk guest or a Sunday op-ed, not a steady diet of books old and new.
(202) If young people donât read, they shut themselves out of public affairs. Without a knowledge formation in younger years, adults function as more or less partial citizens." (201-202)

1 1 1 (5100) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (233) 20140612p 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Dim intellectual, civic understanding, liberal education futures. "As of 2008, the intellectual future of the United States looks dim. Not the economic future, or the technological, medical, or media future, but the future of civic understanding and liberal education. The social pressures and leisure preferences of young Americans, for all their silliness and brevity, help set the heading of the American mind, and the direction is downward." (233) Downward heading of American mind towards WALL-E characters net effect of social pressures and leisure preferences of young Americans of the dumbest generation.

1 1 1 (5200) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (234) 20140606g 0 -10+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Depiction and diagnosis of the Dumbest Generation. "The Dumbest Generation cares little for history books, civic principles, foreign affairs, comparative religions, and serious media and art, and it knows less. Careening through their formative years, they donât catch the knowledge bug, and tradition might as well be a foreign word. Other things monopolize their attention the allure of screens, peer absorption, career goals. They are latter-day Rip Van Winkles, sleeping through the movements of culture and events of history, preferring the company of peers to great books and powerful ideas and momentous happenings. . . . Among the Millennials, intellectual life canât compete with social life, and if social life has no intellectual content, traditions wither and die. Books canât hold their own with screen images, and without help, high art always loses to low amusements.
(235) The latest social and leisure dispositions of the young are killing the culture, and when they turn 40 years old and realize what they failed to learn in their younger days, it will be too late." (234) Tradition-infused intellectual life cannot compete with screen-mediated social life, the latter killing culture.

1 1 1 (5300) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (235) 20140606i 8 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Is the Dumbest Generation redeemable, or will their habits setting the course for a WALL-E future? " The Dumbest Generation will cease being dumb only when it regards adolescence as an inferior realm of petty strivings and adulthood as a realm of civic, historical, and cultural awareness that puts them in touch with the perennial ideas and struggles. The youth of America occupy a point in history like every other generation did and will, and their time will end. But the effects of their habits will outlast them, and if things do not change they will be remembered as the fortunate ones who were unworthy of the privileges they inherited. They may even be recalled as the generation that lost that great American heritage, forever." (235)


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TOC 1.1 from automated genocide to the dumbest generation+

1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing

-1.2.1+++ a collective intelligence problem

1 2 1 (100) [-6+]mCQK jenkins-convergence_culture (4) 20140829 0 -2+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_jenkins-convergence_culture.html
Jenkins names collective intelligence the collective process involving humans collaborating along with information technologies, together consuming and creating knowledge. "Consumption has become a collective process and thatâs what this book means by
collective intelligence, a term coined by French cyberneticist Pierre L vy. None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills." (4)

1 2 1 (200) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (144) 20131103b 0 -9+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Stoked by the success of the Dartmouth implementation of BASIC programming as a core student competency, John Kemeny, who invented the language in the late 1960s, envisioned symbiotic evolution as the hoped for trajectory of human and machine species. "Given the rate of human reproduction, a century is much too short a period for the usual forces of evolution and natural selection to bring about a significant change. Our best hope therefore lies in a new kind of evolutionary process which I have called
symbiotic evolution.
(144) The existence of computer-communication networks will enable human beings at widely separated locations to function as a team. The vast capabilities of computer memories will enable use to make effective use of the explosion of human information and knowledge.
(144-145) However, this evolutionary development is only possible if man is willing to make drastic changes in his life style and in his conception of his own goals. . . . Since it is unlikely that any educational system can provide a training that will see us through a lifetime, we may have to devise a system in which learning continues throughout oneâs productive life." (144) He reiterates at the educational level the enthusiasm Herbert Simon held for anticipated overall social and economic improvements.

1 2 1 (300) [-4+]mCQK simon-shape_of_automation (45) 20131009f 0 -1+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_simon-shape_of_automation.html
Prediction by Simon that rapid automation under full employment with stable skill profile will make workplace happier and more relaxed, most people being in sales: critiques of global capitalism instead describe an erosion of the middle class aided by ERP and communication technologies.

1 2 1 (400) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20130312 TAPOC_20130312 0 -1+ journal_2013.html
Strengthening argument that technical and cultural specificities of network age have resulted in a degenerative state in which humans are getting stupider while machines are getting smarter by revisiting Kemenyâs enthusiastic predictions that widespread programming instruction would result in continuous augmentation of human intellect along with machines by ever mutually advantaging symbiosis.

1 2 1 (500) [-6+]mCQK postman-technopoly (8) 20131227b 0 -2+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Technology redefines important terms. "The old words still look the same, are still used in the same kinds of sentences. But they do not have the same meanings; in some cases, they have opposite meanings, and this is what Thamus wishes to teach us that technology imperiously commandeers our most important terminology." (8)

1 2 1 (600) [-4+]mCQK postman-technopoly (xii) 20131227 0 -3+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Uncontrolled growth of technology destroys vital sources of humanity; thus the concluding recommendation is to restore history to education.

1 2 1 (700) [-4+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (594) 20131019d 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Plato and Veblen also realized democracy not a matter of distributing information.

1 2 1 (800) [-4+]mCQK misa-leonardo_to_the_internet (xvi) 20131006d 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_misa-leonardo_to_the_internet.html
Do we have any better use correlative growing of operating systems and applications as consumers, does it just mean we would have had internet based television sooner?

1 2 1 (900) [-4+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (31-32) 20131108 0 -5+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
Most fateful social change was eschewing all deliberate thought of substantive change.

1 2 1 (1000) [-6+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (592) 20131019a 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Mythinformation conviction that widespread adoption of computers and communications systems will automatically produce better world for human living. "Taken as a whole, beliefs of this kind constitute what I would call
mythinformation: the almost religious conviction that a widespread adoption of computers and communications systems along with easy access to electronic information will automatically produce a better world for human living." (592)

1 2 1 (1100) [-6+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (595) 20131019f 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Mythinformation expressive contemporary ideology that all aspects of life benefit from speedy digitized information processing. "Despite its shortcomings as political theory, mythinformation is noteworthy as an expressive contemporary ideology." (595)

1 2 1 (1200) [-4+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (593) 20131019c 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Political assumptions of computer romantics mistake supply of information with ability to leverage it.

1 2 1 (1300) [-5+]mCQK postman-technopoly (9) 20131227c 0 -6+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Innis knowledge monopolies: are there additional dangers in computers than the coverage provided by Plato that Postman admits grounds his thought, alluding to Kittler? (9) Here, there are several more principles to be mined from the judgment of Thamus that require mentioning because they presage all I will write about. . . . Harold Innis, the father of modern communication studies, repeatedly spoke of the knowledge monopolies created by important technologies. He meant precisely what Thamus had in mind: those who have control over the workings of a particular technology accumulate power and inevitably form a kind of conspiracy against those who have no access to the specialized knowledge made available by the technology.

1 2 1 (1400) [-6+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (595) 20131019e 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
False assumption that ordinary citizens equipped with microcomputers will be able to counter influence of computer-based organizations. "Presumably, ordinary citizens equipped with microcomputers will be able to counter the influence of large, computer-based organizations.
(595) Using a personal computer makes one no more powerful vis-a-vis, say, the National Security Agency than flying a hang glider establishes a person as a match for the U.S. Air Force." (595)

1 2 1 (1500) [-6+]mCQK postman-technopoly (10-11) 20131231 0 -11+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Computers like television afford little to masses and intrude, making losers. "We have a similar situation in the development and spread of computer technology, for here too there are winners and losers. . . . But to what extent has computer technology been an advantage to the masses of people? To steelworkers, vegetable-store owners, teachers, garage mechanics, musicians, bricklayers, dentists, and most of the rest into whose lives the computer now intrudes? . . . In a word, almost nothing that they need happens to the losers. Which is why they are losers." (10-11)

1 2 1 (1600) [-6+]mCQK postman-technopoly (9-10) 20131227d 0 -5+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_postman-technopoly.html
Example of television as knowledge monopoly undermining school system grounded on printed word. "Let us take as an example the case of television. . . . television may bring a gradual end to the careers of schoolteachers, since school was an invention of the printing press and must stand or fall on the issue of how much importance the printed word has." (9-10)

1 2 1 (1700) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (viii) 20140529 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Growing number of books criticizing digital tools and technologization.

1 2 1 (1800) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (ix) 20140529a 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Intellectual growth stunted by social demands heightened by technologies.

1 2 1 (1900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (xi) 20140529d 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Opportunity cost of digital diversions that supplant prior limits to teen life.

1 2 1 (2000) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (8) 20140529j 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Paradox of information age is idealization of knowledge and communications, accompanied by less reading and knowledge of traditional intellectual objects beyond artifacts of youth culture.

1 2 1 (2100) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (xii) 20140529e 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Displacement of old media and traditional literacy by new media communications technologies.

1 2 1 (2200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (5-6) 20140529h 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
No overall improvement for all the enhanced learning techniques; overall downward trend toward increasing leisure activities and less time spent reading.

1 2 1 (2300) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (16) 20140531a 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Anti-intellectual outlook is a common, shame-free condition of American youth consumer culture enmeshed in juvenile matters. "Most young Americans possess little of the knowledge that makes for an informed citizen, and too few of them master the skills needed to negotiate an information-heavy, communication-based society and economy. Furthermore, they avoid the resources and media that might enlighten them and boost their talents. An anti-intellectual outlook prevails in their leisure lives, squashing the lessons of school, and intead of producing a knowledgeable and querulous young mind, the youth culture of American society yields an adolescent consumer enmeshed in juvenile matters and secluded from adult realities. . . . The insulated mindset of individuals who know precious little history and civics and never read a book or visit a museum is fast becoming a common, shame-free condition." (16) Gives research findings from math/science/technology and fine arts.

1 2 1 (2400) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (30) 20140531c 2 -16+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Paradox of slipping knowledge skills in abundance of resources.

1 2 1 (2500) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (140) 20140610 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Sustained linear, hierarchical, sequential thinking in decline along with book reading. "The sense of inevitability technologyâs here to stay, so we might as well go with it prompts researchers to accept the practices technology fosters, to tolerate and respect the habits young people develop as a serious and catholic literacy.
(141) Screen reading isnât a supplement anymore, is no longer an extension of thinking skills beyond the linear-sequential model. Itâs a primary activity, and the cultivation of nonlinear, nonhierarchical, nonsequential thought patterns through Web reading now transpires on top of a thin and cracking foundation of print reading. For the linear, hierarchical, sequential thinking solicited by books has a shaky hold on the youthful mind, and as teens and young adults read linear texts in a linear fashion less and less, the less they engage in sustained linear thinking." (140)

1 2 1 (2600) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (143-144) 20140603k 0 -17+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Nielsen Norman model of web users reveals little sustained linear, word for word reading habits, lack of concentration and otherwise insufficient reading habits for the 80 percent; to improve they need to develop more basic literacy and patience, not more computer literacy and screen time.

1 2 1 (2700) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (152) 20140603n 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Desire for greatest amount of content for least amount of work, exemplified by intellectual style of Wikipedia prose, yielding uninspiring knowledge language in competition with amusing social language.

1 2 1 (2800) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (158) 20140603p 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Compare analysis of Web users to Horkheim and Adorno mass consumers.

1 2 1 (2900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (13) 20140531 5 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Astonishing ignorance of young person on the street actively cut off from world affairs, encased in immediate realities, affirmed by standardized tests and other national surveys.

1 2 1 (3000) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (34) 20140531d 0 -1+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Decline in general knowledge not noticed because most knowledge purveyors niche oriented.

1 2 1 (3100) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (40) 20140531g 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Current generation flaunts aliteracy as valid peer behavior, knowing but choosing not to read books because it is counterproductive.

1 2 1 (3200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (58) 20140531m 0 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Benefits of reading books include providing place for reflection, finding role models, expressions of feelings, and moral convictions, sensing plot, character, argument structure, and aesthetic styles.

1 2 1 (3300) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (63) 20140531o 0 -1+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Problems of poor reading and writing skills of workplace entrants and need for remedial courses by college freshmen.

1 2 1 (3400) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (66-67) 20140531q 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
E-literacy derives from valorization of digital practices moreso than bibliphobia, yet knowledge and skill levels have not increased; echoes critique of writing in Plato.

1 2 1 (3500) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (232-233) 20140612o 0 -11+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Shared belief in value of liberal education because lay support needed for liberal arts to flourish, part of democratic faith; ignoring society ennobling traditions makes ignorant citizens, highlighting effects of general population leisure trends.

1 2 1 (3600) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (210) 20140614b 0 -4+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Civic knowledge wound up in knowledge of events.

1 2 1 (3700) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (235) 20140606h 0 -7+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Adults are blind or unconscionably unresponsive, and obliged to speak out to reverse moral poles.

1 2 1 (3800) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (99) 20140601h 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Antagonism of books versus computers indicates replacement rather than complement; a zero-sum game for time and money of young people.

1 2 1 (3900) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (127) 20140603 0 -3+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Essential cultivation of oral mother tongue natural language depended upon for educational success harmed by digital practices; private zone verbal media should be appraised along with schools and teachers.

1 2 1 (4000) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (129-130) 20140603b 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Dire intellectual effect of habitual consumption of low rare-word media; can a comparison be made to software monocultures?

1 2 1 (4100) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (201) 20140611 0 -6+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Ingredients in place for producing WALL-E humans from the dumbest generation. "The ingredients come together into an annihilating recipe. Adolescent urgings, a teen world cranked up by technology, a knowledge world cranked down by abdicating mentors . . . they commingle and produce young Americans whose wits are just as keen as ever, but who waste them on screen diversions; kids whose ambitions may even exceed their forebearsâ, but whose aims merge on career and consumer goals, not higher learning; youths who experience a typical stage of alienation from the adult world, but whose alienation doesnât stem from countercultural ideas and radical mentors (Karl Marx, Herbert Marcuse, Michel Foucault, etc.), but from an enveloping immersion in peer stuff." (201) Keen wit wasted on screen diversions, excessive ambitions but merging on consumer goals, alienation from adult world through immersion in peer stuff rather than countercultural ideas and radical mentors.

1 2 1 (4200) [-6+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (203) 20140611c 0 -12+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Lack of experience in cultural knowledge the unnoticed complement of STEM deficit, both endangering future of American society. "When people warn of Americaâs future, they usually talk about competitiveness in science, technology, and productivity, not in ideas and values. But the current domestic and geopolitical situation demands that we generate not only more engineers, biochemists, nanophysicists, and entrepreneurs, but also men and women experienced in the ways of culture, prepared for contest in the marketplace of ideas. Knowledge-workers, wordsmiths, policy wonks . . . they donât emerge from nowhere. They need a long foreground of reading and writing, a home and school environment open to their development, a pipeline ahead and behind them. They need mentors to commend them when theyâre right and rebuke them when theyâre wrong. . . . The formula is flexible, but with the Dumbest Generation its breakdown is under way, and with it the vitality of democracy in the United States." (203)

1 2 1 (4300) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (223) 20140612h 0 -11+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
National implications of dumbest generation reached as culture war outcome of youth movement is young adults under thirty prepared to be culture warriors like Jefferson and print culture, for full, not just partial, civic life.

1 2 1 (4400) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (231) 20140612n 0 -8+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Need for pipeline of intellectuals for healthy society, eighty percent of lesser intellectuals as well as minority of superlative culture warriors.

1 2 1 (4500) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (78) 20140531u 0 -5+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Bedroom has become multimedia center leading to more individualized, unmonitored use.

--1.2.2+++ societies of control

1 2 2 (100) [-4+]mCQK kitchin_and_dodge-code_space (11) 20131103d 0 -9+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kitchin_and_dodge-code_space.html
Disciplinarity, interpellation, production like Foucault biopower.

1 2 2 (200) [-4+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (77) 20140107c 0 -6+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Centralization, standards and hierarchies at heart of networks and digital media; compare to analyses of Galloway and Lessig.

1 2 2 (300) [-6+]mCQK lessig-free_culture (170) 20131003p 0 -2+ progress/2008/11/notes_for_lessig-free_culture.html
Legal rights to control cultural development more concentrated than ever. "
Never in our history have fewer had a legal right to control more of the development of our culture than now.
(170) Law plus technology plus the market now interact to turn this historically benign regulation into the most significant regulation of culture that our free society has known." (170)

1 2 2 (400) [-6+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (103) 20131108b 0 -2+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
What is our position today if we are so much farther removed from understanding how computer technologies work than when Weizenbaum wrote. "If todayâs programmers are largely unaware of the detailed structures of the physical machines they are using, of their languages, and of the translators that manipulate their programs, then they must also be largely ignorant of many of the arguments I have made here, particularly of those arguments concerning the universality of computers and the nature of effective procedures. How then do these programmers come to sense the power of the computer?" (103) We simply believe in their universal power because they do many things.

1 2 2 (500) [-4+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (259) 20131010j 0 -2+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html
Studs Terkel common people believe power exercised by leaders, yet American Secretary of State believes events befall us, and Chief of Staff a slave to computers; see Edwards.

1 2 2 (600) [-3+]mCQK weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason (5-6) 20140826 1 -5+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_weizenbaum-computer_power_and_human_reason.html


1 2 2 (800) [-6+]mCQK galloway-protocol (147) 20130923w 0 -1+ progress/2013/01/notes_for_galloway-protocol.html
Control is now like a law of nature it is so imbricated in biopower and technological systems. "While control used to be a law of society, now it is more like a law of nature." (147) We must be thorough in our scientific approach to self reflection.

1 2 2 (900) [-4+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (596) 20131019g 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Three areas of concern: pervasive surveillance, dissolution of face-to-face social bonds, integrity of social forms dependent on spatial and temporal limits built into human embodiment but distorted by intelligent networks.

1 2 2 (1000) [-6+]mCQK edwards-closed_world (7) 20131029 0 -4+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_edwards-closed_world.html
Closed-world discourse language used by Edwards and repeated by many others who agree they are seeing, technologies, practices supporting vision of centrally controlled, automated power, as if the machines had taken over long ago and were systematically controlling humanity this moment in part due to poor execution of Kemeny vision. "I use the phrase
closed-world discourse to describe the language, technologies, and practices that together supported the visions of centrally controlled, automated global power at the heart of American Cold War politics. Computers helped create and sustain this discourse in two ways. First, they allowed the practical construction of central real-time military control systems on a gigantic scale. Second, they facilitated the metaphorical understanding of world politics as a sort of system subject to technological management." (7) As media sustaining when run in human brains and machines, everything is created and sustained by computers constituting military control systems and supporting metaphorical understanding of world politics as technically manageable system.

1 2 2 (1100) [-6+]mCQK edwards-closed_world (27) 20131029a 0 -2+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_edwards-closed_world.html
Cyborg discourse of human automata took particular trajectory under closed-world discourse through creation of iconographies and political subject position that persisted through the 1980s in the US. "Cyborg discourse is the discourse of human automata: of cybernetic organisms for whom the human/machine boundary has been erased. Closed-world discourse represents the form of politics for such beings: a politics of the theorization and control of systems." (27)

1 2 2 (1200) [-9]mCQK kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter (xl-xli) 20121112 2 -5+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter.html
From the machine side of reality human souls are encased in network phenomena. " Understanding media despite McLuhanâs title remains an impossibility precisely because the dominant information technologies of the day control all understanding and its illusion. . . .
What counts are not the messages or the content with which they equip so-called souls for the duration of a technological era, but rather (and in strict accordance with McLuhan) their circuits, the very schematism of perceptibility." (xl-xli)

1 2 2 (1400) [-6+]mCQK chun-programmed_visions (8-9) 20131028d 14 -1+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_chun-programmed_visions.html
Chun gives much attention to philosophical reflection about the dream of programmability as return to world of Laplaceian determinism, the Dehomag image under which humans encouraged to be overwhelmed by machines for the benefit of their aspirations, even if they were to systematically exterminate thousands of their fellow animals. " As chapter 1 elaborates, computers, understood as software and hardware machines, have made possible a
dream of programmability, a return to a world of Laplaceian determinism in which an all-knowing intelligence can comprehend the future by apprehending the past and present." (8-9) Respecting attentiveness to fatalistic enslavement to interfaces, there is much potential for adjusting trajectories, provided attention is given to schematism of perceptibility when it comes to media studies.

1 2 2 (1500) [-6+]mCQK gane-computerized_capitalism (434-435) 20130921a 0 -5+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_gane-computerized_capitalism.html
Analogous to Kittler view that all media systems think about are their effectiveness, never what human oriented ends they serve, supply, instantiate. "Knowledge, then, has not only become a commodity, but strangely structures the basis of commodity production itself, to the extent that it has become âthe principle force of production over the last few decadesâ (Lyotard 1984: 5). . . . For, to politicize McLuhanâs famous dictum, the medium of commodity exchange becomes more important than the content of what is being exchanged." (434-435) In one respect their feedback given the low bandwidth to begin with is merely to keep working, although in the age of Internet protocols distributed cognition overabundance of computing power there is no reason to hold back.

1 2 2 (1600) [-4+]mCQK kramer-cultural_techniques_of_time_axis_manipulation (103) 20131002p 0 -1+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_kramer-cultural_techniques_of_time_axis_manipulation.html
Alien temporalities of computer writing and reading compared to human operations of the same names feeds conclusion that machines using software have gone off on their own hidden commands to do their own bidding, entrained by their own traces (programming language data structures as graphemes).

1 2 2 (1700) [-6+]mCQK kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter (xiii) 20131103 0 -1+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter.html
Translator. "Of the many learned cliches circulating in the widening gyre of media studies, the most persistent may be the assurance that all the nasty things we can say about computers were already spelled out in Platoâs critique of writing in
Phaedrus." (xiii) Persistent nasty clich in media studies that Phaedrus provided a comprehensive critique of computers.

1 2 2 (1800) [-6+]mCQK kittler-there_is_no_software (148) 20131103 0 -5+ progress/2012/12/notes_for_kittler-there_is_no_software.html
We do not know what our writing does, especially now that it mixes into autonomous machine behavior. "This claim in itself has had the effect of duplicating the implosion of hardware by an explosion of software. Programming languages have eroded the monopoly of ordinary languages and grown into a new hierarchy of their own. This
postmodern Tower of Babel reaches from simple operation codes whose linguistic extension is still a hardware configuration, passing through an assembler whose extension is the very opcode, up to high-level programming languages whose extension is that very assembler. In consequence, far-reaching chains of self-similarities in the sense defined by fractal theory organize the software as well as the hardware of every writing. What remains a problem is only recognizing these layers which, like modern media technologies in general, have been explicitly contrived to evade perception." (148) How can we know what our writing does to us if we cannot follow it, incredibly fast and small in circuits in place of paper.

1 2 2 (1900) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (28) 20131103b 0 -2+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
User-friendly may not be designed in best interests of users: easy to use but purpose still baffling, potentially promoting unethical uses of technology.

1 2 2 (2000) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (131) 20131102l 0 -5+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Users build metaphors for operational guesses at underlying structure, learning to interact by recovering from errors: this becomes the primary comportment of humans to machines.

1 2 2 (2100) [-4+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (146-147) 20140111d 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Disinterest enough for technology leaders to maintain their monopolies, perhaps because the small people spend so much of their psychic energy manipulating user interfaces from social networks to automobiles.

1 2 2 (2200) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (20) 20140103a 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Masses one full dimensional leap behind those in power, potentially releasing collective agency to machines instead of elite human groups, for they are also not the ones who design what those in power manipulate effortlessly to their advantage, they are more like addicts, lucky they know how to operate them. "As a result, most of society remains one full dimensional leap of awareness and capability behind the few who manage to monopolize access to the real power of any media age.
(20) Before, failing meant surrendering our agency to a new elite. In a digital age, failure could mean relinquishing our nascent collective agency to the machines themselves." (20) This is the danger foreshadowed, in different ways, by movies Fail Safe and WALL-E.

--1.2.3+++ the quintessential postmodern object

1 2 3 (100) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140624 TAPOC_20140624 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
The point is that Bauerlein provides an argument for why digital technologies contribute to making the dumbest generation, but shifts to criticize the behavior and putative agenda of elite and everyday cultural custodians; I propose we continue going down the route of investigating and philosophizing technologies and human nature by artistic practices. Later poieisis. Go on calling it handiwork even if now custom floss programming working code with them.

1 2 3 (200) [-4+]mCQK norman-design_of_everyday_things (43) 20131006d 3 -5+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_norman-design_of_everyday_things.html
One of the foils of ambition, taught helplessness processes evident in mathematics curriculum and also with technologies.

1 2 3 (300) [-9]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (79) 20131103f 0 -7+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
At the other extreme from taught helplessness, anticipating terms elucidated by Ian Bogost, is taught procedural literacy, as Kemeny argues that learning through teaching the computer exemplifies symbiotic transformation. "The students learn an enormous amount by being
forced to teach the computer how to solve a given problem. . . . The student must concentrate on the basic principles; he must understand the algorithm thoroughly in order to be able to explain it to a computer. On the other hand, he does not have to do any of the arithmetic or algebra. At Dartmouth we have seen hundreds of examples of spectacular success of learning through teaching the computer." (79) It is, of course, necessary to keep the momentum going so that programming skill becomes like handwriting, cooking, general home economics.

1 2 3 (400) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (42-43) 20130307w 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
That we are collectively not bothered that programming skill may devolve from anticipated height in 1980s to mere use competency evidence in current absence of widespread programming instruction. "More importantly, the use of computers has been made so simple that acquiring programming skill is no harder than learning how to use a large library." (42-43) Instead, the deep thinker following how software works in order to use it is replaced by the manipulation of complex user interfaces distributed among countless other software systems.

1 2 3 (500) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (135-136) 20140110s 0 -8+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Public schools teach computer use, not programming. "We do not teach programming in most public schools. Instead of teaching programming, most schools with computer literacy curricula teach
programs. Kids learn how to use popular spreadsheet, word processing, and browsing software so that they can operate effectively in the high-tech workplace.
(136) Their bigger problem is that their entire orientation to computing will be from the perspective of users. . . . Success means learning how to behave in the way the program needs her to." (135-136) User orientation defining success as behaving in conformance with programmed visions, making us more striated.

1 2 3 (600) [-7+]mCQK manovich-software_takes_command (97-98) 20131124 7 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_manovich-software_takes_command.html
Learning having enactive, iconic and symbolic components means removing need to program from interface unintentionally weakened human intelligence. (97-98)
(98) Kayâs interpretation of this theory was that a user interface should appeal to all these three mentalities. In contrast to a command-line interface, which is not accessible for children and forces the adult to use only symbolic mentality, the new interface should also make use of emotive and iconic mentalities.

1 2 3 (700) [-6+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (80) 20131103g 0 -2+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Danger in simplification of interface so procedural rhetoric no longer learned in the process. "Most students leave Dartmouth with a thorough understanding of the nature of modern computers and with a good idea as to how they may be used in later life. Since in CAI the student plays a rather passive role, somewhat like
learning a language from a phonograph record, none of these benefits accrue." (80)

1 2 3 (800) [-6+]mCQK koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails (29-30) 20131214 0 -3+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails.html
Gibson shocked by ineptness of students in basic computer science in late 1990s. "J. Paul Gibson began to teach programming classes for teens out of frustration. A computer scientist at the National University of Ireland, he had by 1998 become shocked at the ineptness of his students." (29-30)

1 2 3 (900) [-6+]mCQK koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails (30) 20131214b 0 -2+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails.html
Failure of Logo a consequence of teaching method. "But Logo seldom delivered on its lofty promise. The main problem was not the language itself but the lackluster way in which it was taught: Many instructors simply plopped students in front of computers for one hour a week and hoped for the best." (30) Compare to scholarship.

1 2 3 (1000) [-6+]mCQK papert-mindstorms (5) 20131107 0 -3+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_papert-mindstorms.html
Tension between the computer programming the child and the child programming the computer. "In many schools today, the phrase computer-aided instruction means making the computer teach the child. One might say the
computer is being used to program the child. In my vision, the child programs the computer and, in doing so, both acquires a sense of mastery over a piece of the most modern and powerful technology and establishes an intimate contact with some of the deepest ideas from science, from mathematics, and from the art of intellectual model building." (5)

1 2 3 (1100) [-6+]mCQK mayer-teaching_and_learning_computer_programming (2) 20131105c 0 -1+ progress/2011/04/notes_for_mayer-teaching_and_learning_computer_programming.html
Scholarship on teaching and learning programming reveals early exuberance and powerful claims, followed by disappointing empirical results, to a transition to its treatment as regular academic subject. "The history of research on teaching and learning computer programming can be analyzed into three phases: an initial phase in which many strong claims were made concerning the expected outcomes and best methods of instruction for computer programming, and observation phase in which mounting data pointed to problems in studentsâ learning, and a research phase in which theory-based studies were carried out to systematically understand the processes underlying learning and teaching computer programming." (2)

1 2 3 (1200) [-6+]mCQK koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails (30) 20131214c 2 -6+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_koerner-readin_writin_ruby_on_rails.html
Computers in school transformed from exploratory tools to become library aids. " The resulting disillusionment coincided with the emergence of media that transformed school computers from exploratory tools into library aids. . . . Programming vanished from elementary schools for decades, even as computer science became an ever more popular pursuit at the collegiate level. A cultural consensus seemed to spring up: Kids should be taught a nebulous set of computer skills, but programing well, that was for grown-ups." (30) Children taught nebulous set of computer skills rather than programming.

1 2 3 (1300) [-6+]mCQK brin-why_johnny_cant_code (np) 20130912 0 -1+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_brin-why_johnny_cant_code.html
Everyday computers no longer come ready to learn programming. "Only, quietly and without fanfare, or even any comment or notice by software pundits, we have drifted into a situation where almost none of the millions of personal computers in America offers a line-programming language simple enough for kids to pick up fast." (np)

1 2 3 (1400) [-6+]mCQK brin-why_johnny_cant_code (np) 20130912c 0 -1+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_brin-why_johnny_cant_code.html
Recognizes this is an undesirable, self inflicted global condition like tragedy of the commons devouring seed corn, and although this profoundly affects global evolution, it has gone unnoticed in a way Heidegger feared would happen, perhaps retarding further human intelligence augmentation in the symbolic register that coincidentally allows machines to continue to get smarter. "In effect, we have allowed a situation to develop that is like a civilization devouring its seed corn." (np) We could all fall into new dark ages if the global supply of capable technologists diminishes beyond a critical threshold, or the machines take over as dramatized in many science fictions.

1 2 3 (1500) [-9]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (13-14) 20140102g 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Civilization on an important threshold. "In the emerging, highly programmed landscape ahead, you will either create the software or you will be the software. Itâs really that simple: Program, or be programmed. Choose the former, and you gain access to the control panel of civilization. Choose the latter, and it could be the last real choice you get to make." (13-14) Program or be programmed.

1 2 3 (1600) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (9) 20140102b 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Diminishing chances of having a choice in digital matters by relegating programming to others. "You can relegate your programming to others, but then you have to trust them that their programs are really doing what youâre asking, and in a way that is in your best interests. And the longer you live this way, the less access you have to the knowledge that it could be any other way, or that you ever had a choice in the matter." (9)

1 2 3 (1700) [-6+]mCQK burnett-how_images_think (99) 20130912h 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnett-how_images_think.html
Majority of humans face software from position of profound illiteracy due to opaqueness of coding and programming language illiteracy. "The opaqueness of coding and the skills needed to create software are out of reach for the vast majority of people. Imagine a situation of illiteracy with respect to language that is so widespread most people would not even have a rudimentary understanding of the grammar of their mother tongue. This is the reality most individuals face with software." (99)

1 2 3 (1800) [-6+]mCQK manovich-software_takes_command (105) 20130825b 0 -7+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_manovich-software_takes_command.html
Is it only historical accident that the Macintosh did not ship with a user development environment, corrupting Kays vision? "Unfortunately, when in 1984 Apple shipped Macintosh, which was to become the first commercially successful personal computer modeled after the PARC system, it did not have an easy-to-use programming environment. . . . Only more recently, as the general computer literacy has widened and many new high-level programming languages have become available Perl, PHP, Python, JavaScript, etc.--have more people started to create their own tools by writing software. A good example of a contemporary programming environment, very popular among artists and designers and which, in my view, is close to Kayâs vision, is Processing." (105)

1 2 3 (1900) [-6+]mCQK burnett-how_images_think (128) 20131027 0 -3+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnett-how_images_think.html
Unapproachability of computers due to opaqueness, illiteracy of humans, knowable only through use despite the fact that their architecture is forty years old. "The challenge is that computers now have many different uses, but they remain dependent upon programming principles that have not changed for forty years. In addition, the interior workings of computers remain, for the most part, opaque to users. This is why computers are dealt with as if they are other to humans, as if they are unapproachable and can only be understood through use." (128)

1 2 3 (2000) [-6+]mCQK montfort_el_al-10_print (264) 20131106x 0 -2+ progress/2013/02/notes_for_montfort_el_al-10_print.html
Access to programming in different form today. "But the widespread access to programming that was provided by early microcomputers does not exist in the same form today as it did in the 1970s and 1980s. When people turn on todayâs computers, they do not see a READY prompt that allows the user to immediately enter a BASIC program." (264) No READY prompt.

1 2 3 (2100) [-6+]mCQK turkle-life_on_the_screen (34) 20120504 0 -5+ progress/2011/05/notes_for_turkle-life_on_the_screen.html
Mac is the quintessential postmodern object. "epistemological transparency of free, open source objects; Turkle continues the surface, consumer comportment through her later work. (34) Unlike the personal computers that had come before, the Mac encouraged users to stay at a surface level of visual representation and gave no hint of inner mechanisms.
(34) the tools of the modernist culture of calculation became layered underneath the experience of the culture of simulation.
(35) these developments all pointed to a new kind of experience in which people do not so much command machines as enter into conversations with them.
(35) It encouraged play and tinkering. Mastering the Macintosh meant getting the lay of the land rather than figuring out the hierarchy of underlying structure and rules." (affordance) Attention to depth and design, programming level knowledge of technologies, returns by virtue of

1 2 3 (2200) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (137-138) 20140115 0 -7+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Dependence on private automobiles like dependence on proprietary software. "Throughout the twentieth century, we remained blissfully ignorant of the real biases of automotive transportation. We approached our cars as consumers, through ads, rather than as engineers or, better, civic planners. We gladly surrendered our public streetcars to private automobiles, unaware of the real expenses involved. . . . As a result, we couldnât see that our national landscape was being altered to manufacture dependence on the automobile." (137-138)

1 2 3 (2300) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (147) 20140111e 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Diminishing capabilities of Americans, increasing dependence on machines and other societies. "The biases of the digital age will not just be those of the people who programmed it, but of the programs, machines, and life-forms they have unleashed. In the short term, we are looking at a society increasingly dependent on machines, yet decreasingly capable of making or even using them effectively. Other societies, such as China, where programming is more valued, seem destined to surpass us unless, of course, the other forms of cultural repression in force there offset their progress as technologists." (147)

1 2 3 (2400) [-6+]mCQK stallman-free_software_free_society (124) 20131108 0 -1+ progress/2007/06/notes_for_stallman-free_software_free_society.html
Scarcity of willingness to work together for public good, not scarcity of technical innovation, could be considered contributing to making us dumber collectively. "Since the age of Reagan, the greatest scarcity in the United States is not technical innovation, but rather the willingness to work together for the public good." (124)

1 2 3 (2500) [-6+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (59) 20140105l 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Entrained striations, choice filter creation, programmed visions. "Meanwhile, the more we learn to conform to the available choices, the more predictable and machineline we become ourselves. We train ourselves to stay between the lines, line an image dragged onto a snap-to grid.
(59) Likewise, through our series of choices about the news we read, feeds to which we subscribe, and websites we visit, we create a choice filter around ourselves." (59) Trajectory of WALL-E humans.

1 2 3 (2700) [-4+]mCQK deleuze-postscript_on_the_societies_of_control (7) 20130914e 0 -1+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_deleuze-postscript_on_the_societies_of_control.html
Acknowledging programmed docility evokes philosophical question how to know to self determine as a person navigating the built environment.

1 2 3 (2800) [-4+]mCQK feenberg-questioning_technology (167) 20131029f 0 -7+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_feenberg-questioning_technology.html
To Habermas colonization of lifeworld by system is central social pathology.

1 2 3 (2900) [-4+]mCQK feenberg-questioning_technology (190) 20130917j 0 -2+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_feenberg-questioning_technology.html
To Borgmann individuals demoted to disposable experiences where they were once commanding presences part of tale of dividual subjectivity.

1 2 3 (3000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (26-27) 20130930d 0 -3+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
System-centered model of technology embodies designer image.

1 2 3 (3100) [-4+]mCQK johnson-user_centered_technology (29) 20131103c 0 -7+ progress/2009/01/notes_for_johnson-user_centered_technology.html
Appears system is driving the user; add users situation to design model, representing user activities of learning, doing and producing.

1 2 3 (3200) [-4+]mCQK turkle-life_on_the_screen (61) 20131108m 0 -7+ progress/2011/05/notes_for_turkle-life_on_the_screen.html
Popular software designed for immersion; programming skills no longer required for full membership in computer culture.

1 2 3 (3300) [-4+]mCQK simon-shape_of_automation (67) 20131009l 0 -4+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_simon-shape_of_automation.html
Notes Greshams Law of Planning in which programmed activity drives out nonprogrammed activity like the Freudian ego over the id; provisions must be made to maintain nonprogrammed decision making responsibilities: does this contribute to our becoming stupid?

1 2 3 (3400) [-4+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (138-139) 20140110v 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Digital technology conveys our souls (Kittler) as boundaries of perceptual and conceptual apparatus (Clark, Hayles).

1 2 3 (3500) [-4+]mCQK kitchin_and_dodge-code_space (9) 20131103c 0 -2+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kitchin_and_dodge-code_space.html
Era of everyware.

1 2 3 (3600) [-6+]mCQK lanier-who_owns_the_future (2) 20140313d 0 -1+ progress/2014/03/notes_for_lanier-who_owns_the_future.html
Value collectively created by ordinary users atomized, a new form of alienation of labor saps value from middle class and keeps the weak weak, does not strengthen or make them smarter. "Instead of enlarging our overall economy by creating more value that is on the books, the rise of digital networking is enriching a relative few while moving the value created by the many off the books." (2)

1 2 3 (3700) [-4+]mCQK drucker_and_mcvarish-graphic_design (253) 20131028 0 -5+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_drucker_and_mcvarish-graphic_design.html
Role of fantasy in depicting computers.

1 2 3 (3800) [-6+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (68) 20120614i 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Portrayals of inanimate coming to life range from horrifying to gratifying. "Traditional science fiction, from
Frankenstein to the Chucky movies, portrays the inanimate coming to life as terrifying. Recently, however, it has also been portrayed as gratifying, nearly redemptive." (68) Compare to Heim seeing computer as component versus opponent.

1 2 3 (3900) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (111) 20140412 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Opacity of robot programming forces behavior as with an likewise opaque human, at interface level.

1 2 3 (4000) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (124) 20120614m 0 -9+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Democratization of sense of connection originally noticed with programmers now at everyone taking them at interface value; programs now designed to convince us they are adequate companions.

1 2 3 (4100) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (139) 20120614p 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
People project affect onto computers.

1 2 3 (4200) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (124) 20140412a 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Concern that promise of robotic solutions are defaulting, and our practice interacting with robots accustoming us to reduced emotional range.

1 2 3 (4300) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (140) 20120607 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Affective computing attempting to steer technological evolution by adding winning personality to ease of use, threatening reduction of affect like intelligence.

1 2 3 (4400) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (141) 20120607a 0 -13+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Computer scientist John Lester makes optimistic predictions that humans will fill robots with same personal history as their phones; like the robots of Tony Stark in the Ironman movies, the animated butler, prosthetic suit, and code space of the room itself will create true cyborgs.

1 2 3 (4500) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (139) 20140412b 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Turkle limits artificial comprehension for lack of human life cycle, as did Lyotard.

1 2 3 (4600) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (162-163) 20140411 0 -7+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Social judgment of multitasking has shifted from blight to virtue, in spite of psychological research, due to neurochemical high it produces.

1 2 3 (4700) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (168) 20120607b 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Sociable robots imagined as people, and people online imagined as objects; bring in Latin origins of the word computer in computarat.

1 2 3 (4800) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (223) 20140411c 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Example of slipping away in games than online accomplishment improving character or providing practice for accomplishing mundane tasks.

1 2 3 (4900) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (223) 20140411d 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Feeling of creation in simulation games, not creation or its pressures, is the sweet spot of simulation.

1 2 3 (5000) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (226) 20140411e 0 -15+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
In the zone, flow state fully immersed in focused activity, there are clear expectations and attainable goals, allowing action without self-consciousness, compelling through constraints creates pure space: source of Weizenbaum computer bum imagery, flow space seems comparable to draft of thinking Heidegger praised, so remains ambiguous like pharmakon.

1 2 3 (5100) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (227) 20140411f 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Neurochemical response stimulated by connectivity to answer the seeking drive, which resembles addiction; substitution for archive fever of print era?

1 2 3 (5200) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (242) 20140411j 0 -18+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Arguments that disparage books as disconnected appeal to idealized online reading practices, ignoring daydreaming and introspection that used to attend reading books, and along with multitasking often do not inspire heroic narratives, but instead new anxieties.

1 2 3 (5300) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (237) 20140411g 0 -7+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Online confessional sites as symptoms visited to relieve anxieties; Turkle does not blame technology for creating myths people believe that it does not matter they are disappointing each other.

1 2 3 (5400) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (240) 20140411i 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Internet gives us new ways not to think by keeping us busy externalizing problems, recalling Weizenbaum absent mind.

1 2 3 (5500) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (256) 20140411m 0 -14+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Extreme self-policing aims for a precorrected self, new regime of self-surveillance; connect to Foucault on panopticism and Heim on word processing.

1 2 3 (5600) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (260) 20140411n 0 -11+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Anxiety of always replacing protean self of earlier Internet.

1 2 3 (5700) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (260) 20140412c 0 -12+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Persistence of people and data leaves no psychosocial moratorium or separation with the past, leading to fictional Peter Pan beliefs that there is no electronic shadow; real consequences of loss of privacy for intimacy and democracy.

1 2 3 (5800) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (272) 20140411s 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Storr agrees with Erikson that space of solitude needed for creative process, which Turkle argues ist lost in din of Internet bazaar.

1 2 3 (5900) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (280) 20140413b 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Postfamilial families assemble alone together with their devices.

1 2 3 (6000) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (283) 20140413d 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Idea of robotic companion serves as symptom exploiting disappointments with other humans, and dream for relationships we can control; connect to Descartes automaton.

1 2 3 (6100) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (286) 20140413f 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Conventional wisdom dangerously inadequate, taking performance of emotion by caring machines as emotion enough.

1 2 3 (6200) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (295) 20140413k 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
At center of perfect storm, tempted by sociable robots to complete arc started by overwhelming social media technologies, leading to not only programmed visions of Chun but programmed emotions, expectations of simplified and reduced relationships with each other.

--1.2.4+++ foss hopes

1 2 4 (100) [-4+]mCQK brin-why_johnny_cant_code (np) 20130912b 0 -1+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_brin-why_johnny_cant_code.html
Absence of modern programming languages providing easy, effective, interesting pedagogy like BASIC.

1 2 4 (200) [-6+]mCQK guattari-machinic_heterogenesis (18) 20131209c 0 -5+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_guattari-machinic_heterogenesis.html
Renewal of technology workforce may be failing, stupefying assumption. "At the same time, maintenance of the consistency of machinic ordering requires that the quotient of human gesture and intelligence that figures in its composition must also be renewed. . . . The reproducibility of machines is thus not a pure, programmed repetition." (18)

1 2 4 (300) [-6+]mCQK turkle-life_on_the_screen (32) 20131108b 0 -7+ progress/2011/05/notes_for_turkle-life_on_the_screen.html
Turkle distinguishes between hacker, hobbyist, and user. "The hacker style made an art form of navigating the complexity of opaque computer microworlds.
(32) For hobbyists, the goal was to reduce a machine to its simplest elements in order to understand it as fully as possible. . . . In the early days of the personal computer culture, a satisfying understanding of the central processing unit (CPU) of home computers was turned into an ideal for how to understand society; the rules of the community should be transparent to all its members.
(32) A user is involved with the machine in a hands-on way, but is not interested in the technology except as it enables an application." (32)

1 2 4 (400) [-6+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (279) 20140413a 0 -16+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Recounts struggle computing pioneers had to come up with uses for personal computers, suggesting instead that humans have become the killer app for keeping them busy. "Some of the most brilliant computer scientists in the world such pioneers of information processing and artificial intelligence as Robert Fano, J.C.R. Licklider, Marvin Minsky, and Seymour Papert were asked to brainstorm on the question [what everyday people would do with home computers]. My notes from this meeting show suggestions on tax preparation and teaching children to program. No one thought that anyone except academics would really want to write on computers. Several people suggested a calendar; others thought that was a dumb idea. There would be games.
(279-280) Now we know that once computers connected us with each other, once we became tethered to the network, we really didnât need to keep computers busy.
They keep us busy. It is as though we have become their killer app. . . . Niels Bohr suggests that the opposite of a deep truth is a truth no less profound. As we contemplate online life, it helps to keep this in mind." (279) No less profound opposite of deep truth that our time online is busywork.

1 2 4 (500) [-4+]mCQK campbell_kelley_aspray-computer_history_of_information_machine (284) 20130913q 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_campbell_kelley_aspray-computer_history_of_information_machine.html
To Campbelly-Kelley the history of the modern computer as information machine concludes with commerce, recreation, and socializing seeming to have replaced the initial excitement of access to knowledge that the Internet offered.

1 2 4 (600) [-4+]mCQK tanz-curse_of_cow_clicker (118) 20131013j 0 -5+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_tanz-curse_of_cow_clicker.html
Interesting to click nothing just to win a silly virtual award: a sign we are getting more stupid?

1 2 4 (700) [-5+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (19) 20140103 0 -6+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Teaching kids to write with software seems enough of a response to formerly unidirectional, producer biased mass media, but should be writing software; programming is the underlying capability of the era, as Heidegger noted. (19) Computers and networks finally offer us the ability to write. And we do write with them on our websites, blogs, and social networks. But the underlying capability of the computer era is actually programming which almost none of us knows how to do. We simply use the programs that have been made for us, and enter out text in the appropriate box on the screen. We teach kids how to use software to write, but not how to write software. This means they have access to the capabilities given to them by others, but not the power to determine the value-creating capabilities of these technologies for themselves.

1 2 4 (800) [-4+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus (180) 20130915v 0 -1+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-thousand_plateaus.html
Programming as subjectivity practice like linguistics, both apparently incompatible with child at play.

1 2 4 (900) [-6+]mCQK levy-hackers (46) 20131004e 0 -7+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_levy-hackers.html
Contrast positive view of time spent hacking to Weizenbaum computer bums. "According to the standard thinking on computers, their time was so precious that one should only attempt things which took maximum advantage of the computer, things that otherwise would take roomfuls of mathematicians days of mindless calculating. Hackers felt otherwise: anything that seemed interesting or fun was fodder for computing--and using interactive computers, with on one looking over your shoulder and demanding clearance for your specific project, you could act on that belief.
(48) At other universities, professors were making public proclamations that computers would never be able to beat a human being in chess. Hackers knew better. They would be the ones who would guide computers to greater heights than anyone expected. And the hackers, by fruitful, meaningful association with the computer, would be foremost among the beneficiaries.
(49) If everyone could interact with computers with the same innocent, productive, creative impulse that hackers did, the Hacker Ethic might spread through society like a benevolent ripple, and computers would indeed change the world for the better." (46)

1 2 4 (1000) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (44) 20131005e 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
Bricolage, wildcat technical activities on the fringe now, along with the lone genius; redeemed during initiation of disruptive technologies like personal computer, Internet, smart phones.

1 2 4 (1100) [-6+]mCQK turkle-second_self (238) 20131019q 0 -2+ progress/2011/04/notes_for_turkle-second_self.html
Anxiety and ignorance produce vicious cycles of learned helplessness and even rational avoidance of studying computer code. "Intimate involvements and identification with machines pose what Bettelheim calls the unspoken anxiety of our age : Do machines still serve our human purpose or are they cranking away by now without purpose? Even more unnerving: are they working away from their own ends which we no longer know or control?" (238) This is the position Kittler assumes, unfortunately backing up a pessimism with putatively wise statements about the futility of sensibly speaking to anyone, even oneself, about programming, about the art of working code, and that humans no longer know what the computers are doing, or in control of them, further provoking anxieties.

1 2 4 (1200) [-4+]mCQK kemeny-man_and_computer (96) 20130314 0 -1+ progress/2013/03/notes_for_kemeny-man_and_computer.html
Explosion of jobs for editors did not occur as predicted; instead, amateur, ad hoc content arrangement and absence of consciously crafted metadata is part of why we are getting stupider.

1 2 4 (1300) [-9]mCQK fuller-software_studies (45-46) 20130522 3 -1+ progress/2011/10/notes_for_fuller-software_studies.html
Code, to Kittler, presents an insoluable dilemma yielding random buzz either way, either society producing human working code software industries full of casual philosophers, or, after turning over to machines to do the work on their own with humans merely tending their server farms, extended cognition descends into necessarily inexplicable, incomprehensible, unphilosophical zones and temporal orders of magnitude. " Thus,
either we write code that in the manner of natural constants reveals the determinations of the matter itself, but at the same time pay the price of millions of lines of code and billions of dollars for digital hardware; or else we leave the task up to the machines that derive code from their own environment, although we then cannot read that is to say: articulate this code." (45-46) Instead of studying code we must be good scholars and cultural observers.

1 2 4 (1400) [-4+]mCQK winner-mythinformation (589) 20130909 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_winner-mythinformation.html
Skepticism that revolutionary spirit really present in movers and shakers in computer fields, as does Golumbia; it is really the absent mind that drives innovation.

1 2 4 (1500) [-4+]mCQK golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation (26-27) 20131031 0 -2+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation.html
Support for Winner mythinformation by Golumbia.

1 2 4 (1600) [-4+]mCQK lessig-free_culture (201) 20131003q 0 -3+ progress/2008/11/notes_for_lessig-free_culture.html
Huge proportion of American population regularly violates laws while deeming itself a free society.

1 2 4 (1700) [-4+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (255) 20140411l 0 -13+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Young people believe digital memory will create a more tolerant society, and their favorite websites are run by good people of their generation and ignore their actual corporate governance; her insight connects well it Lanier critiquing these siren servers.

1 2 4 (1800) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (44-45) 20131005f 0 -6+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
With electronic computers and FOSS virtual worlds permit technical invention to individuals again: this is a tactic that becomes a strategy of the community of such practitioners (Feenberg).

1 2 4 (1900) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140313 20140313b 4 -2+ journal_2014.html
We see that the generation raised on Microsoft and other proprietary closed networks prior to Internet and floss botched job of teaching future generations. The absent mind laments Weizenbaum incarnate in this generation of geeks including subsequent initial generations of digital natives reaching ontology implied by Lanier did not think hard enough about why and how it was so important back then, and continues to not get it now when it is so much easier with wide proliferation of floss.

1 2 4 (2000) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140831 20140831 9 -1+ journal_2014.html
Myself and many others may have made Theuth error expecting more from foss as democratizing, empowering little people towards equity imagined by Lanier of built up lifetime network activity as some strange kind of individual property.

1 2 4 (2100) [-4+]mCQK lyotard-postmodern_condition (45-46) 20131005g 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_lyotard-postmodern_condition.html
And likewise as they mature, free, open source development communities adopt useful behaviors of corporate norms.

1 2 4 (2200) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (220) 20130930i 0 -1+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Stupidity increases as the bazaar model replaces the cathedral, on-demand publication requiring everyone to select what is worth reading.

1 2 4 (2300) [-8+]mCQK bork-journal 20140310 20140310 5 -1+ journal_2014.html
We arrive at this condition of deriving philosophies of computing from the defaults we interpret from reading source code, documentation and philosophically oriented publications in the category Mitcham calls engineering philosophy of technology, alluded to in unanswered exam questions about how theories from other disciplines can frame and shape our understanding of computers and their limits, perhaps because philosophy has avoided computing.

1 2 4 (2400) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140903 20140903 0 -4+ journal_2014.html
Defaulting we depend upon large corporations to provide and manage infosphere, cyberspace, Internet, and can home in on default philosophies of computing, PHI as I call them, by writing, code, engineering work of dominant technologies over human populations over certain time frames PHI; spend some time contemplating dilemma Kittler makes of code and concludes what to do instead of studying code, for example English Greek Latin German French C++, for example social criticism, as good scholars and cultural observers. If we were ready, we would just dive into this conundrum left by Kittler begins very long endnote composed on whiteboard as we drift through the years today. Starting with Busa is how we get a sense of defaults, like Derrida addressing his Macintoch, reporting his joy at discovering particular IBM machinery in 1949 suitable for his programming experiment digitizing Aquinas. We likewise get a sense of the thinking behind early and mature PHI by Bill Gates as representative default philosophers of computing by reading letter to hobbyists, road ahead, and also perhaps assembly language implementing programming languages.

1 2 5 (200) [0+]mCQK mitcham-thinking_through_technology (ix) 20140310b 0 -3+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mitcham-thinking_through_technology.html
Distinction between engineering and humanities philosophy of technology: obviously relevant to philosophy of computing.

1 2 5 (300) [-4+]mCQK mitcham-thinking_through_technology (ix) 20140310v 2 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mitcham-thinking_through_technology.html
Humanities philosophy of technology, while from more philosophical traditions is ignorant of the operations and practices that really go on in technology engineering.

1 2 5 (400) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (1) 20140727 0 -2+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Impact of computers not yet judged fundamental like Industrial Revolution, thus appearance of first edition of Computer Ethics in a series on occupational ethics.

1 2 5 (500) [-4+]mCQK ihde-philosophy_of_technology (14) 20130929k 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_ihde-philosophy_of_technology.html
Connects Kapp and Bunge but argues philosophy of technology has only gained disciplinary recognition in the 1970s.

1 2 5 (600) [-6+]mCQK bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age (7) 20140112a 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age.html
Credit to Weiner for defining computer ethics. "Computer ethics as a field of academic study was founded by MIT professor
Norbert Wiener during World War Two (early 1940s) while helping to develop an anti-aircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes. The engineering challenge of this project caused Wiener and some colleagues to create a new field of research that Wiener called cybernetics the science of information feedback systems.
(7) In 1950 Wiener published his monumental computer ethics book.
The Human Use of Human Beings, which not only established him as the founder of computer ethics, but far more importantly laid down a comprehensive computer ethics foundation which remains today (more than half a century later) a powerful basis for computer ethics research and analysis." (7)

1 2 5 (700) [-6+]mCQK bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age (9) 20140112b 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age.html
Temptation to follow Maner conducting conference workshops and presentations to promote critical programming. "In the mid-1970s, philosopher (and later computer science professor)
Walter Maner began to use the term computer ethics to refer to that field of applied ethics dealing with ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by computer technology. . . . Manerâs trailblazing course, plus his Starter Kit and the many conference workshops he conducted, had a significant impact upon the teaching of computer ethics across America." (9)

1 2 5 (800) [-4+]mCQK bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age (9-10) 20140112c 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age.html
Moor article appears during first turn toward computing by philosophers and humanists.

1 2 5 (900) [-6+]mCQK bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age (2-3) 20140112 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_bynum_rogerson-ethics_in_the_information_age.html
Fear of policy vacuums for temporal constraints of emergent critical production and policy. "Technology changes so rapidly that new possibilities emerge before the social consequences can be fathomed (Rogerson and Bynum 1995). New social/ethical policies for the information age, therefore, are urgently needed to fill rapidly multiplying policy vacuums (Moor 1985)." (2-3)

1 2 5 (1000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (5) 20140727g 0 -3+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Credits the work as first attempt to bring philosophical thought to ethical issues surrounding computers.

1 2 5 (1100) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (4) 20140727f 0 -2+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Does not discuss popular topics like treat to uniqueness of human intelligence for lack of specificity.

1 2 5 (1200) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (2-3) 20140727c 0 -3+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Book focuses on significance of moral issues for computer professionals that are dealt with at the level of social policy or individual responsibility.

1 2 5 (1300) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (2) 20140727b 0 -3+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Computer use has created not unique ethical questions but new forms of raising them.

1 2 5 (1400) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (2) 20140727a 0 -2+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Hacking summarily judged as having no moral distinction to physically breaking into an office and stealing files; many moral issues dissolved by finding adequate comparisons between activities done with computers and familiar actions.

1 2 5 (1500) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (3) 20140727d 0 -1+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Interested in questions that draw ordinary moral rules into unfamiliar areas, which Moor will call conceptual muddles.

1 2 5 (1600) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics (3) 20140727e 0 -12+ progress/2014/08/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics.html
Chapter progression from introduction to ethical concepts, why be interested in professional ethics including the ACM Code of Professional Conduct, responsibility and liability, effects resulting from increasing use of computers on privacy, on power relations, and finally regulating ownership of software.

1 2 5 (1700) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vi) 20140725 0 -16+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Johnson saw a task as early philosopher of computer ethics to distinguish hype from serious analyses, using strategy of identifying what remained the same versus what really changed in society as well as taking into account multidirectional relationship between technology and society.

1 2 5 (1800) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (17) 20130930a 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Good use of ancient philosophy genus and species distinction.

1 2 5 (1900) [-6+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (160) 20130930d 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
The sloppy Linux operating system shareware quote appearing in a footnote about which my argument that philosophy uninformed through either becoming technologist or through deep alliance with technologists fails to think clearly about the subject matter. "footnote 4) Perhaps, the best example of successful shareware is the Linux operating system." (160)

1 2 5 (2000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vi) 20130930 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Additional voice of computer scientist Keith Miller fills gap Johnson recognized in her previous scholarship, balancing desires to protect integrity of computer science and provide accessible details to less technically sophisticated readers.

1 2 5 (2100) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vi) 20140728 0 -7+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Adding voice of a computer scientist to less technical humanities presentation helps Johnson avoid indulgence of rationalized ignorance that opens her approach to computer ethics to similar criticisms Bauerlein makes of adolescents missing connection to tradition.

1 2 5 (2200) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vii) 20130930a 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Information technology replaces computer for rest of book following first chapter.

1 2 5 (2300) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (5) 20140725c 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
The why computer ethics metaquestion involves clusters of issues surrounding putative uniqueness of situations created by information technologies with respect to traditional ethical approaches; propose more general perspective connecting ethics and technology than prior focus on uniqueness of new computing technologies, which Johnson calls the standard account.

1 2 5 (2400) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (7) 20140725d 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Standard account introduced by James Moor that new possibilities created by computers raise ethical questions.

1 2 5 (2500) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (9) 20140725f 0 -9+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
For Moor task of computer ethics is filling policy vacuums by sorting out conceptual muddles, for example conceptualizing computer software to best fit prevailing intellectual property law.

1 2 5 (2600) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (11) 20140725i 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Policy vacuums often filled by defaults that perpetuate existing tensions or bad policy decisions, all of which ethical analysis may reveal.

1 2 5 (2700) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (11) 20140729 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Response to emerging technology also conditioned by conceptual models, such as lifelong learning.

1 2 5 (2800) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (11) 20140725j 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
People already have well developed expectations and conceptual models about computer technologies; no longer new.

1 2 5 (2900) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (10) 20140725h 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Standard account not specific to IT but rather focuses on new technologies in general at their introduction stage.

1 2 5 (3000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vii) 20120615 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Moves away from uniqueness and address to computing professionals to how computer ethics and its encompassing IT fits within cultural milieu of information societies, late capitalism, digital order, and thus the new methodology of sociotechnical computer ethics, consonant with Latour, Sterne, many other theorists relevant to texts and technology studies.

1 2 5 (3100) [-3+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (18) 20130930b 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html


1 2 5 (3200) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (12) 20140727c 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Socialtechnical systems perspective intended to widen scope of IT ethics to complete lifecycle, away from emphasis on newness and other shortcomings of standard account.

1 2 5 (3300) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (12) 20140729c 0 -3+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Consider looking at end of life of technologies for retrospective study and learning.

1 2 5 (3400) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (21-22) 20140727n 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Believes better choices will derive from better understanding about sociotechnical systems; computer ethics focuses on role of IT in constituting the moral world.

1 2 5 (3500) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (vii-viii) 20140723b 0 -7+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Wishes that computer ethics led technology rather than followed it.

1 2 5 (3600) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (viii) 20140723d 0 -6+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Examples of technology following ethics demonstrates need for technologically savvy philosophers and everyday users.

1 2 5 (3700) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (12) 20140727a 0 -6+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Role of philosophers of computing to play role in design missed when presumption of technological determinism shunts consideration of different possibilities, though Johnson notes Nissenbaum TrackMeNot based on value sensitive design approach of IT ethics.

1 2 5 (3800) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (vii) 20130930b 0 -8+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
New theoretical approach based on science and technology studies; still using provocative scenarios targeted at college-age students.

1 2 5 (3900) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (5) 20140725b 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Familiar call for studying ethical implications of IT choices to help steer development of future technologies.

1 2 5 (4000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (12) 20140727 0 -2+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Surprising inaccuracy in basic personal computer history putting GUI ahead of command line while making point about privileged context of invention of Apple in a garage.

1 2 5 (4100) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (406) 20140712b 0 -8+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Troops objective to save beloved Dehomag IBM machinery, anticipating movie Monuments Men.

1 2 5 (4200) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (416) 20140712d 0 -1+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Same equipment used by Nazis quickly repurposed for running the defeated government, a government acting upon the very people still operating it as when they did it under the Nazis; Black notes employees from corporations in other industries scrutinized for war crimes, at weak end of continuum with Eichmann at the other end.

1 2 5 (4300) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (419) 20140712e 0 -3+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Watson and IBM kept out of reparations discourse to quietly continue working on computing machinery, quickly settling restitution resolution.

1 2 5 (4400) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (420) 20140712f 0 -3+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Though other businessmen considered war criminals no IBM employees prosecuted, even top German Dehomag employees and shareholders.

1 2 5 (4500) [-6+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (421) 20140712g 0 -6+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Instead of being implicated in war crimes, IBM provided media services enabling Nuremberg Trials donated by Watson. "Indeed, the trial process was slowed by the necessity of translating all documents, exhibits, and testimony into several languages of the war crime tribunal: French, Russian, German, and English. Justice Jackson turned to a newly invented process called
simultaneous translation. One company reviewed all the evidence and translated it not only for real time usage at the trial proceedings, but for posterity. That company was International Business Machines. It made the final translated record of all evidence back and forth from French, Russian, German, Polish, and English. Watson offered to undertake the massive evidence handling free of charge." (421)

1 2 5 (4600) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (422) 20140712j 0 -6+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
SHAEF Bad Nauheim site perfoming social calculations on public reaction to severe bombing against Japan exemplifies collective thinking at national level made plain during war time, today revolving around information collection in concerned alignment with Black but acknowledging less severe outcome of dumbest generation.

1 2 5 (4700) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvi) 20140903 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Would have been ironic if IBM punch card machinery that started digital humanities reappropriated from occupied Europe or tabulated for the USBSS.

1 2 5 (4800) [-4+]mCQK black-ibm_and_the_holocaust (423) 20140712l 0 -6+ progress/2013/10/notes_for_black-ibm_and_the_holocaust.html
Political decision to use atomic bombs supplied by forerunner technologies to which Gates applies same reasoning for putatively less lethal purposes.

1 2 5 (4900) [-6+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (269) 20140629 7 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Interesting statement the technology will enable society to make political decisions about surveillance levels. "
(269-270) Almost everyone is willing to accept some restrictions in exchange for a sense of security. . . . It might take only a few more incidents like the bombing in Oklahoma City within the borders of the United States for attitudes toward strong privacy protection to shift. What today seems like digital Big Brother might one day become the norm if the alternative is being left to the mercy of terrorists and criminals. I am not advocating either position technology will enable society to make a political decision." (269)

1 2 5 (5000) [-4+]mCQK ong-orality_and_literacy (79) 20131006x 0 -2+ progress/2008/08/notes_for_ong-orality_and_literacy.html
Good point that once the word is technologized, it must always be criticized with state of the art word technologies, which seems to lead to a paradox or at least dilemma at the heart of any philosophy of the word, leaving computing and programming to default philosophers in industry leaders rather than academics.

1 2 5 (5100) [-6+]mCQK heim-computer_as_component (304-305) 20120331 12 -6+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heim-computer_as_component.html
Nostalgic image of Heidegger, whose textual studies are now conducted via computerized analyses, now joined by new media unimaginable to Heim despite the fact that he proclaimed himself the philosopher of virtual reality in the 1990s following his earlier interest in what he called electric language. " Heidegger speculated an all-enframing Gestell [technological system], ominous and threatening, but an abstraction looming like a metaphysical sphinx, terrorizing thought with a puzzling lack of specificity. Now here was computer text concretely manifesting that abstraction. . . . Heidegger was now on computer." (304-305)

1 2 5 (5200) [-6+]mCQK golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation (33n1) 20131021 0 -4+ progress/2013/08/notes_for_golumbia-cultural_logic_of_computation.html
Famous example of Chomsky disparaging Foucault and Lacan on Usenet. "In a widely circulated Usenet text whose authorship Chomsky has never disputed (Chomsky 1996), and which strongly resembles many of his other writings in tone and subject matter, Chomsky explains that Foucault offers simple and familiar ideas . . . dressed up in complicated and pretentious rhetoric and that Lacan, whom Chomsky met several times, was an amusing and perfectly self-conscious charlatan." (33n1)

1 2 5 (5300) [-6+]mCQK conley-rethinking_technologies (ix) 20131205 0 -4+ progress/2013/12/notes_for_conley-rethinking_technologies.html
Duck rabbit outlook accompanying typical survey of modern Western technological situation, with surprising positive postmodern claims implying damnation claims against more familiar closed world perceptions of technologies. "As electronic communication and accelerated modes of transportation shrink our planet more and more and more, technologies are often assumed to be the science of either salvation or human damnation. On the one hand, postmodern celebrations of contemporary technology and related cultural sensibilities as the most varied, mixed, and advanced assert that they are so beneficial they even help women and other cultural minorities gain higher status. They accomplish what humanistic discourses could never do. On the other hand, elegies on the death of nature and the dangers of automation and dehumanization counter the expression of praise." (ix) Connect to Arendt.

1 2 5 (5400) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140317 20140317 9 -1+ journal_2014.html
It is perhaps a problem of how philosophers philosophize, sensed by Chomsky of Lacan and Zizek, Heim of Heidegger, as Latour deprecates using old tools for new problems.

1 2 5 (5500) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (vii) 20140723 0 -14+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Johnson reflecting back on technological milieu of first edition in awe of changes that have taken place, traversing memories of eight bit Osborne barely able to write the book, to thirty two bit computing capable of supporting TCP/IPv4 networking captivating her teenage daughter.

1 2 5 (5600) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (vii) 20140723a 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Senses task to address technology changes versus core issues and underlying philosophical assumptions of computer ethics: professional ethics, privacy, property, accountability, social implications.

1 2 5 (5700) [-9]mCQK ong-orality_and_literacy (7) 20130306 0 -4+ progress/2008/08/notes_for_ong-orality_and_literacy.html
Ong turns away from computer languages and thus considering working code in humanities discourse claiming there is an inseparable gulf between computer languages and languages growing out of unconscious over long historical periods, although for lifetime programmers C++ may be as naturally learned as a foreign language. "
We are not here concerned with so-called computer âlanguagesâ, which resemble human languages (English, Sanskrit, Malayalam, Mandarin Chinese, Twi or Shoshone etc.) in some ways but are forever totally unlike human languages in that they do not grow out of the unconscious but directly out of consciousness. Computer language rules (âgrammarâ) are stated first and thereafter used. The ârulesâ of grammar in natural human languages are used first and can be abstracted from usage and stated explicitly in words only with difficulty and never completely." (7) Even at the level of languages themselves evolving through use over in human communities, programming languages also share with spoken and written mother tongues in the common algorithms implemented in millions of programs worldwide, and the evolution of languages standards through working groups rather than abstractly by bureaucratic committees.

1 2 5 (5800) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (viii) 20140723e 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Johnson overviews changing ethical focus over historical periods of modern computing, beginning with fears surrounding challenges of computer as opponent and potential catastrophes of automated decision making, noting popular science fiction and work of James Moor.

1 2 5 (5900) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (ix) 20140723f 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Issues in late 1970s focused on data collection and threat of big government, which Black echoes in study of IBM and the holocaust; Weizenbaum and Mowshowitz noted as primary theorists.

1 2 5 (6000) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (ix) 20140723g 0 -7+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Focus shifted to ethical issues surrounding software in 1980s personal computer era, especially games, piracy, and hacking.

1 2 5 (6100) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (ix) 20140723h 0 -7+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Attention on Internet in 1990s as traditional media transferred and recreated in digital media, as well as exacerbating past privacy, democracy, and property issues; hint at future visualization and virtual reality topics.

1 2 5 (6200) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (x) 20140723i 0 -3+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Goal of ethics built into design not treated seriously by scholars in computer ethics.

1 2 5 (6300) [-3+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (17-18) 20130424 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html


1 2 5 (6400) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (xii) 20140723j 0 -6+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Continues to present computer and IT ethical issues new species of generic moral issues; need to consider implications of their instrumentation of human action.

1 2 5 (6500) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (xv) 20140723q 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Practical ethics negotiate between theory and real world situations.

1 2 5 (6600) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (xv) 20140723r 0 -2+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
In the end the book Computer Ethics really addresses a family of technologies dealing with information; Johnson never asks the fundamental philosophical question of what is computing.

1 2 5 (6700) [-6+]mCQK seneca-letter_90 (232-233) 20110724 0 -17+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_seneca-letter_90.html
Mention of stenographic symbols should enter texts and technology studies. "It was reason indeed that devised these handicrafts, but not right reason. . . ."It was the sage that invented these things," says Posidonius, "but they were not important enough for him to handle personally and so he have them to his more mechanical assistants." No; these inventions were thought up by the same people who are concerned with them today. We know that certain inventions have been made within our own memory, as for example the use of windows which admit clear light through transparent panes, or vaulted baths with conduits let into the walls for diffusing heat which warms the upper and lower space alike. . . . And what of the stenographic symbols which can take down a speech however rapidly delivered and enable the hand to keep pace with the agility of the tongue? But these are inventions of low-grade slaves.
(233) Wisdomâs seat is higher; she does not train hands but is mistress of souls. . . . She is not, say I, the artisan of the appliances of our daily use; why attribute such trifles to her?" (232-233)

1 2 5 (6800) [-4+]mCQK seneca-letter_90 (226-227) 20111108 0 -18+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_seneca-letter_90.html
Function of philosophy to discover human and divine truths, disagree with Posidonius that arts of daily life invented by philosophy; looks back to mythic age before marble and gold.

1 2 5 (6900) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (10) 20140120c 0 0+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Goal of book is to enhance predictions focusing on demographic, economic and political trends with emerging machine capabilities as intelligent agents.

1 2 5 (7000) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (12) 20140120f 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Emergence of intelligent life does not affect overall measure of increasing entropy.

1 2 5 (7100) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (13) 20140120g 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Written record of achievement key requirement for evolutionary process such as DNA encoding.

1 2 5 (7200) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (46) 20140123 0 -9+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
DNA as software, ROM controlling the machinery of life.

1 2 5 (7300) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (16) 20140120i 0 -17+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Definitions of technology: study of crafting as shaping resourced for practical purposes, human application of knowledge to fashioning tools, transcendence of materials comprising them as in art and language.

1 2 5 (7400) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (18) 20140120k 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Computation defined as ability solve problems, implying ability to remember.

1 2 5 (7500) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (21) 20140120m 0 -8+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Exponential growth of computing discernible since beginning of twentieth century, not just since Moores Law.

1 2 5 (7600) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (4) 20140120b 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Asserts formidable combination of human level intelligence and speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of machines will challenge human mastery in many domains beyond chess.

1 2 5 (7700) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (2) 20140120 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Identity questions will dominate politics and philosophy in the next century.

1 2 5 (7800) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (3) 20140120a 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Predictions that machines will read on their own by current decade, then into the physical world, reinforcing literacy as primary component of human intelligence; also slides from information sharing to knowledge sharing among machines, which many would contest.

1 2 5 (7900) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (29) 20140120n 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Time moves in relation to the amount of chaos.

1 2 5 (8000) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (29-30) 20140120o 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Law of accelerating returns the opposite spiral of law of time and chaos, and applies specifically to evolutionary processes, where order increases and time speeds up.

1 2 5 (8100) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (30) 20140120p 0 -5+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Measure of order tied to purpose of information; evolutionary trend towards greater order results in greater complexity.

1 2 5 (8200) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (10) 20140120d 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
From the Big Bang to evolution of life on Earth, time moves in exponential fashion, seeming linear only when nothing much happens.

1 2 5 (8300) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (11) 20140120e 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
We are again in the knee of the curve when exciting things happen.

1 2 5 (8400) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (14) 20140120h 0 -7+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Technology includes written record of tool making, which is essential for evolutionary processes.

1 2 5 (8500) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (18) 20140120j 0 -1+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Requirements of intelligence and physical ability to manipulate the environment, from which von Neumann intuited self-replicating automata in virtual environments.

1 2 5 (8600) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (19) 20140120l 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Seven life cycle stages for technologies: precursor, invention, development, maturity, pretenders, obsolescence, antiquity; example of phonograph record fitting connection to Sterne.

1 2 5 (8700) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (32) 20140120q 0 -9+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Evolution speeds up by building on its own increasing order, and computation is the essence of order, making computational technology the quintessential evolutionary process.

1 2 5 (8800) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (36) 20140120s 0 -2+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Next evolutionary milestone will be autonomous technology creating its own next generation.

1 2 5 (8900) [-4+]mCQK kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines (35) 20140120r 0 -9+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_kurzweil-age_of_spiritual_machines.html
Two resources of internal growing order and environmental chaos unbounded for computation, though machines will provide their own innovation (Kittler automatic programming); three dimensional chip design, nanotube, optical, crystalline, DNA, quantum computing technologies keep Law of Accelerating Returns going.

1 2 5 (9000) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (7) 20140619 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates a default philosopher of computing because he is intentionally directing the fruition of his vision towards ultimate market and new form of human communication.

1 2 5 (9100) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (xii) 20140418a 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates expresses surprise at misunderstandings about technology held by most people speculating about the information highway.

1 2 5 (9200) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (252) 20140524d 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates takes position of philosopher king, a big person of the developing projective city; strange to call it a revolution if the plan is to manage its arrival.

1 2 5 (9300) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (xii-xiii) 20140418c 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Travel guide metaphor acknowledges little importance of opinions of everyday consumers beyond accepting the technologies that have been designed and marketed to them; recall sarcastic where does Microsoft want to drag you today inversion of trademarked corporate slogan.

1 2 5 (9400) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (91) 20140429b 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Internet most important computing development since IBM PC.

1 2 5 (9500) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (250-251) 20140524a 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Optimistic predictions of impact on masses, reminiscent of Phaedrus.

1 2 5 (9600) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (275-276) 20140629b 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Hopes Microsoft will play a major role in shaping information highway despite already having been a major force in development of personal computer.

1 2 5 (9700) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (276) 20140629c 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Clearly states that Microsoft corporate strategy is following his visions of the information highway in addition to listening to customers.

1 2 5 (9800) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (xi) 20140418 1 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Personal computer revolution Gates and Allen jumped into and fundamentally influenced will be followed by communications revolution, fundamentally shaped by the personal computer.

1 2 5 (9900) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (19) 20140426u 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Trickle down prosperity an underlying philosophical position of Gates.

1 2 5 (10000) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (214) 20140519h 0 -9+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Changes to architecture later studied by Kitchin and Dodge theorized and tested with the extravagant house Gates is building.

1 2 5 (10100) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (251) 20140524b 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Shifting richness defining good life.

1 2 5 (10200) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (164-165) 20140628 0 -8+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates sees no problem with not caring whether interaction with other people or simulations as long as desires are fulfilled.

1 2 5 (10300) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (205) 20140519 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Fear that the information highway will turn homes into cozy entertainment providers prelude to Turkle alone together, although Gates wants to argue the contrary.

1 2 5 (10400) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (251) 20140524c 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
First concern is dislocation of workers, creating need for retraining.

1 2 5 (10500) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (252) 20140524e 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Claims that few business sectors have been hurt by the PC, and job categories always changing, ignore shift to flexibility and part time status imposed on workers so important to Boltanski and Chiapello.

1 2 5 (10600) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (261) 20140524m 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
New competition for knowledge workers in industrialized countries, but net effect will be wealthier world.

1 2 5 (10700) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (262) 20140524o 0 -6+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates not worried about revolution of expectations by the disenfranchised or xenophobia.

1 2 5 (10800) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (257) 20140524h 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Egalitarian access to most information.

1 2 5 (10900) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (259) 20140524k 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Ethical problems surrounding distributing information as intellectual property similar to medicine, focusing on high development costs rather than manufacturing and distribution.

1 2 5 (11000) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (258-259) 20140524j 0 -5+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Settle for virtual equity, as if access to information equalizes social situations.

1 2 5 (11100) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (271) 20140524w 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Media advances affect politics; argues information highway will empower citizen interest groups and allow even smallest cause to be debated.

1 2 5 (11200) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (197) 20140515l 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Fundamental social problems need fixed; misses ignorance of tradition, decline in literacy, and indulgence that Bauerlein highlights.


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TOC 1.2 a collective intelligence problem, societies of control, the quintessential postmodern object, foss hopes, default philosophies of computing+

1.3 not to use old tools for new problems, scholarship requires a cybersage, digital humanities projects, critical programming studies, plan of the dissertation

-1.3.1+++ not to use old tools for new problems

1 3 1 (100) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20130311 TAPOC_20130311 0 -5+ journal_2013.html
A problem for the philosophy of computing is the apparent stagnation of the continuous iterative augmentation of human intelligence, while machine cognition skyrockets, and intelligent TCP/IP networks take off and take command of their own affairs unbeknown to their former masters " While this trend has inspired numerous science fiction dystopia, its mundane effects are noted everywhere in the failures of American education to create new generations of STEM workers, addiction to electronic devices, and decline in humanities and liberal studies. My thesis is that this suboptimal trajectory in the historical transformation of the human computer symbiosis was a likely outcome of the unique technical and cultural conditions under which the network age arose, and was felt by a number of theorists writing in other humanities areas (Horkheimer and Adorno; Derrida; Turkle), and that its aysmmetrical track can be realigned to resume mutual, synergetic capability expansion extolled by early theorists (Licklider; Engelbart; Kemeny) by giving programming a second look in digital humanities scholarship. My approach is guided by philosophical insights that promote constructive coevolution of humans and machines by paying attention to the nuances of their many levels of interaction and also call for building as well as interpreting these interfaces (Hayles; Clark; Bogost; Berry; Ramsay). It extends them with the suggestions of subdisciplines that have emerged in the last decade: software studies, critical code studies, and platform studies." (Kittler; Manovich)

1 3 1 (200) [-6+]mCQK turkle-alone_together (282) 20140413c 0 -4+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_turkle-alone_together.html
Technology, to express its unconscious, wants to be a symptom. "Kevin Kelly asks, What does technology want? and insists that, whatever it is, technology is going to get it. Accepting his premise, what if one of the things technology wants is to exploit our disappointments and emotional vulnerabilities? When this is what technology wants, it wants to be a symptom." (282)

1 3 1 (300) [-4+]mCQK thomson-understanding_technology_ontotheologically (155) 20131013h 0 -4+ progress/2012/08/notes_for_thomson-understanding_technology_ontotheologically.html
America the avant-garde of ontohistorical technologization, working hardest to obscure insight that we are not entities making ourselves: does this contribute to our becoming more stupid?

1 3 1 (400) [-4+]mCQK levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision (15) 20131104 0 -10+ progress/2011/08/notes_for_levin-modernity_and_hegemony_of_vision.html
Critique of Heidegger by Rapaport considering Derrida Cinders: indifference in essence of freedom at such a high level.

1 3 1 (500) [-4+]mCQK rice-rhetoric_of_cool (143-144) 20131009n 0 -4+ progress/2009/02/notes_for_rice-rhetoric_of_cool.html
Composition research wary of using new tools, like typewriter and computer display, without in depth empirical study; meanwhile generations grow up using these tools daily.

1 3 1 (600) [-4+]mCQK burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing (3) 20120815 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_burnard_okeefe_unsworth-electronic_textual_editing.html
Tanselle in Foreword argues computer as tool does not fundamentally alter reading or subjectivity, whereas Manovich, Hayles and others disagree; seems to not consider digitally native electronic texts, only electronic versions of texts originally composed with prior media forms.

1 3 1 (700) [-7+]mCQK hayles-how_we_became_posthuman (192) 20130929i 0 -2+ progress/2010/03/notes_for_hayles-how_we_became_posthuman.html
Statement of postmodern orthodoxy that body is primarily linguistic and discursively formed yet another reason to explore ME alongside putatively disembodied technologies like the WWW, philosophies of embodiment in general. (192) One contemporary belief likely to stupefy future generations is the postmodern orthodoxy that the body is primarily, if not entirely, a linguistic and discursive construction. Coincident with cybernetic developments that stripped information of its body were discursive analyses within the humanities, especially the archeology of knowledge pioneered by Michel Foucault, that saw the body as a play of discourse systems.

1 3 1 (800) [-6+]mCQK castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition (xxx-xxxi) 20130913d 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_castells-rise_of_network_society_second_edition.html
That there is a culture of real virtuality seems a point Zizek refuses to engage, making him a hold out of pre-posthumanism, although not for being modern in Latour sense. "This is a new communication realm, and ultimately a new medium, whose backbone is made of computer networks, whose language is digital, and whose senders are globally distributed and globally interactive. . . . This is why, observing more than a decade ago the emerging trends of what now has taken shape as a communication revolution, I proposed in the first edition of this book the hypothesis that a new culture is forming,
the culture of real virtuality, in which the digitized networks of multimodal communication have become so inclusive of all cultural expressions and personal experiences that they have made virtuality a fundamental dimension of our reality." (xxx-xxxi) It is more of a blind spot: Zizek is unable to apply his theory to computer technologies.

1 3 1 (900) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (26) 20130915o 1 -1+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Does it change anything that Derrida did not write software, remembering he is shaping the main text around his own wonderment at himself subtitling his future work a Freudian impression rather than building interesting code that emits thoughts?

1 3 1 (1000) [-4+]mCQK derrida-archive_fever (5) 20130915d 0 -3+ progress/2012/04/notes_for_derrida-archive_fever.html
Divert quickly by pointing out that his choice of passive archive and rhetorical concept, like Heidegger and Ong turning away from programming, when complemented with designing software systems to support machine contemplation of these texts, makes a place to do generic philosophy of computing instead of anthropocentric philosophy: remember he is meditating upon being forced to come up with a title for his presentation a year in advance in the temporal order of a telephone conversation.

1 3 1 (1100) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140908 20140908 0 -3+ journal_2014.html
Not to use old tools to solve new problems is the flip side of Senecaâs ponenda non sumeret; it resists defaulting to intellectual practices that, while successful in the past addressing the technological apparatus of literacy, for example flail when applied to modern electronic computing. Turkle and OâGorman sensed this transition as they note the failure in application of postmodern methodologies to find meaningful objects to study, and discover electronic media as their quintessential expression. Moreover, addressing these new problems must acknowledge the three modes of learning and doing now embodied in human-computer interfaces, and not merely decry the lack of programming skill in recent generations on account of laziness, consumption economics, or closed-source hegemonies.

1 3 1 (1200) [-6+]mCQK heidegger-question_concerning_technology (21) 20130928l 0 -4+ progress/1995/08/notes_for_heidegger-question_concerning_technology.html
We are granted insight into that other great question Heidegger asked for us, what handicraft modern man in the technological world must carry on, must carry on even if he is not a worker in the sense of the worker at the machine. "Modern scienceâs way of representing pursues and entraps nature as a calculable coherence of forces. Modern physics is not experimental physics because it applies apparatus to the questioning of nature. Rather the reverse is true. Because physics, indeed already as pure theory, sets nature up to exhibit itself as a coherence of forces calculable in advance, it therefore orders its experiments precisely for the purpose of asking whether and how nature reports itself when set up in this way." (21)

1 3 1 (1300) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition (10) 20140725g 0 -1+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_fourth_edition.html
Summary of standard account of computer ethics is to address conceptual muddles to fill policy vacuums resulting from new possibilities created by information technologies.

1 3 1 (1400) [-6+]mCQK ong-orality_and_literacy (78) 20131006w 0 -21+ progress/2008/08/notes_for_ong-orality_and_literacy.html
He does not look deeper to why ancient complaints about writing and modern complaints about computers are similar. "essentially the same objections commonly urged today against computers were urged by Plato in the
Phaedrus (274-7) and in the Seventh Letter against writing. . . . [It is] inhuman . . . destroys memory . . . Calculators weaken the mind, relieve it of the work that keeps it strong. . . unresponsive . . . âGarbage in, garbage outâ . . . cannot defend itself.
(79) Those who are disturbed by Platoâs misgivings about writing will be even more disturbed to find that print created similar misgivings when it was first introduced." (78) Is this a loss in philosophical space resulting from rejection of computer languages?

1 3 1 (1500) [-3+]mCQK bork-journal 20080903 TAPOC_20080903 0 -25+ journal_2008.html


1 3 1 (1600) [-6+]mCQK deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy (33-34) 20130610 0 -2+ progress/2013/06/notes_for_deleuze_guattari-what_is_philosophy.html
From second example of Plato Parmenides confirming a physical world effect results from the programming seems dismissed as legitimate humanities scholarship by Deleuze and Guattari when they dismiss need for empirical verifications of philosophical concepts. "Science needs only propositions or functions, whereas philosophy, for its part, does not need to invoke a lived that would give only a ghostly and extrinsic life to secondary, bloodless concepts. The philosophical concept does not refer to the lived, by way of compensation, but consists, through its own creation, in setting up an event that surveys the whole of the lived no less than every state of affairs." (33-34) Philosophical concepts set up events that are not confirmatory but totalizing in their interpretation, yet how does this statement cohere with awkwardness of illustrating postmodern concepts?

1 3 1 (1700) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (xii) 20140723k 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Added content on virtue ethics and Rawls theory of justice.

1 3 1 (1800) [-4+]mCQK johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition (xiii) 20140723o 0 -1+ progress/2011/06/notes_for_johnson-computer_ethics_third_edition.html
Copying proprietary software is immoral because it is illegal.

--1.3.2+++ scholarship requires a cybersage

1 3 2 (100) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (226) 20140612j 11 -2+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
New Left culture war initiated the decline of intellectual life leading to dumbest generation by rejecting reading and learning obsolete and irrelevant topics; relates to my dilemma at heart of philosophy of computing that ignorance of technical details shunts formation of places for philosophical thought to occur, such as in working code of critical programming.

1 3 2 (200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (191) 20140604k 0 -8+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Need for a critical filter, again ironically, like Quintillian of Seneca, a delicious detail missed by Bauerlein, who thinks away from technology whereas Latour and others develop science studies.

1 3 2 (300) [-4+]mCQK bolter-writing_space (3) 20120906 0 -1+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_bolter-writing_space.html
Text may become associated with qualities of computer rather than print; however, what goes in the parenthesis differentiating computer from text must not be assumed.

1 3 2 (400) [-6+]mCQK johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway (59) 20130930r 0 -1+ progress/2010/11/notes_for_johnson-what_is_cultural_studies_anyway.html
Text-based studies of major humanities disciplines seem to have meager ambitions. "Looking at it from outside, the situation in the humanities and especially in literature seems to me very paradoxical: on the one hand, the development of immensely powerful tools of analysis and description, on the other hand, rather
meager ambitions in terms of applications and objects of analysis." (59) Tie to Turkle on postmodernism.

1 3 2 (500) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (37) 20140607c 1 -1+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Philosophers of computing likewise tasked with uncovering how potentials squandered as everyday programming declined in parallel with reading, or never got going in the first place.

1 3 2 (600) [-9]mCQK heim-computer_as_component (304-305) 20130124 0 -9+ progress/1995/07/notes_for_heim-computer_as_component.html
Cybersage declaration for addressing metaphysical sphinx of computer technology epitomizing all-enframing Gestell, seen through Derrida as iteration of pharmakon analysis of writing. "Heidegger the thinker is Heidegger the scholar; and the scholar searches ancient texts for clues about the history of Being. . . . This image of Heidegger feeds on nostalgia. . . . The
Schreibstube is giving way to the computer workstation, and scholarship requires a cybersage." (304-305)

1 3 2 (700) [-6+]mCQK heim-electric_language (26) 20130929a 0 -2+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Is this Heim rejecting study of computer languages, programs imbued with human readable comments and style itself in C++ and Perl " or ambivalent to maybe in favor of such approaches combining philosophical study with technical competence? (26)
Even when negative answers are given to the question Can computers think? there is still the assumption of a fundamental square-off [agon] between the computer and human intelligence - as if the latter were of itself something fixed, unquestionable, and given." (other authors such as Hayle use Java)

1 3 2 (800) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (27) 20130929c 0 -3+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
This is where the von Neumann quote takes off in what I feel is an alternate departure than any of those Heim intended when he implies that reducing the Socratic question to a computational metaphor is the only way to consider our interaction with tools.

1 3 2 (900) [-9]mCQK von_neumann-theory_and_organization_of_complicated_automata (435) 20140317 0 -2+ progress/1998/01/notes_for_von_neumann-theory_and_organization_of_complicated_automata.html
Computing machines high complexity automata we have best chance of understanding suggesting Socratic question addressed through technology. "Of all automata of high complexity, computing machines are the ones which we have the best chance of understanding. In the case of computing machines the complications can be very high, and yet they pertain to an object which is primarily mathematical and which we understand better than we understand most natural objects." (435)

1 3 2 (1000) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (210) 20130930g 0 -2+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Creative abundance balanced with fragmentation of formulation of ideas, Nietzschean nihilism, against which tapoc iteratively builds new connections: programming relates formulation of ideas providing copia, superabundance, new places to pursue thought.

1 3 2 (1100) [-4+]mCQK hayles-how_we_became_posthuman (290) 20131101c 0 -12+ progress/2010/03/notes_for_hayles-how_we_became_posthuman.html
Revised perspective of relation of human subjectivity to environment shifting cognitive burden to distributed symbiosis, which could get off course in direction presented in WALL-E.

1 3 2 (1200) [-6+]mCQK kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter (208) 20131103e 0 -7+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_kittler-gramophone_film_typewriter.html
Nietzsche as the cybersage prototype, philosophizing with a typewriter and "about the typewriter. (208) With the collapse of his machine, Nietzsche became a man again. But only to undermine the classical notion of love. As with men since time immemorial and women only recently, a young person and a two-year long marriage are equally suitable to continue the failed love affair with a typewriter.
(210) Our writing tools are also working on our thoughts. Hence Nietzscheâs next thought four years after the malfunctioning of his typewriter was to philosophize on the typewriter itself. Instead of testing Remingtonâs competing model, he elevated Malling Hansenâs invention to the status of a philosophy. And this philosophy, instead of deriving the evolution of the human being from Hegelâs spirit (in between the lines of books) or Marxâs labor (in between the differential potential of muscular energy), began with an information machine." (after his unit breaks down)

1 3 2 (1300) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (39) 20131102h 0 -2+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Long historical stream connecting logos of Heraclitus to logic systems in computer circuits; task for philosophy of computing.

1 3 2 (1400) [-6+]mCQK kitchin_and_dodge-code_space (61) 20130915x 0 -5+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_kitchin_and_dodge-code_space.html
Little serious academic philosophical and practical appraisal of emergence of technological unconsciousness of machine-readable and coded objects for everyday life. "Almost stealthlike, they have seeped into the fabric of social environments and workplaces forming what
Thrift (2004b) has termed a technological unconsciousness. . . . And yet there has been very little serious academic appraisal of what the creation of the machine-readable and coded object means, both philosophically and practically, for everyday life." (61)

1 3 2 (1500) [-6+]mCQK sterne-audible_past (182) 20131014m 4 -5+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_sterne-audible_past.html
Importance of moments of plasticity through social organization resulting in crystalization of particular techniques and techologies. " These moments of plasticity, where the social organization of sound can and does change, are perhaps the defining characteristic of the modern sound media. . . . For a history of sound, however, it is precisely the moments prior to this crystallization that are most interesting it is the mutability as opposed to the eventuality of form that is at stake." (182) Do we even know for computerized sound, for we would have to understand the technologies; compare to Hayles analysis of Macy conferences shaping cybernetics.

1 3 2 (1600) [-6+]mCQK sterne-audible_past (182) 20131014n 6 -2+ progress/2011/09/notes_for_sterne-audible_past.html
Sterne is astute at demonstrating how to correctly historicize technological change as narrative, a form reminiscent of older technologies from previous years, decades, centuries, even millenia. " To use Lukacâs language, social relations take on a phantom objectivity ; over time, they become associated with technology itself in the minds and practices of users. This is readily apparent today, to offer an oversimplified illustration: casual users associate sound recording with music and entertainment, radio with broadcasting, and telephony with point-to-point communication." (182) This broad scope hooks back into Phaedrus and gets us beyond Kittler in a way well explained by Hayles via Hansen on the other end of the continuum, though we will find severe deficiencies when taking radical embodiment approaches.

1 3 2 (1700) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (xi) 20131102a 0 -3+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Gelernter foreword notes passing of typewriters and linotype machines to importance of timing for philosophical reflection; Electric Language is clearly a work of first generation philosophy of computing.

1 3 2 (1800) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (xiii) 20131102b 0 -6+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Preface to second edition notes emergence importance of linkage and interaction facilitated by newer hardware; also cultural transformation in acceptance of microcomputers as personal tools.

1 3 2 (1900) [-4+]mCQK heim-electric_language (xvi-xvii) 20131102d 0 -9+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Preface to second edition notes philosophy just beginning to consider implications of writing and using hypertext, hypermedia and virtual worlds; sees importance of visual features, active visual literacy superseding television and video, and challenges of three-dimensional environments displaying text, which still has not arrived.

1 3 2 (2000) [-6+]mCQK latour-we_have_never_been_modern (119) 20131004i 0 -3+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_latour-we_have_never_been_modern.html
Value of studying tech, especially thinking machines, to better understand epistemology thanks to materialization of spirit. "The itinerary of facts becomes as easy to follow as that of railways or telephones, thanks to the
materialization of the spirit that thinking machines and computers allow. When information is measured by bytes and bauds, when one subscribes to a data bank, when one can plug into (or unplug from) a network of distributed intelligence, it is harder to go on picturing universal thought as a spirit hovering over the waters (Levy, 1990). Reason today has more in common with a cable television network than with Platonic ideas." (119) Compare to Hayles, Kittler and others on linkage between spirit and computing machinery.

1 3 2 (2100) [-4+]mCQK jenkins-convergence_culture (270) 20130930a 0 -5+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_jenkins-convergence_culture.html
Cultural producers need media literacy education.

1 3 2 (2200) [-4+]mCQK bauerlein-dumbest_generation (190) 20140607h 0 -10+ progress/2014/05/notes_for_bauerlein-dumbest_generation.html
Challenge for philosophies of computing because it may not be felt there has been time for a tradition to form, or the whole argument of seeking insight from tradition is short circuited by belief in sequence of rapidly obsoleted technological generations devalues all but the state of the art; ironic that Seneca invoked on love, when there is value in revisiting when contemplating technology.

1 3 2 (2300) [-4+]mCQK maner-unique_ethical_problems_in_information_technology (137) 20130422 3 -5+ progress/2013/04/notes_for_maner-unique_ethical_problems_in_information_technology.html
Curious question whether logically equivalent ethical issues would have emerged otherwise in a society in which the particular computer technology we call our own had not been invented; to question it is to study the schematism of perceptibility of technological media Kittler inveighs us to consider, thus taking a philosophy of computing position, as we also choose between proprietary, commercial and private, floss personal systems.

1 3 2 (2400) [-4+]mCQK mitcham-thinking_through_technology (14) 20140310h 0 -1+ progress/2012/02/notes_for_mitcham-thinking_through_technology.html
Does call for deeper acquaintance by philosophers with technology itself, which is consistent with incorporating SCOT into the critical framework and methodology, and also self-understanding and ideas of engineers and technologies imply learning programming, or more extensively, being a lifelong active participant?

1 3 2 (2500) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (249) 20140521g 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Study what is popular with PCs connected to the Internet to know where the future is going.

1 3 2 (2600) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (273) 20140524y 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Historical impact of information highway on par with scientific method, printing, and industrial manufacturing; by now most of the predications Gates made should have materialized.

1 3 2 (2700) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (250) 20140524 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Could be a whole area of study for the philosophy of computing to discern what Gates intends by the title of this final chapter, critical issues; to him it means people understanding how the future will be different as the information highway evolves.

1 3 2 (2800) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (276) 20140629e 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
From optimism at onset of information highway to renewed critical focus twenty years later, the call from philosophers of computing.

1 3 2 (2900) [-4+]mCQK rice-rhetoric_of_cool (153) 20131009o 0 -1+ progress/2009/02/notes_for_rice-rhetoric_of_cool.html
Liu ignored rich rhetorical tradition associated with cool, and did not use it personally to be a cool writer.

1 3 2 (3000) [0+]mCQK bork-journal 20140712 20140712a 20 -1+ journal_2014.html
Reading Gates critically as a default philosopher of computing is just taking Latour and other SCOT theorists seriously, examining psychoanalysis of its resident geniuses.

1 3 2 (3100) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (35) 20140623 0 -3+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Critical success factors for information highway given by Gates should be evaluated after 20 years.

1 3 2 (3200) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (258) 20140524i 0 -7+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Long term philosophical issues include correcting gender imbalances in developing computer expertise.

1 3 2 (3300) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (122) 20140627 2 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Bauerlein argues lowered friction of distribution by Internet has dampened tradition and allowed closed circuit of self-selected media consumption cycles dominated by low word count social messages.

1 3 2 (3400) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (274) 20140524z 0 -1+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Final critical assessment is that information highway will provide choices for connecting people with entertainment, information, and each other.

1 3 2 (3500) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (156) 20140512j 0 -4+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Predictions by Gates about transformations faster PCs and information highway may bring are literally queuing up the projective city of the new spirit of capitalism articulated by Boltanski and Chiapello, which becomes topic of next chapter; his advice is to become informed, sidestepping issue of participatory involvement or outright rebellion.

1 3 2 (3600) [-4+]mCQK gates-road_ahead (185) 20140515c 0 -2+ progress/2014/04/notes_for_gates-road_ahead.html
Gates believes availability of information will spark curiosity, whereas Bauerlein argues that unguided and uninformed by tradition, children are lured into limited peer interests.

1 3 2 (3700) [-6+]mCQK turkle-second_self (331) 20131020h 0 -2+ progress/2011/04/notes_for_turkle-second_self.html
Notes problem of novelty wearing off to the point that culturally poignant observations about computers disappear into the background like disappearing interfaces. "As the presence of the computer in all of its forms becomes more familiar, so might conventional answers to many questions about it. Our culture will develop ways of thinking about the computer that, in a sense, require no thought." (331)

--1.3.3+++ digital humanities projects

1 3 3 (100) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20141005 20141005 0 -2+ journal_2014.html
To get out of the closed thinking of project level engagements to expansive, collective perspectives, it is necessary to go from projects to solutions tying in experience in global capitalism business collective intelligence experience; we find it does not make sense at actor network level.

1 3 3 (200) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (3) 20140913a 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Rigor and systematic unambiguous procedural knowledge characteristic of sciences applied to humanities problems previously treated serendipitously, as in through narratives relying on literarcy associations and prior scholarship.

1 3 3 (300) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (4) 20140913b 0 -6+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Periodization perspective of humanities computing begins with 1949 to early 1970s era by signal work of Busa project indexing the words of Aquinas.

1 3 3 (400) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (4) 20140913c 0 -6+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Busa helped by Thomas Watson at IBM to transfer texts to punched cards and write a concordance program.

1 3 3 (500) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (4) 20140913d 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
First humanities computing software developed to parse and lemmatize medieval Latin in what came to be semi automatic fashion; echoes in to my own attempt to develop tapoc software to automatically write dissertation.

1 3 3 (600) [-4+]mCQK bork-journal 20140910 20140910 0 -5+ journal_2014.html
It first digital humanities project is arguably the Index Thomisticus headed by Roberto Busa from 1946 to 2005, now ported to the Web (http://www.

1 3 3 (700) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvi) 20140903c 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Three perspectives experienced over sixty years, unclear whether sequential epochs.

1 3 3 (800) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20080831 20080831a 6 -12+ journal_2008.html

From the Foreward to A Companion to Digital Humanities by Roberto A. Busa:

Only a computer census of the syntactic correlations can document what concepts the author wanted to express with that word. Of a list of syntactic correlations, the "conceptual" translation can thus be given in modern languages. .. To give one example, in the mind of St Thomas ratio seminalis meant then what today we call genetic programme. Obviously, St Thomas did not know of either DNA or genes, because at the time microscopes did not exist, but he had well understood that something had to perform their functions.

He claims to be one of the first to use electronic computers in humanities studies with his Index Thomisticus project begun in 1949. Use this as something ongoing to supplement Ongâs hypotheses. He calls it "textual hermeneutic informatics." According to the introduction, the point of the collection is to help establish Digital Humanities as a discipline in its own right.

1 3 3 (900) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140914 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Following first perspective of technological miniaturization, making gadgets, the second of textual informatics itself has three branches: documentaristic, which includes media production, editorial, from what critical editions arise in media production, finally hermeneutic, for philosophies of computing.

1 3 3 (1000) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvi) 20140903a 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Gives credit to Zampolli whose work maps plateaus in computational linguistics, his sense of humanities computing.

1 3 3 (1100) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140903f 4 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
All computers used through first two epochs of technological miniaturization of his project were IBM equipment.

1 3 3 (1200) [-6+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140903e 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Hilarious thankfulness for invention of magnetic tapes. "In His mercy, around 1955, God led men to invent magnetic tapes. . . . I used all the generations of the dinosaur computers of IBM at that time." (xvii)

1 3 3 (1300) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140903g 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Latest version of project fits on a single Hufmann method compressed CDROM.

1 3 3 (1400) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvi-xvii) 20140903d 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Perspective of technological miniaturization akin to progression from eight to sixty four bit address widths, here applied to phases of his project from punched cards, magnetic tape, finally CD-ROM.

1 3 3 (1500) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii-xviii) 20140913a 0 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Only in a computer could the computation operations Busa describes for his LTB digital humanities project.

1 3 3 (1600) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xviii) 20140914e 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Claims his computing project Index Thomistics an intentional act establishing hermeneutic informatics, and links it to IBM through Watson providing a highly engineered solution.

1 3 3 (1700) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xxi) 20140913f 1 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Textual hermeneutics summarized descriptively by three periods, from Index Thomisticus to Alpac fragmentation envisioning global collaborative universal language programming; an emergent branch of philosophy.

1 3 3 (1800) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140914a 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Editorial where most digital humanities of dumbest generation sticks; must keep in mind Busa experienced that technological era along with the dumbest generation.

1 3 3 (1900) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xvii) 20140914b 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Busa names first current of textual informatics documentaristic, naming computing centers phenomena I refer to as collective intelligence.

1 3 3 (2000) [-6+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xviii) 20140914j 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Project description in geek speak of his time. "Schematically, this implies that, with integral censuses of a great mass of natural texts in every language, in synchrony with the discovered data, methods of observation used in the natural sciences should be applied with the apparatus of the exact and statistical sciences, so as to extract categories and types and, thus, to organize texts in a general lexicological system, each and all with their probability index, whether great or small." (xviii) Answers to schematism of perceptibility describing its programming design; probability index at core resembles Socrates discussion of ideal rhetoric in Phaedrus.

1 3 3 (2100) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xviii) 20140914k 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Recall automatic translation mentioned by Black, as if Watson fed to Busa: can the programming project survive, should ancient code revisions remain extant, forms ethical and philosophical question place.

1 3 3 (2200) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xviii) 20140914n 0 -6+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
MIT launched magazine Mechanical Translation offered as digital humanities study content along with IEEE Annals.

1 3 3 (2300) [-6+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xix) 20140914p 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Ironically Alpac Report canceled machine translation funding not for technological as in hardware limitations but ontological deficits foreshadowing OOP as in software engineering dooming them. "Unfortunately, in 1966, as a result of the Alpac Report, the Pentagon cut off all funding. This was not because computers at that time did not have sufficient memory capability or speed of access, but precisely because the information on the categories and their linguistic correspondences furnished by the various branches of philology were not sufficient for the purpose. The machine required greater depth and more complex information about our ways of thinking and modes of expression!" (xix) These are ultimately philosophy of computing territories suggesting Socratic question deeply tangling synaptogenesis and technogenesis.

1 3 3 (2400) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xix) 20140914q 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Busa notes shortcomings of philology implying tracy of electracy of his time lacking.

1 3 3 (2500) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xix) 20140914t 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Notes lean funding for his sort of digital humanities projects in renewed war on terrorism; many other projects likely continue by intelligence collection and analysis computing centers, and we could wonder about the neutrality or evil inherent in either group.

1 3 3 (2600) [-6+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xix) 20140914r 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Invokes Delphic know thyself in call for comprehensive global collective cognition heavily afforded by directed informatics, Engelbart Type C activity, rather than using old tools. "We are far from having exhausted the precept inscribed on Apolloâs temple at Delphi, Know thyself. It seems, therefore, that the problem must be attacked: in its totality with comprehensive, i.e., global, research; collectively by exploiting informatics with its enormous intrinsic possibilities, and not by rushing, just to save a few hours, into doing the same things which had been done before, more or less in the same way as they were done before." (xix)

1 3 3 (2700) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xix) 20140914s 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Tension between totality as global research and collectively as thoughtful computing system design, doing more than saving time doing the same old things.

1 3 3 (2800) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (3) 20140913 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Initial scope of humanities computing as applications to research and teaching within humanities arts subjects, with bias for textual sources.

1 3 3 (2900) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (5) 20140913f 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Early humanities computing work by Mosteller and Wallace of authorship of disputed Federalist Papers interested in statistical methods, demonstrating consciousness of purposes as well as reflection on expansion of techniques.

1 3 3 (3000) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (5) 20140913g 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Data input, storage, and representation recognized as key technological limitations; nod to Unicode as breakthrough.

1 3 3 (3100) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (6) 20140913h 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Serial processing limitation of magnetic tape affected encoding of historical material, forcing into single linear stream.

1 3 3 (3200) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (6) 20140913j 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
One off IBM conference in 1964 forerunner of later humanities computing conferences.

1 3 3 (3300) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (7) 20140913m 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Dedicated computing centers established for humanities research in 1960s; TuStep software set high standards.

1 3 3 (3400) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (7) 20140913n 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Key problems focus on textual material, the symbolic, inherited form early period.

1 3 3 (3500) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (9-10) 20140913u 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Preponderance of vocabulary studies leveraging concordance programs.

1 3 3 (3600) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (6) 20140913i 0 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
COCOA concordance program provided markup and economical file space usage; fixed format coding the other major citation technique.

1 3 3 (3700) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (9) 20140913t 0 -6+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Disk storage and relational technologies still created problems in forcing information into tables.

1 3 3 (3800) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (8) 20140913o 0 -8+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Widening range of interests at conferences and consolidation of common software platforms like Oxford Concordance Program noted during second period from 1970s to mid 1980s.

1 3 3 (3900) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (8) 20140913p 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Oxford Text Archive an initiative to avoid duplication of effort in text archiving and maintenance; text preparation rather than programming began to take majority of project time.

1 3 3 (4000) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (7) 20140913l 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Computers and Humanities journal started publication in 1966.

1 3 3 (4100) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (6-7) 20140913k 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
ALLC/ACH conferences began in 1970.

1 3 3 (4200) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (8-9) 20140913q 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
TLG quintessential project focused on creating a new research archive versus preserving individual projects by others.

1 3 3 (4300) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (9-10) 20140913v 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Dissemination through conferences and journals the other primary feature of second period.

1 3 3 (4400) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (10) 20140913w 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Personal computer period of mid 1980s to early 1990s freed humanities computing from the computing centers, their expertise and scrutiny; result was much duplication of effort but also innovation, comparable to cathedral versus bazaar models of software development.

1 3 3 (4500) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (10-11) 20140913x 0 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Macintosh attractive for ability afforded by GUI to display non standard character sets and build hypertexts via Hypercard programming tool.

1 3 3 (4600) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (10-11) 20140913y 0 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Hypercard first simple programming tool available to humanities scholars.

1 3 3 (4700) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (11) 20140913z 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Electronic mail shared at 1985 conference led new era of immediate communication, later Humanist ListServ in 1987.

1 3 3 (4800) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (11) 20140914 1 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Humanist the model electronic discussion list, credited for developing and maintaining distributed scholarly community defining humanities computing.

1 3 3 (4900) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (12) 20140914a 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Development of TEI from SGML major intellectual development of third period, inspired by 1987 meeting at Vassar to ponder standard encoding scheme.

1 3 3 (5000) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (12) 20140914b 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Text Encoding Initiative reflects interest in markup in addition to providing systematic attempt to categorize and define all features of humanities texts of interest to scholars, yielding over 400 tags.

1 3 3 (5100) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (13) 20140914d 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Impact of Web initially missed by entrenched humanities computing practitioners, just as Microsoft did; TEI adherents criticized HTML as weak, appearance based markup system like word processor formats.

1 3 3 (5200) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (13) 20140914e 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Delivery of scholarly material over Internet became new focus.

1 3 3 (5300) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (14) 20140914f 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Libraries new players in putting collections on the Internet.

1 3 3 (5400) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (14-15) 20140914g 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Example of Orlando Project creating new material and forms of scholarly writing.

1 3 3 (5500) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (15) 20140914h 0 -6+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
New collaborative projects made possible by Internet technologies; importance of project management underappreciated.

1 3 3 (5600) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (15) 20140914i 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
TEI extensibility clashed with needs of libraries for durable, closely followed standards, raising questions about philosophy of TEI.

1 3 3 (5700) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (16-17) 20140914o 0 -3+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
TEI credited with influence on development of XML, especially its hyperlinking mechanisms.

1 3 3 (5800) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (15) 20140914j 0 -5+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Addition of multimedia added new dimension to humanities electronic resources, but at time of writing mostly limited to manuscript images, awaiting ubiquitous high speed access, perhaps through convergence with television.

1 3 3 (5900) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (16) 20140914m 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Introduction of academic programs final symptom of emerging discipline; compare to Hayles survey in How We Think.

1 3 3 (6000) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (13) 20140914c 0 -7+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Divergence of spin off disciplines like computers and writing, and linguistic computing, which served defense and speech analysis communities without much communication between them.

1 3 3 (6100) [-6+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (16) 20140914k 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Media theorists began studying electronic resources themselves, especially hypertext. "Electronic resources became objects of study in themselves and were subjected to analysis by a new group of scholars, some of whom had little experience of the technical aspects of the resources. Hypertext in particular attracted a good many theorists. This helped to broaden the range of interest in, and discussion about, humanities computing but it also perhaps contributed to misapprehensions about what is actually involved in building and using such a resource. Problems with the two cultures emerged again, with one that was actually doing it and another that preferred talking about doing it." (16)

1 3 3 (6200) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (16) 20140914n 0 -1+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Other parties trying to define the field and provide research agendas.

1 3 3 (6300) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (16) 20140914l 0 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Noticeable gap between sayers and doers among media theorists.

1 3 3 (6400) [-4+]mCQK hockey-history_of_humanities_computing (17) 20140914p 0 -2+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_hockey-history_of_humanities_computing.html
Humanities computing can grow interest in cultural heritage among lifelong learners and general public, which Bauerlein should praise.

1 3 3 (6500) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (46) 20130913 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
Classicists are ideally positioned to inform texts and technology theories.

1 3 3 (6600) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (53) 20120324 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
Prospects beyond 2003 include visualizations, language technologies, annotation managers, library repositories.

1 3 3 (6700) [-4+]mCQK crane-classics_and_the_computer (55) 20130913g 0 -2+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_crane-classics_and_the_computer.html
Part of cynicism is presupposing minority participation by classicists in democratic rationalization.

1 3 3 (6800) [-6+]mCQK feenberg-questioning_technology (180) 20120925s 0 -2+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_feenberg-questioning_technology.html
Technical devices and programs must be informed by collective choices about the good life or they have no reason to be conceived. "Thus pure moral norms are insufficient to define a society; they must be concretized through choices about the good life.
(180) Pure technical principles do not define actual technologies." (180) There can still be much confusion here, such as when the Microsoft slogans Your Potential, Our Passion and Where Do You Want to Go Today seemsto leave ideals of the good life up for grabs by enabling the pursuit, whatever it is.

1 3 3 (6900) [-6+]mCQK feenberg-democratic_rationalization (664) 20120315u 0 -1+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_feenberg-democratic_rationalization.html
Requires technological advances made in opposition to dominant hegemony. "I call this democratic rationalization because it requires technological advances that can only be made in opposition to the dominant hegemony." (664) Floss quintessential.

1 3 3 (7000) [-4+]mCQK busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities (xxi) 20140913g 1 -4+ progress/2014/09/notes_for_busa-perspectives_on_digital_humanities.html
Digital humanities have foss hopes to also address parcelization of progress in free research, per my published work and projectively in my dissertation.

1 3 3 (7100) [-6+]mCQK feenberg-transforming_technology (155) 20131030n 0 -1+ progress/2009/11/notes_for_feenberg-transforming_technology.html
What happened to the personal computer and FLOSS revolutions? "It is true that the arc of cultural advance has nowhere been prolonged to the point where it generated major technological alternatives, but that possibility casts a shadow over current arrangements and refutes technocratic complacency and resignation." (155)

1 3 3 (7200) [-6+]mCQK fuller-software_studies (10) 20130921c 0 -3+ progress/2011/10/notes_for_fuller-software_studies.html
Social life of knowledge. "Intelligence arises out of interaction and the interaction of computational and networked digital media with other forms of life conjugate new forms of intelligence and new requirements for intelligence to unfold. As a result, a number of authors collected in this book have called for
a renewed understanding of what literacy should mean contemporarily. Amongst others, Michael Mateas has made an important call for what he describes as Procedural Literacy." (10) Renewed interest in what literatcy should mean: Hayles and digital literacy, Mateas Procedural Literacy.

1 3 3 (7300) [-6+]mCQK hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer (61) 20120520 1 -3+ progress/2011/12/notes_for_hayles-my_mother_was_a_computer.html
Why we cannot ignore code and why we need philosophies of computing. " Strategies can emerge from a deep understanding of code that can be used to resist and subvert hegemonic control by megacoprorations; ideological critiques can explore the implications of code for cultural processes, a project already evident in Matthew Fullerâs call, seconded by Matthe Kirschenbaum, for
critical code studies; readings of seminal literary texts can explore the implications of code for human though and agency, among other concerns. Code is not the enemy, any more than it is the savior. Rather code is increasingly positioned as languageâs pervasive partner." (61) Note those with deep understanding of code are computer programmers and engineers, so the very force demanded by the ethical stance arrived through her arguments must arise from that for which it is summoned to oppose, and FLOSS facilitates emergence of hobbyists who may also this strongly sought understanding.

1 3 3 (7400) [-6+]mCQK ryan-beyond_myth_and_metaphor (606-607) 20131010c 0 -5+ progress/2012/03/notes_for_ryan-beyond_myth_and_metaphor.html
Recommends DIY genre of democratized art such as Ulmerian artifacts. "I personally wish to see these design strategies put in the service of projects with a do-it-yourself, cottage-industry quality that would give free rein to self-expression: projects such as building an autobiographical scrapbook, reconstructing a family saga, exploring local history, or preserving cultural memory. . . . What I am calling for is abandoning the hegemonic dream of turning new media narratives into
the art (read: the highbrow, avant-garde art) or into the entertainment form (read: the mass entertainment form) of this new century and seeking for these narratives a less glamorous, but no less important, place in culture a place that will represent a true democratization of digital textuality." (606-607) I suggest with the DIY focus blending in technical skill exercises and meditations on machine and posthuman embodiment.

1 3 3 (7500) [-4+]mCQK heidegger-question_concerning_technology (32) 20130929a 0 -7+ progress/1995/08/notes_for_heidegger-question_concerning_technology.html
Respond to Socratic search for kernel of subjectivity through digital humanities research.

1 3 3 (7600) [-4+]mCQK johnston-literature_media_information_systems (25) 20130930e 4 -1+ progress/2012/07/notes_for_johnston-literature_media_information_systems.html
Need to study technology to respond to classical philosophical questions.

1 3 3 (7700) [-6+]mCQK heim-electric_language (1) 20131102e 1 -1+ progress/2008/09/notes_for_heim-electric_language.html
Word processor is calculator of the humanist. "
(2) Does the conversion of twentieth-century culture to a new writing technology portend anything like the revolutionary changes brought about by the invention of the printing press and the widespread development of literacy?" (1) Now is the time to study the transition we are caught up in.

1 3 3 (7800) [-5+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (23) 20140115a 0 -3+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Using computers and networks different than using calculators because we barely know what we are asking them to do, and hardly teaching them how to do it (Kemeny). (23) The way to get on top of all this, of course, would be to have some inkling of how these thinking devices and systems are programmed or even to have some input into the way it is being done, and for what reasons.
(23) With computers and networks, unlike our calculators, we donât even know what we are asking our machines to do, much less now they are going to go about doing it. Every Google search is at least for most of us a Hail Mary pass into the datasphere, requesting something from an opaque black box.

1 3 3 (7900) [-4+]mCQK rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed (27) 20140103g 0 -4+ progress/2014/01/notes_for_rushkoff-program_or_be_programmed.html
Understanding biases is the guiding philosophy for getting on top of the problem posed by rapidly transforming technologies that seem to have taken command on their own (Kittler).

--1.3.4+++ critical programming studies

1 3 4 (100) [-6+]mCQK landow-hypertext_3_0 (344-345) 20131005f 0 -3+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_landow-hypertext_3_0.html
Hypertext concretizes metaphyiscs, per Ulmer, and political assumptions, per Landow. "Gregory
Ulmer comments that the use of communications technology is a concretization of certain metaphysical assumptions, consequently that it is by changing these assumptions (for example, our notion of identity) that we will transform our communicational activities (Applied Grammatology, 147). We may add that the use of communications technology is also a concretization of certain political assumptions. In particular, hypertext embodies assumptions of the necessity for nonhierarchical, multicentered, open-ended forms of politics and government." (344-345)

1 3 4 (200) [-6+]mCQK hayles-how_we_think (11) 20120707 1 -3+ progress/2012/07/notes_for_hayles-how_we_think.html
I coming from technology will present the programming perspective to complement Comparative Media Studies. "
(12) If we think about humanities research and teaching as problems in design (i.e., moving from content orientation to problem orientation), then Brooksâs advice suggests that for collaborative teams working together to craft projects and curricula in digital media, it is crucial for them partners to recognize the importance of human attention as a limiting/enabling factor, both as a design strategy and as a conceptual framework for theoretical work." (11)

1 3 4 (300) [-6+]mCQK landow-hypertext_3_0 (368) 20131005i 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_landow-hypertext_3_0.html
Not a word about free, open source software licenses or creative commons copyrights, though they would fit in Boyles discussion. "Using the examples of the way Western scientists and corporations copyright materials based on information derived from communities in the Third World, he [James Boyle] demonstrates how laws supposedly intended to promote innovation by rewarding creators recognize only creativity and originality based on romantic authorship." (368) No mention of Lessig.

1 3 4 (400) [-6+]mCQK bork-journal 20140908 20140908a 4 -2+ journal_2014.html
The electracy difference foregrounds computer programming where traditional digital humanities theorists continue to emphasize the trace, now shimmering signifiers, passing through Derrida and other popular postmodern theorists discourse networks. Not to use old tools for new problems welcomes computer programming components into academic discourse networks through digital humanities projects, for example my foss triad symposia, tapoc, pmrek.

1 3 4 (500) [-6+]mCQK landow-hypertext_3_0 (222) 20131004m 0 -1+ progress/2011/07/notes_for_landow-hypertext_3_0.html
A call for FOSS digital humanities projects. "Webs created in systems like Storyspace that permit one-to-many links, link menus, and path names all provide authors with the power to empower the reader." (222) Imagine the different trajectory of the unrealized potential in Landow, Murray, and Turkle if there had been a generation of FOS equipped programmers.

1 3 4 (600) [-4+]mCQK chun-programmed_visions (5-6) 20130702 0 -1+ progress/2013/07/notes_for_chun-programmed_visions.html
Philosophy just beginning to note effects of software as thing on metaphysics, intellectual property, subject, information.

1 3 4 (700) [-6+]mCQK latour-we_have_never_been_modern (21) 20131003j 0 -6+ progress/2012/05/notes_for_latour-we_have_never_been_modern.html
Can do same by focusing on fabricating personal computer or parts of the Internet as in Fire In the Valley. "Shapin and Schaffer force their analyses to hinge on the object, on a certain leak, a particular gasket in the air pump. The practice of fabricating objects is restored to the dominant place it had lost with the modern critical stance. . . . But rather than speaking of the external reality âout thereâ, they anchor the indisputable reality of science âdown thereâ, on the bench." (21)

1 3 4 (1000) [-6+]mCQK berry-philosophy_of_software (21) 20130910i 0 -5+ progress/2012/06/notes_for_berry-philosophy_of_software.html
Computational hard core in all disciplines may be new paradigm. "This would mean that the disciplines would, ontologically, have a very similar Lakatosian computational âhard coreâ (Lakatos 1980). . . . Perhaps we are beginning to see reading and writing computer code as part of the pedagogy required to create a new subject produced by the university, a
computational or data-centric subject." (21) If not practicing working code, super-critical modes of thought circulate exclusively within consumer subjectivity, missing potential of creative control.

1 3 4 (1100) [-6+]mCQK thrift-remembering_technological_unconscious (185-186) 20140424q 0 -7+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_thrift-remembering_technological_unconscious.html
Hypercoordination leading to new forms of cultural encounter based on planful opportunism. "The third development is the growth of what is usually called in the mobile-communication literature hypercoordination or microcordination. . . . In other words, it is possible to coordinate and recoordinate at a distance or on an all-but-continuous and continually updated basis. In turn, hypercoordination offers up new possibilities for economic social and cultural encounters, of which the most important is what is often called â
planful opportunismâ, a kind of just-in-time coordination (Perry et all, 2001). Encounters are able to be continually revised in a kind of intricate ballet of circumstances of the kind that used to have to be reserved for public meeting places like the street." (185-186) Connect to Turkle robotic moment.

1 3 4 (1200) [-6+]mCQK thrift-remembering_technological_unconscious (185) 20140424p 0 -10+ progress/2013/09/notes_for_thrift-remembering_technological_unconscious.html
RFID in particular ushering in continuous information ethology where objects react creatively to the situation. "The fourth innovation, and perhaps in the end the one likely to prove the most powerful, is the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. . . . There seems every reason to believe that they will reshape the practical conduct of life in a way that the bar code has only partly achieved. . . . the possibilities are being worked out at this very moment but the clear intent is to make objects that are able to react creatively to the situation they find themselves in by reading all the other RFIDs broadcasting in their immediate area. As a result, a kind of
continuous informational ethology is coming into being." (185)

1 3 4 (1300) [-6+]mCQK thrift-remembering_technological_unconscious (176) 20140424f 0